[Naráyana] friendly advice_
King Vikramaditya's Adventures
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - [Naráyana] friendly advice_
THE CLAY SANSKRIT LIBRARY
FOUNDED BY JOHN & JENNIFER CLAY
Copyright c 2007 by the CSL.
All rights reserved.
First Edition 2007
The Clay Sanskrit Library is co-published by
New York University Press
and the JJC Foundation.
A list of published volumes can be
found after the index.
Further information about this volume
and the rest of the Clay Sanskrit Library
is available on the following websites:
ISBN: 978-0-8147-8305-4 (cloth : alk. paper)
Artwork by Robert Beer.
Typeset in Adobe Garamond at 10.25 : 12.3+pt.
XML-development by Stuart Brown.
Editorial input from Linda Covill, Tomoyuki Kono,
Guy Leavitt, Eszter Somogyi & P´eter Sz´ant´o.
Printed in Great Britain by St Edmundsbury Press Ltd,
Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, on acid-free paper.
Bound by Hunter & Foulis, Edinburgh, Scotland.
by N¯ar¯ayan. a
JUDIT T ¨ORZS ¨OK
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Hitopade´sa. English & Sanskrit.
Friendly advice by N¯ar¯ayan.a & King V´ıkrama’s adventures /
translated by T¨orzs¨ok, Judit. – 1st ed.
p. cm. – (The Clay Sanskrit library)
In English and Sanskrit (romanized) on facing pages.
ISBN: 978-0-8147-8305-4 (cloth : alk. paper)
1. Fables, Indic–Translations into English.
2. Didactic literature, Sanskrit–Translations into English.
I. Narayana. II. T¨orzs¨ok, Judit.
III. Vikramacarita. English & Sanskrit.
IV. Title. V. Title: King Vikrama’s adventures.
Sanskrit alphabetical order 11
CSL conventions 11
“FRIENDLY ADVICE” AND “KING V´IKRAMA’S
FRIENDLY ADVICE 21
Book I On How to Win Friends 77
Story 1 The Old Tiger and the Traveler 82
Story 2 The Deer, the Crow and the Jackal 108
Story 3 The Old Vulture and the Cat 110
Story 4 The Monks and the Mouse 142
Story 5 The Old Man and his Young Wife 144
Story 6 The Greedy Jackal 170
Story 7 The Prince and the Merchant’s Wife 190
Story 8 The Jackal and the Elephant 194
Book II On How to Break Friendships 211
Story 1 The Monkey and the Wedge 226
Story 2 The Ass and the Dog 228
Story 3 The Lion and the Cat 258
Story 4 The Procuress and the Bell 264
Story 5 The Prince, the Go-Between and the
Story 6 The Woman with Two Lovers 286
Story 7 The Crows and the Snake 290
Story 8 The Lion and the Hare 292
Story 9 The Lapwing and the Sea 310
Book III War 335
Story 1 The Birds who Advised the Monkeys 340
Story 2 The Ass Disguised as a Tiger 342
Story 3 The Elephant and the Hare 346
Story 4 The Goose and the Crow 358
Story 5 The Quail and the Crow 358
Story 6 The Cuckolded Wheelwright 360
Story 7 The Blue Jackal 380
Story 8 The King’s Faithful Servant 402
Story 9 The Barber who Killed a Beggar 412
Book IV Peace 443
Story 1 The Tortoise and the Ganders 446
Story 2 The Three Fishes 448
Story 3 The Merchant’s Wife and her Lover 448
Story 4 The Cranes and the Mongooses 454
Story 5 The Sage and the Mouse 460
Story 6 The Old Crane and the Crab 462
Story 7 The Brahmin who Broke Pots and Pans 466
Story 8 The Two Demons 470
Story 9 The Brahmin and the Three Rogues 486
Story 10 The Lion, his Servants and the Camel 488
Story 11 The Cunning Snake and the Frogs 496
Story 12 The Brahmin and the Mongoose 512
KING V´IKRAMA’S ADVENTURES 539
Chapter I Invocation and the Conversation
of Shiva and P´arvati 557
Chapter II King Bhartri·hari and the Fruit
of Immortality or How V´ıkrama
Became King 565
Chapter III V´ıkrama Meets a Vampire; He
Receives a Throne from Indra
for his Help 579
Chapter IV King V´ıkrama’s Death and the
Hiding of the Throne 587
Chapter V King Bhoja Finds the Throne 593
Chapter VI Bhoja Attempts to Mount the
Story 1 V´ıkrama’s Principle for Giving Alms 604
Story 2 The Brahmin’s Unsuccessful Sacriﬁce 606
Story 3 The Four Magic Jewels Given by the
Story 4 V´ıkrama’s Gratitude Tested by a Brahmin 614
Story 5 Two Lifeless Bodies Resurrected by
Story 6 V´ıkrama Gratiﬁes a Lying Ascetic 618
Story 7 The Dilemma of the Jewel-Carrier 620
Story 8 Sacriﬁce for a Man who was Dedicated
to an Ogre 622
Story 9 V´ıkrama Causes a Water Tank to be Filled 624
Story 10 V´ıkrama Obtains a Magic Mantra from
an Ascetic 626
Story 11 The Spendthrift Heir and the Woman
Tormented by an Ogre 628
Story 12 V´ıkrama’s Lavishness 632
Story 13 V´ıkrama Helps the Spirit of a Brahmin 634
Story 14 An Ascetic Warns V´ıkrama against the
Neglect of Kingly Duty 636
Story 15 The Nymph and the Cauldron of Boiling
Story 16 The Spring Festival 640
Story 17 V´ıkrama Oﬀers Himself for his Rival’s
Story 18 V´ıkrama Visits the Sun’s Orb 644
Story 19 V´ıkrama Visits Bali, the King of the
Story 20 V´ıkrama Visits a Forest Ascetic 648
Story 21 V´ıkrama Entertained by Personiﬁcations
of Eight Magic Powers 652
Story 22 V´ıkrama Wins the Science of Alchemy for
a Brahmin 654
Story 23 V´ıkrama’s Inauspicious Dream 656
Story 24 Shali·v´ahana, V´ıkrama, and the Nectar of
Story 25 V´ıkrama Obtains Rain from the Goddess 662
Story 26 V´ıkrama and the Cow of Plenty 664
Story 27 V´ıkrama and the Gambler 666
Story 28 V´ıkrama Abolishes the Sacriﬁcing of
Men to a Goddess 670
Story 29 The Courtesan Visited by an Ogre 672
Story 30 The Conjurer’s Trick 674
Story 31 V´ıkrama and the Vampire 678
Story 32 V´ıkrama’s Power and Generosity 680
Conclusion The Statuettes are Released from
P´arvati’s Curse 682
Meters Used 687
Sandhi grid 738
sanskrit alphabetical order
Vowels: a ¯a i ¯ı u ¯u r. ¯r. l.
¯l. e ai o au m. h.
Gutturals: k kh g gh ˙n
Palatals: c ch j jh ˜n
Retroﬂex: t. t.h d. d. h n.
Dentals: t th d dh n
Labials: p ph b bh m
Semivowels: y r l v
Spirants: ´s s. s h
guide to sanskrit pronunciation
¯a, ˆa father
¯ı, ˆı fee
or English pretty
¯r. lengthened r.
l. vocalic l, able
e, ˆe, ¯e made, esp. in Welsh pro-
o, ˆo, ¯o rope, esp. Welsh pronun-
ciation; Italian solo
h. visarga, a voiceless aspira-
tion (resembling English
an aspiration with a faint
echoing of the preceding
vowel so that taih. is pro-
jh aspirated j, hedgehog
t. retroﬂex t, try (with the
tip of tongue turned up
to touch the hard palate)
t.h same as the preceding but
d. retroﬂex d (with the tip
of tongue turned up to
touch the hard palate)
d. h same as the preceding but
n. retroﬂex n (with the tip
friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures
of tongue turned up to
touch the hard palate)
t French tout
th tent hook
lian pronunciation of r
s. retroﬂex sh (with the tip
of the tongue turned up
to touch the hard palate)
csl punctuation of english
The acute accent on Sanskrit words when they occur outside of the
Sanskrit text itself, marks stress, e.g. Ram´ayana. It is not part of tra-
ditional Sanskrit orthography, transliteration or transcription, but we
supply it here to guide readers in the pronunciation of these unfamiliar
words. Since no Sanskrit word is accented on the last syllable it is not
necessary to accent disyllables, e.g. Rama.
The second CSL innovation designed to assist the reader in the pro-
nunciation of lengthy unfamiliar words is to insert an unobtrusive mid-
dle dot between semantic word breaks in compound names (provided
the word break does not fall on a vowel resulting from the fusion of
two vowels), e.g. Maha·bh´arata, but Ram´ayana (not Rama·´ayana). Our
dot echoes the punctuating middle dot (·) found in the oldest surviving
forms of written Indic, the Ashokan inscriptions of the third century
The deep layering of Sanskrit narrative has also dictated that we use
quotation marks only to announce the beginning and end of every direct
speech, and not at the beginning of every paragraph.
csl punctuation of sanskrit
The Sanskrit text is also punctuated, in accordance with the punc-
tuation of the English translation. In mid-verse, the punctuation will
not alter the sandhi or the scansion. Proper names are capitalized. Most
Sanskrit metres have four “feet” (p¯ada): where possible we print the
common ´sloka metre on two lines. In the Sanskrit text, we use French
Guillemets (e.g. «kva sam. cic¯ırs.uh. ?») instead of English quotation marks
(e.g. “Where are you oﬀ to?”) to avoid confusion with the apostrophes
used for vowel elision in sandhi.
Sanskrit presents the learner with a challenge: sandhi (“euphonic com-
bination”). Sandhi means that when two words are joined in connected
speech or writing (which in Sanskrit reﬂects speech), the last letter (or
even letters) of the ﬁrst word often changes; compare the way we pro-
nounce “the” in “the beginning” and “the end.”
In Sanskrit the ﬁrst letter of the second word may also change; and if
both the last letter of the ﬁrst word and the ﬁrst letter of the second are
vowels, they may fuse. This has a parallel in English: a nasal consonant is
inserted between two vowels that would otherwise coalesce: “a pear” and
“an apple.” Sanskrit vowel fusion may produce ambiguity. The chart at
the back of each book gives the full sandhi system.
Fortunately it is not necessary to know these changes in order to start
reading Sanskrit. For that, what is important is to know the form of the
second word without sandhi (pre-sandhi), so that it can be recognized
or looked up in a dictionary. Therefore we are printing Sanskrit with a
system of punctuation that will indicate, unambiguously, the original
form of the second word, i.e., the form without sandhi. Such sandhi
mostly concerns the fusion of two vowels.
In Sanskrit, vowels may be short or long and are written diﬀerently
accordingly. We follow the general convention that a vowel with no
mark above it is short. Other books mark a long vowel either with a
bar called a macron (¯a) or with a circumﬂex (ˆa). Our system uses the
macron, except that for initial vowels in sandhi we use a circumﬂex
to indicate that originally the vowel was short, or the shorter of two
possibilities (e rather than ai, o rather than au).
When we print initial ˆa, before sandhi that vowel was a
ˆı or ˆe, i
ˆu or ˆo, u
friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures
¯a, ¯a (i.e., the same)
¯ı, ¯ı (i.e., the same)
¯u, ¯u (i.e., the same)
’, before sandhi there was a vowel a
further help with vowel sandhi
When a ﬁnal short vowel (a, i or u) has merged into a following
vowel, we print ’ at the end of the word, and when a ﬁnal long vowel
(¯a, ¯ı or ¯u) has merged into a following vowel we print ” at the end of
the word. The vast majority of these cases will concern a ﬁnal a or ¯a.
What before sandhi was atra asti is represented as atr’ ˆasti
atra ¯aste atr’ ¯aste
kany¯a asti kany” ˆasti
kany¯a ¯aste kany” ¯aste
atra iti atr’ ˆeti
kany¯a iti kany” ˆeti
kany¯a ¯ıpsit¯a kany” ¯epsit¯a
Finally, three other points concerning the initial letter of the sec-
(1) A word that before sandhi begins with r. (vowel), after sandhi
begins with r followed by a consonant: yatha” rtu represents pre-sandhi
(2) When before sandhi the previous word ends in t and the following
word begins with ´s, after sandhi the last letter of the previous word is c
and the following word begins with ch: sy¯ac ch¯astravit represents pre-
sandhi sy¯at ´s¯astravit.
(3) Where a word begins with h and the previous word ends with a
double consonant, this is our simpliﬁed spelling to show the pre-sandhi
form: tad hasati is commonly written as tad dhasati, but we write tadd
hasati so that the original initial letter is obvious.
We also punctuate the division of compounds (sam¯asa), simply by
inserting a thin vertical line between words. There are words where
the decision whether to regard them as compounds is arbitrary. Our
Where the Deva·n´agari script reads:
Others would print:
kumbhasthal¯ı raks.atu vo vik¯ırn.asind¯uraren.ur dvirad¯ananasya /
pra´s¯antaye vighnatama´schat.¯an¯am. nis.t.hy¯utab¯al¯atapapallaveva //
kumbha sthal¯ı raks.atu vo vik¯ırn.a sind¯ura ren.ur dvirad’ ¯ananasya
pra´s¯antaye vighna tama´s chat.¯an¯am. nis.t.hy¯uta b¯al’ ¯atapa pallav” ˆeva.
And in English:
dust, it seems to be emitting the spreading rays of the rising sun to
pacify the teeming darkness of obstructions.”
“Nava·s´ahasanka and the Serpent Princess” I. by Padma·gupta
Classical Sanskrit literature can abound in puns (´sles.a). Such pa-
ronomasia, or wordplay, is raised to a high art; rarely is it a clich´e.
common are pairs of meanings, but as many as ten separate meanings
are attested. To mark the parallel senses in the English, as well as the
friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures
punning original in the Sanskrit, we use a slanted font (diﬀerent from
italic) and a triple colon (: ) to separate the alternatives. E.g.
yuktam. K¯adambar¯ım. ´srutv¯a kavayo maunam ¯a´srit¯ah.
B¯an. aBdhvan¯av anAadhy¯ayo bhavat’ ˆıti smr.tir yatah..
It is right that poets should fall silent upon hearing the K´adambari,
for the sacred law rules that recitation must be suspended when
the sound of an arrow : the poetry of Bana is heard.
Som´eshvara·deva’s “Moonlight of Glory” I.15
This is the first time that the two works translated
here have been published in one single volume, and
there are a number of reasons for this marriage. Although
one work is a book of fables and the other is a collection of
tales about a legendary king, they both contain interlinked
stories that are in one way or another related to kingship.
The aim of the book of ‘Friendly Advice’ is to teach
worldly knowledge and the basics of statecraft to certain
wayward princes, while ‘King V´ıkrama’s Adventures’ sets an
example of generous behavior for kings, in addition to im-
mortalizing V´ıkrama’s adventures. Thus both books provide
instruction for kings and future rulers in the shape of amus-
ing stories related in an entertaining manner. Although they
do not date from the same period, they were both redacted
after what is often considered the classical age (i.e. after the
seventh century ce); and in both cases, the origin of the
stories seems to extend back to many centuries before the
texts as we have them gained their ﬁnal shape. Interestingly,
they both contain references to the practice of oﬀering one’s
head to a terrifying goddess in order to save someone else.
Finally, both works are written in fairly simple Sanskrit,
the majority of the texts consisting of straightforward prose;
they are therefore ideal for beginners in Sanskrit. Since the
somewhat more diﬃcult verses of the ‘Friendly Advice’ are
not indispensable to the narrative, they can be omitted by
ﬁrst-time readers of Sanskrit. We hope that in addition to
entertaining the reader, this volume will provide a useful
tool for learning Sanskrit. Enjoy!
The Hitopade´sa (lit. “Beneﬁcial Counsel” or “Instruc-
tion on What is Good”) gives its reader much more
than ‘Friendly Advice.’ Numerous animal fables along with
some human stories, tales of adultery and faithfulness, trea-
son and loyalty, religious piety and hypocrisy, cleverness and
na¨ıve belief, generosity and greed, war and peace are all con-
tained in one handy collection. Stories of canny procuresses
rival those of cunning crows and tigers. An oﬃcious ass sim-
ply gets beaten by his master, but the meddlesome monkey
ends up with crushed testicles. A prince manages to enjoy
himself with a merchant’s wife with her husband’s consent,
while another one gets kicked out of paradise by a painted
The author of the work, Nar´ayana, is not only an ex-
cellent anthologist, who put together the best examples of
ancient Indian story-telling in this book, but a poet and
story-teller in his own right.1
‘Friendly Advice’ is also one of the most widely read
works of Sanskrit literature, and one of the most frequently
translated into European languages. Its lucid style is a model
for Sanskrit composition and it has provided exemplary
reading material for most beginning students of Sanskrit,
in India as well as elsewhere.
Another reason why ‘Friendly Advice’ has always been
popular is that it is also a collection of proverbs, maxims,
and gnomic poems, some of which form part of the fables
and some of which can be read and understood indepen-
dently of the narrative. In addition to Nar´ayana’s own verses,
a number of these wise sayings and poems were taken from
other great Sanskrit classics and are arranged here themati-
cally, according to the subject matter of the various stories.
As the prologue explains, the aim of the work is twofold:
to teach and serve as a model for reﬁned discourse and
to instruct people in what is called n¯ıti in Sanskrit. This
word, derived from the verbal root n¯ı-, “to lead, to guide,”
includes among its meanings the following: right behavior,
propriety, right course, righteousness, ethics, wisdom, and
political science. Thus n¯ıti covers both the way in which
one should guide oneself, “right conduct,” and the way in
which one should lead others, “politics.”
This aim is clearly reﬂected in the frame story. It relates
that a king, distressed by his sons’ lacking of learning and
their disinclination to act as they should, summoned an as-
sembly of learned scholars and asked whether one of them
would take on the task of teaching the wayward princes. A
learned man called Vishnu·sharman rose and undertook to
teach the principles of policy to them, promising to com-
plete their instruction in six months. The king thus sent
his sons to him, and Vishnu·sharman told them the four
books of ‘Friendly Advice,’ to their great amusement. In
addition to this frame story, several tales also include one
or more additional stories, some of which cite yet further
tales. Thus ‘Friendly Advice’ continues the ancient Indian
tradition of emboxing stories, creating several layers of nar-
ration, although here, unlike in some very elegant and elab-
orate works of court poetry, the story line is always easy to
The Date and the Author
The only clue to the identity of the author of ‘Friendly
Advice’ is found in the concluding verses of the work, which
give us the name Nar´ayana, and which mention the pa-
tronage of a king or local ruler called Dh´avala·chandra.
As no other work by this author is known, and since the
ruler mentioned has not been traced in other sources, we
know almost nothing of either of them. It seems likely that
Nar´ayana was a learned scholar and preceptor employed in
Dh´avala·chandra’s court, just as the narrator of the stories,
Vishnu·sharman, was employed by a king. Since the invo-
catory and ﬁnal verses evoke the god Shiva, he was most
probably a Shaivite.
Although the exact time and place in which Nar´ayana
lived is unknown, some additional data help us to get closer
to him. ‘Friendly Advice’ cites two works (‘The Essence
of Polity,’ N¯ıtis¯ara, by Kam´andaki and the play ‘Tying a
Braid,’ Ven. ¯ısam. h¯ara, by Bhatta·nar´ayana) from the eighth
century ce, while its earliest known manuscript is dated
to the equivalent of 1373 ce. It has been suggested that
the text was composed between these two dates, perhaps
between 800 and 950, though this tentative dating is rather
The geographical origin of ‘Friendly Advice’ is also rather
uncertain. Eastern India, Bengal in particular, has been sug-
gested for various reasons, none of which is particularly
strong.3 Firstly, it has been stated that in addition to Nagari
manuscripts, the text was mainly transmitted in Newari and
Bengali scripts. However, no list has ever been published to
prove this statement; and from the available catalogs, it
seems that the book was also known and current in South
India.4 The popularity of the work in Bengal does not nec-
essarily imply that it comes from that region. Citations that
have allegedly been traced only in the Bengali recension of
the ‘Ram´ayana’ are not to be found in the oldest version of
‘Friendly Advice,’ and one citation is also traceable in the
The argument which hinges on an eastern location for
place names (nine out of the thirty-ﬁve mentioned in
‘Friendly Advice’) is not very strong either, for the mention
of holy places such as Ay´odhya or Benares cannot be taken
as a geographical indication. Finally, the assumption that
the mention of a Tantric ritual involving sexual relations
with the wife of another man in story 1.8 points to the east-
ern origin of the text is rather questionable.6 Nevertheless,
Bengal remains a possible place of origin.
‘Friendly Advice,’ its Structure and its Sources
The text of the Hitopade´sa starts with a number of intro-
ductory stanzas, which include the invocation of Shiva, the
deﬁnition of the purpose and content of the work, and the
praise of knowledge and learning in general. These stanzas
are followed by the exposition of the frame story mentioned
above. The stories are organized into four books, each of
which starts and ends at the level of the frame story. The ﬁrst
two books on how to win friends and how to break friend-
ships concentrate on giving examples of right conduct. The
last two books on war and peace are more dominated by
teachings on politics and statecraft.
As the structure of ‘Friendly Advice’ shows, it is greatly
indebted to the best known collection of fables in Sanskrit,
‘Five Discourses on Worldly Wisdom’ (Pa˜ncatantra). The
author himself acknowledges this work as his main source
in the ninth stanza of the prologue, and it has been shown
that indeed almost three quarters of the stories and a great
number of verses in the ‘Friendly Advice’ are related to
diﬀerent versions of the ‘Five Discourses.’
While a large number of the stories have a parallel there,
it is the ﬁrst two books of the ‘Friendly Advice’ that contain
most of the verses borrowed from the ‘Five Discourses.’ The
arrangement of the stories is also quite diﬀerent. Moreover,
it is not certain which version of the Pa˜ncatantra was used
by the author-compiler of the Hitopade´sa, for at times it is
closer to the southern recension, at times to the Nepalese,
Kashmiri or the old Syriac version. Furthermore, the ‘Five
Discourses’ is not the only source for our text, even if it
is deﬁnitely the most important one. Therefore ‘Friendly
Advice’ cannot be considered a simple recast of the ‘Five
Discourses’; it is rather a very closely related, but original
Concerning the sources of the fables and stories, some
other anthologies could also be considered. ‘Friendly Ad-
vice’ shares stories (2.6 and 3.8) with the ‘Seventy Tales of
the Parrot’ (´Sukasaptati) as well as with the ‘Twenty-ﬁve
Stories of the Vampire’ (Vet¯alapa˜ncavim. ´satik¯a).7
As for the verses, passages of varying length from sev-
eral other works have been incorporated into the text of
‘Friendly Advice.’ These works fall into three main catego-
ries:8 writings on political theory and right conduct (n¯ıti),
works on religious duty and law (dharma) and other, mostly
Among the sources on political theory and right conduct,
the most signiﬁcant one is the above-mentioned ‘Essence
of Polity’ by Kam´andaki, quoted mostly in the third and
fourth books. Unlike other citations, these often form long
sequences reproducing the original, such as from 4.301 
to 4.322 . In spite of its great interest in statecraft,
‘Friendly Advice’ never quotes the classical work on the
subject, the ‘Artha·shastra’ attributed to Kaut´ılya (dated to
the fourth century bce by some and to the third or fourth
century ce by others). This may be due to the fact that
the text of the ‘Artha·shastra,’ which is mainly in prose, is
purposes of ‘Friendly Advice.’ Moreover, the ‘Artha·shastra’
uses a much more technical and terse language than its
versiﬁed successor. It is also possible, although perhaps less
likely, that the ‘Artha·shastra’ was not available or known
to Nar´ayana.9 Our author-compiler also borrows a great
number of verses from various anthologies on politics and
right conduct named after Chan´akya (undated), as well as
from the poet Bhartri·hari (fourth century ce).
The most commonly cited source on religious duty and
law is the ‘Lawbook of Manu’ (Manusmr.ti), compiled be-
tween the third century bce and the third century ce, which
is generally considered the best known and greatest author-
ity on the subject. But Nar´ayana also takes many verses from
the twelfth and thirteenth books of the ‘Maha·bh´arata,’
which contain much material on dharma. On many oc-
casions, these citations are not altered to ﬁt in the story line
of ‘Friendly Advice,’ therefore the reader can sometimes
ﬁnd vocatives in them that are out of context and clearly
betray their source (such as “oh, son of Pandu” in 1.28 
and 4.238 , or “son of Kunti” in 1.35 ).10
It may sometimes strike the reader that the maxims con-
tradict each other or speak about very remotely related sub-
jects. They show that Nar´ayana’s aim was not to argue in
favor of a particular view on a subject, but rather to rep-
resent all the possible opinions about and connected to a
particular topic. His aim is to include many points of views,
and not to argue for or against any one of them.
(encyclopaedic texts mainly on mythology and religious
duty) and some well-known works of court poetry. Inter-
estingly, the citations of the ‘Maha·bh´arata’ are often to
be found in the Calcutta edition based mainly on Ben-
gali manuscripts, which may conﬁrm the Bengali origin
of ‘Friendly Advice.’11 Works of court poetry quoted in
‘Friendly Advice’ include Magha’s ‘The Slaying of Shishu·
pala’ (´Si´sup¯alavadha; e.g. 2.30 cited in ‘Friendly Advice’
3.249 ), Bh´aravi’s ‘The Hunter and the Hero’ (Kir¯at¯ar-
jun¯ıya; 2.33 cited in 4.278 ) and Harsha’s ‘How the
Nagas were Pleased’ (N¯ag¯ananda; 4.8 cited in 4.203 );
Krishna·mishra’s ‘The Rise of Wisdom Moon’ (Prabodha-
candrodaya; second half of the eleventh century ce) 5.29 has
a parallel in 4.229 , but it is not clear who borrows from
whom or whether they are both citing a proverb.12
In general, the verses have been taken over with varying
degrees of adaptation.13 Moreover, various manuscripts and
editions of ‘Friendly Advice’ diﬀer in the ways that they in-
corporate some passages. It can happen that one manuscript
maintains the reading of the source or remains closer to
it, while others alter the source to suit the new context.
Sometimes diﬀerent manuscripts of ‘Friendly Advice’ tend
to agree with diﬀerent manuscripts of the source they cite.
All in all, it seems much more likely that ‘Friendly Advice’
borrowed from these classical sources than the other way
While some verses are clearly borrowings from particu-
lar sources, others, which can recur in several texts, may
be regarded as proverbial sayings current at a certain time.
Such is the famous verse 1.174 , which occurs in ‘The
Five Discourses’ (5.38), Chan´akya’s N¯ıti´s¯astra (1.69) and, in
somewhat diﬀerent guise, in ‘King V´ıkrama’s Adventures’
(Vikramacarita; southern recension 3.1).15 Some also occur
in other languages, such as in Old Javanese, Tibetan and
Mongolian.16 Here, too, the direction of borrowing can-
not be established; but these parallels again show the great
popularity of the maxims of ‘Friendly Advice.’
On This Edition and Translation
It would be reasonable to assume that a work as popu-
lar as ‘Friendly Advice’ has at least one critical edition; but
surprisingly, none of its editions can be called critical. The
one that comes closest is Peterson’s, which is mostly based
on the oldest manuscript of the text from Nepal. How-
ever, Peterson was unable to revise the ﬁfty-eight pages he
had already edited before this manuscript became available
to him. Moreover, although Peterson’s text, which is the
tic one, it needs a number of corrections and emendations
on the basis of other manuscripts. Therefore in spite of its
great merits, this edition cannot be called a fully critical
The most commonly used edition is M.R. Kale’s, which
has been adopted as the basis of the text presented here, with
a number of corrections in the verses. In general, compared
to Peterson’s edition, it certainly represents a later—and
more expanded—state of what one may call the original.
The prose is somewhat longer, with many explanatory ad-
ditions, and the versiﬁed sayings and poems are also more
numerous. This most probably indicates that later scribes
and redactors tried to make the prose even clearer and to
include even more maxims on the same subject. One of
the most noticeable additions to the wise sayings is that
of a verse (3.114 ) about wives who will go to heaven,
even if they have committed hundreds of sins, provided that
they sacriﬁce themselves on their husbands’ funerary pyres.
This strong support of the practice of suttee is missing in
the earliest manuscript used by Peterson. Similarly, a verse
on how much women enjoy cheating on their husbands
(2.288 ) is included in Kale’s edition, but it was proba-
bly a later addition to the text and is omitted in Peterson’s.
A frequently mentioned curiosity in Kale’s edition is that
the editor seems to have excised part of a verse he must have
found too explicit to print in full. This verse is altogether
missing in the Nirnay Sagar editions, perhaps for the same
reason. It has been restored using Peterson’s edition and
translated in full here (1.276 ).
Nevertheless, there are several reasons why Kale’s edition
has been the basis of our text. Kale’s seems to be the most
correct text, for he also used Peterson’s edition to improve
on a number of problematic readings. Since the prose is
often less ambiguous, it is also better adapted to beginning
students’ needs. Moreover, a student of Sanskrit can now use
the corrected text printed here and at the same time proﬁt
from most of Kale’s grammatical and other explanatory
One major drawback of Kale’s edition is that it has a
large number of misprints, which can be very disconcerting
for students. These misprints have been corrected here, and
in several verses Kale’s reading has been rejected in favor of
also accepted readings that were quite obviously corrupt.18
Spelling has also been standardized.19
Two slightly diﬀerent editions by the Nirnay Sagar Press
have also been collated for the edition of verses. They are
close to Kale’s text and sometimes helped to make some
additional improvements. On many occasions, parallels, the
origin of the citations and their critical editions were of great
help in establishing the reading.20 For a list of citations and
parallels, the reader can consult Sternbach’s analysis in
‘The Hitopade´sa and Its Sources’ (1960).
All these corrections do not amount to a true critical
edition, which is a task that could not be undertaken in
the present work. Nevertheless, the text printed here is,
hopefully, an improvement on the available editions.
The present translation attempts to combine precision
with readability, a very obvious aim, but one that has not
been adopted very often. Among the available English trans-
lations, Kale’s is probably the closest to the wording of
the original Sanskrit, but it is hardly readable. Hutchi-
ns published an elegant translation of Peterson’s edition,
in which he avoids even those repetitions that are in the
original. To reﬂect the mnemonic character of the stanzas,
Haksar translates the maxims in “simple rhyming verse of
the doggerel type,” which may not be the luckiest choice,
but in spite of this, he remains quite close to the Sanskrit,
adopting Kale’s text.
Following the practice of many translators, the stories
have been given titles for easier reference. It is to be hoped
that this new translation based on an improved edition will
satisfy both the needs of students of Sanskrit and of readers
interested in the fables and wisdom of ancient India.
Animals and Professions in ‘Friendly Advice’21
The following characterizations do not include all the an-
imals and professions occurring in the text. Some animals
or professions are mentioned in a cursory way (washermen,
hunters, monks, policemen, a scribe or a mendicant, for in-
stance), others (such as the bull in the frame story of Book
2, the camel in 4.10, the crab in 4.6 or the quail in 3.5) may
be important ﬁgures in a story but without representing a
character type of their own. Animals and professions that
are mentioned only in the wise sayings but do not ﬁgure in
the stories have also been omitted. With regard to animals,
herbivores are usually depicted as na¨ıve victims, while carni-
vores are mostly seen as cunning and deceitful.22 Oddly, the
most sacred Hindu animal, the cow, never ﬁgures in these
stories. As for people, few professions remain uncriticized.
What nevertheless stands out as a recurring theme is that
wives are always very clever when it comes to cheating on
ascetic Ascetics and sages are depicted as wise or as people
who have become wise, such as Banner-of-Love in 2.5.
They may possess supernatural powers, like the sage
called Great-Power in 4.5.
ass The ass is unwise and lacks caution; it acts without
considering the consequences of what it does. In 2.2
an ass gets thrashed because he interferes with oth-
ers’ business, although he wants to help his master. In
3.2, another one betrays his true nature when he brays
loudly, and this lack of self-restraint costs him his life.
barber The barber is depicted as being greedy and stupid
in 3.9, but this is probably due to the nature of that
particular story. In 2.5, he is simply the object of an
bird Birds are often shown as intelligent but vulnerable
creatures. Those who give advice to the monkeys in
3.1 have their nest destroyed; but the lapwing in 2.9, al-
though he is powerless himself, manages to discipline
the ocean. The parrot in the frame story of Book 3
is also wise enough to understand the crane’s nature
and plans. See also crane, crow, gander, peacock,
pigeon, sheldrake, swan, vulture.
brahmin Brahmins are more often ridiculed than re-
spected. 4.7 shows a daydreamer who ends up los-
ing even the little food he had. The brahmin of 4.12 is
similarly poor, and he kills his only helper, the mon-
goose, by mistake. Brahmins are depicted as credulous
and lacking reﬂection before action, but these are traits
commonly portrayed and criticized in others too. In
4.9, the brahmin who agrees to see a dog in his goat
does so perhaps because he is too afraid of being pol-
luted by the impure dog. Nevertheless, the frame story
of Book 3 lauds brahmins as the best kind of envoys.
cat Cats and other felines are usually cunning and hypo-
critical. In stories 1.1 and 1.3, both the cat and the tiger
claim to have practiced severe religious observances,
and thus gain others’ trust. However, the cat is used
and then abandoned by a superior feline, the lion, in
2.3, for here their hierarchical relation is emphasized.
Even the lion is outwitted by a hare in 2.8, for in this
story the possibility that the weak could overcome the
strong is exempliﬁed.
cowherd Cowherds appear to be easily tricked simple-
tons. The cowherd in 2.5 intends to cut oﬀ his wife’s
nose (but cuts oﬀ a procuress’s instead) to punish her
for her inﬁdelity, but this punishment is not consid-
ered severe or brutal as the end of the story shows: he
gets away with it, while his wife is exiled. 2.6 also has a
cowherd whose wife cheats on him, but this time she
is clever enough to ﬁnd a way out. In 4.1 cowherds
eat the foolish tortoise, which does not seem to be a
particularly noble act.
crane Two kinds of crane ﬁgure in the stories: the crane
or heron (baka in Sanskrit, Ardea nivea according to
indicates that it also lives near lakes (Ardea sibirica
according to Monier-Williams). The latter is some-
times identiﬁed with the swan (ham. sa). The two cranes
are often confused, but they seem to be clearly diﬀer-
entiated in ‘Friendly Advice.’
The baka crane is cunning and hypocritical, so much so
that in Sanskrit its name is a synonym for “rogue, hyp-
ocrite, deceitful person.” In the frame story of Book 3,
it is a crane called Long-Bill who provokes war, most
probably intentionally, as the sheldrake minister con-
cludes. In the frame stories of Books 3 and 4, cranes
act as spies or secret agents. In 4.6, the crane manages
to deceive the ﬁsh in a lake, but fares less successfully
with a crab. Nevertheless, the cranes act without fore-
sight in 4.6, and their ﬂedglings are devoured.
The s¯arasa crane is just the opposite in nature. It is noble
and heroic, sacriﬁcing its own life for the swan king at
the end of Book 3. The bird king of Sri Lanka in Book
4, Great-Strength, is also a s¯arasa crane, allied with the
swan king. He helps the swan king by invading his
enemy at the right moment.
crow Both crows in Book 1, Sharp Wit in 1.2 and Fast-
Flying in the frame story, are friendly, wise and helpful.
In 2.7, the crow couple are also clever enough to have
their enemy, a snake, killed. However, in Books 3 and
4 crows are among the most ill-willed characters. 3.4
and 3.5 tell stories about why the crow is one’s worst
possible company, and in the frame story it is the crow
Cloud-Color with his companions who betrays the
swan king and burns down his fort.
deer The deer is mostly seen as the innocent and na¨ıve
victim of other animals, of the jackal for instance in 1.2.
Otherwise, it is presented as helpful, for at the end of
the frame story of Book 1, in which the tortoise needs
to be saved, the deer also cooperates in his rescue.
r¯aks.asa in 2.4 or the vampire type vet¯ala in 2.5) are ob-
viously depicted as evil. But the two daitya demons,
Sunda and Upas´unda, enemies of the gods, are not just
evil, but also stupid and greedy in 4.8.
dog The dog is considered impure in India (see also the
fright of a brahmin at the prospect of carrying one in
4.9). One ﬁgures only in 2.2, in which he is portrayed
as a rather lazy and disloyal servant of his master.
elephants Elephants are notoriously na¨ıve. This seems to
be a trait of royal animals, for lions can also be rather
credulous (like Tawny, for instance, in the frame story
of book 2). In 1.8, an elephant is made to believe by
a jackal that the animals wish him to be their king.
In 2.12, another elephant is easily convinced that the
moon is the lord of hares.
fish Similarly to deer, ﬁsh are seen as na¨ıve and credulous
victims, as in 4.6, in which they do not realize that the
crane is deceiving them. In 4.2, three ﬁshes, Come-
What-May, Overcautious, and Quick-Wit, represent
three diﬀerent attitudes to imminent danger.
frog Just as the deer and ﬁsh, frogs are easily tricked vic-
tims and prey in 4.11.
gander, goose The two ganders in 4.1, Broad and Nar-
row, represent prudence and foresight in contrast with
the foolish tortoise. However, the good-willed goose
in 3.4 gets himself killed because of the misdeed of a
crow. It must be remarked here that the word for goose
in Sanskrit, ham. sa, is often translated as and confused
with the swan. In fact, in some contexts this bird ap-
pears to be mythical rather than real, and in such cases
it is more appropriate to translate it as swan.
hare Hares are obviously weak and vulnerable, but they
also show how the small and the weak can conquer the
strong and powerful through wit. In 2.8, a hare called
Dart-Mouth outwits a lion, while in 2.12 another one
called Victor tricks an elephant.
jackal Jackals are ill-willed and try to be clever, but are
justly punished in many cases. In 1.6, a jackal called
Long-Howl kills himself because of his greed, and in
3.7 the blue jackal, who aspires to be king by deceiv-
ing others and by rejecting his own folk, also receives
due punishment. In 1.2, another one named Weak Wit
tries to obtain the ﬂesh of a na¨ıve deer, but is killed
by a hunter thanks to the intervention of the deer’s
friend, the crow. In 1.8, however, the jackal manages
to trick a greedy elephant; and the two ministers of
the frame story of Book 2, jackals called D´amanaka
and K´arataka, also succeed in manipulating their lion
king According to the frame story, these fables were re-
lated at the command of a king. However, there is
only one story, 3.8, in which a human king appears
as a hero. He is portrayed as an honest and just ruler,
ready to sacriﬁce himself for the sake of his loyal ser-
vant. In other stories, the king or local ruler of a region
is mentioned only brieﬂy in the beginning. The frame
stories of Books 3 and 4 present bird kings, for which
see peacock and swan. See also lion.
lion Lions can be clever, like cats and tigers, as in 2.3,
but it is their royal nature that dominates them, for
they are commonly considered the kings of the jungle.
Therefore, they often demonstrate various royal qual-
ities and weaknesses, as does Tawny in the frame story
of Book 2, who is good-willed but too dependent on
his ministers. In 4.10 also, the lion is an honest ruler
who wants to keep his promise and refuses to harm
the camel, but his dishonest friends ﬁnd a way to kill
him. Story 2.8 shows that in spite of being strong, the
lion’s stupidity can cause his death. See also king and
merchant Merchants are portrayed as rich—with names
such as Favored-By-The-Sea and Prosperous—but too
busy to take care of their wives, who cheat on them
frequently, as in 1.5 and 4.3. Merchants never seem to
have enough money, as the frame story of Book 2 and
2.5 show. The young merchant of 1.7, who ends up
himself oﬀering his wife to the prince, also acts in the
hope of proﬁting from the aﬀair.
minister Two opposing portrayals of ministers can be
found in the frame stories of Books 2–4. The jackal
ministers of the lion king in Book 2 are cunning and
can inﬂuence their master at will. They are rather mean
intriguers. However, in Books 3 and 4, the vulture and
the sheldrake ministers are both wise and of good in-
tention, the only problem is that their masters do not
always take their advice.
mongoose The mongoose is depicted as true and loyal in
4.12. However, in 4.4, the mongooses ruthlessly de-
vour the small cranes.
monkey Monkeys are said to have a ﬁckle nature, and they
play with whatever they ﬁnd, as stories 2.1 and 2.4 show
(with a wedge and a bell). They lack foresight, there-
fore they shiver without shelter during the monsoon
in 3.1. In this story they also represent the stupid who
cannot be instructed, for instead of heeding good ad-
vice, they take vengeance on their advisers.
mouse The mouse Golden in the frame story of Book 1 is
an honest, wise and good friend of other animals. He
relates his own story in 1.4, in which it turns out that
he was originally a hoarder, and his story illustrates the
futility of hoarding. A mouse also ﬁgures in 4.5, but
only to show that the weak should not be given too
much power because they will not make good use of
ogre See demon.
peacock The only peacock in the collection is King Col-
orful in the frame stories of Books 3 and 4. He is
portrayed as vain and rather conceited. He gets into
trouble because he does not listen to the advice given
by his minister, the vulture.
pigeon Pigeons (in the frame story of Book 1) are easily de-
Speckled-Neck, is a cautious leader, but one whose
words are not always heeded.
prince The wayward princes of the frame story are not de-
scribed in detail, but they appreciate heroic behavior,
as their remark at the end of Book 3 shows. The prince
of 3.8, Best-Hero, is a model warrior. Others can be
more or less fortunate in life, as the stories of Cloud-
Banner (2.5) and Top-Force (1.7) demonstrate. In both
cases, they covet someone unattainable: a vidy¯adhara
maiden and the wife of another man respectively. This
may illustrate their limitless ambitions. See also war-
procuress Procuresses are usually clever and manage to
proﬁt from others’ ignorance or faults. Such is the case
with the procuress in 2.4 and the one mentioned at the
end of 1.5. In 1.7, a procuress helps a prince to meet his
beloved, wife of a merchant, by using a clever scheme.
However, 2.5 shows us a procuress or go-between who
has her nose cut oﬀ by mistake, and another one, a
madam, who is punished for conﬁscating a merchant’s
sheldrake In the frame story of Books 3 and 4, the shel-
drake Know-All is the wisest minister, who is not only
intelligent but also wants the well-being of his master.
snake The snake is clever and hypocritical in 4.11, its na-
ture similar to that of cats. But perhaps this is not
their original trait, for in the story the snake needs to
be clever only to compensate for his lost strength, as
his name Weak-Venom suggests. Elsewhere, as in 2.7,
the snake (a cobra) simply devours its prey, and the
crows have to devise a clever stratagem to get rid of it.
swan The royal swan in the frame stories of Books 3 and
4 embodies kingly qualities. But although he is gener-
ally wise, he is too good-willed to see that the crow is
a traitor. The swan is usually considered a noble and
wise animal, which has the supernatural power to sep-
arate milk from water after they have been blended.
It also symbolizes the Soul, and is the animal vehicle
of Brahma, the god of creation and orthodoxy. That
is probably the reason why the royal swan in the story
bears the name of Brahma, Born-Of-Gold, for in one
mythological account, Brahma is born from a golden
egg. For the confusion between swan and goose, see
tiger Tigers are cunning and hypocritical, see cat.
tortoise Similarly to the deer, ﬁsh and frogs, tortoises are
easy prey, for they act foolishly, especially when they
panic. Shell-Neck in 4.1 tries to escape from death with
the help of two ganders, but when provoked he opens
his mouth and loses his life. At the end of Book 1,
Slow-Mo also gets caught because of his reckless ac-
tion, before being saved by his friends.
vidy¯adhara Vidy¯adharas are semi-divine beings of am-
bivalent nature. But in the story of 2.5, the vidy¯adhara
maidens simply represent inhabitants of a paradise-
like world, which seems to have its own, special rules.
vulture In the frame stories of Books 3 and 4 the minister
of the peacock king, Far-Sighted, is portrayed as wise
and cautious, as his name indicates. The good eyesight
of vultures is thus symbolically used here to indicate
their foresight. However, the old vulture in 1.3 had
lost his sight (which may be interpreted metaphori-
cally again) and was tricked by the cunning cat.
warrior Warriors are portrayed as honest and persever-
ing. The warrior Best-Hero in 3.8 is ready even to
sacriﬁce his only son for the sake of his king. He is also
an exemplary person in other respects, for he spends
part of his salary on helping the poor and part of it on
donations to the gods and brahmins. Another warrior
called Head-Jewel (in 3.9) performs severe observances
to obtain riches, and is duly rewarded by Shiva.
wheelwright The cuckolded wheelwright appearing in
3.6 is true to his name: Dull-Wit. But rather than be-
ing a characterization of wheelwrights, the story may
just provide another example of how simpletons are
cheated. For a similar character, see cowherd.
wife Wives are almost invariably bent on cheating on
their husbands, and they are usually clever enough
to get away with it, even when two lovers arrive at a
time, as happens in 2.6. Six stories out of the eleven
dealing with human beings present unfaithful wives.
Of the six cuckolded husbands, three are merchants
(showing that money cannot buy faithfulness), two are
cowherds and one is a wheelwright. Of the six unfaith-
ful wives, four initiate these relations themselves, one
needs some persuasion from a go-between and only
one attempts to be faithful, but in vain (in story 1.7).
See also cowherd, merchant, wheelwright.
editions used or cited
Hitopade´sa: The Sanskrit text with a grammatical analysis alphabetically
arranged by F. Johnson. 2nd ed. Hertford: Stephen Austin;
London: W.H. Allen, 1864.
Hitopade´sa by N¯ar¯ayan. a Edited by Peter Peterson. Bombay Sanskrit
Series 33. Bombay: Government Central Book Depot, 1887.
The Hitopade´sa of N¯ar¯ayan. a Pandit Edited with Explanatory English
NotesbyN¯ar¯ayan. aB¯alakr.s.n. aGodaboleandK¯a´s¯ın¯athP¯an. -
The Hitopade´sa of N¯ar¯ayan. a Edited with a Sanskrit commentary and
notes in English by M.R. Kale. 5th ed. Bombay, 1924. Reprint
Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1998.
Hitopade´sa of N¯ar¯ayan. pan. d. it Edited by K¯a´s¯ın¯ath P¯an. d. ura˙ng Parab,
re-editedbyN¯ar¯ayan. R¯am ¯Ac¯arya“K¯avyat¯ırtha.”Bombay:Nir-
nay Sagar Press. 15th ed. 1955.
Hitopadesa, id est Institutio salutaris, Textum codd. mss. collatis re-
censuerunt interpretationem Latinam et annotationes criticas
adiecerunt A.G. a Schlegel [A.W. von Schlegel] et C. Lassen.
Bonnae ad Rhenum, 1829–31.
some sources and parallels of the hitopade´sa
1. K¯amandak¯ıyan¯ıtis¯ara ed. R¯ajendral¯ala Mitra. Calcutta: Baptist
Mission Press, 1884. (= Mitra)
2. The N¯ıtis¯ara of K¯amandak¯ı ed. Raja Rajendra Lala Mitra revised
with English translation Sisir Kumar Mitra. Calcutta: The
Asiatic Society, 1982.
3. N¯ıtis¯ara of K¯amandaka with the commentary Jayamangala of Sanka-
rarya ed. T. Gan. apati S¯astr¯ı. Trivandrum: Travancore Gov-
ernment Press, 1912.
Garud. apur¯an. a
1. ed. J¯ıv¯ananda Vidy¯as¯agara. Calcutta: Sarasvat¯ıyantra, 1890.
2. ed. Ramshankar Bhattacharya. Varanasi: Chowkhamba San-
skrit Series Oﬃce, 1964. (Kashi Sanskrit Series 165).
N¯ag¯ananda of Hars.a
1. ed. J¯ıv¯ananda Vidy¯as¯agara. Calcutta: Ganesa Press, 1873.
2. with comm. N¯ag¯anandavimar´sin¯ı by Sivar¯ama. Ed. T. Gan. apati
S¯astr¯ı. Trivandrum: Government Press, 1917.
3. ed. with translation and notes R.D. Karmarkar (3rd ed.) Poona:
Aryabhushan Press, 1953.
Pa˜ncatantra ed. D.D. Kosambi. Bombay: Nirnay Sagar Press, 1959. (10th
Par¯a´sarasmr.ti. The Par¯a´sara Dharma Sam. hit¯a or Par¯a´sarasmr.ti with the
commentary of S¯ayana M¯adhav¯ac¯arya ed. Pandit V¯amana ´S¯as-
tri Islampurkar. 3 vols. Bombay: Government Central Depot,
Prabodhacandrodaya of Kr.s.n.ami´sra
1. Bombay ed.: Prabodhacandrodayam ed. Laks.man. a ´Sarma Pan. a´s¯ı-
kara, rev. by V¯asudeva ´Sarma. Bombay: Nirnay Sagar Press,
2. Calcutta ed.: Prabodhacandrodayan¯at.akam ed. J¯ıv¯ananda Vidy¯a-
s¯agara Bhat.t. ¯ac¯arya. Calcutta: K¯avyaprak¯a´sayantra, 1874.
3. Trivandrum ed.: The Prabodhacandrodaya of Kr.s.n. ami´srayati with
the commentary of ´Sr¯ıgovind¯amr.tabhagav¯an Ed. K. S¯amba´siva
´S¯astr¯ı. Trivandrum: Government Press, 1936.
1. ´Satakatrayam crit. ed. D.D. Kosambi. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya
2. Bhartruhari’s Neeti Sataka, Sringara Sataka and Vairagya Sataka
with Sanskrit commentary of Shri Ramachandra Buddhendra,
English notes, translation and introduction by Shre A.V. Gopa-
lachariar. Madras: V. Ramaswamy Sastrulu and sons, 1954.
3. The N¯ıti´sataka, ´Sr. ˙ng¯ara´sataka and Vair¯agya´sataka of Bhartr.hari
ed. Purohit Gopi Nath. Bombay: Shri Venkateshvar Press,
4. The N¯ıti´sataka and Vair¯agya´sataka of Bhartr.hari with extracts from
two Sanskrit commentaries Ed. with notes K.T. Telang. Bom-
bay: Government Central Book Depot, 1885.
Manusmr.ti with Medh¯atithi’s commentary ed. Ganganatha Jha. 2nd
ed. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1999.
Mah¯abh¯arata. Critical edition. Ed. V.S. Sukthankar (1927–43), S.K.
Belvalkar (from 1943) et al. Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Re-
search Institute, 1927–59.
Mah¯abh¯arata edited and carefully collated with the best manuscripts in the
library of the Sanscrita College of Calcutta by Nimachand Siro-
mani and Nanda Gopala pandits. Calcutta: Baptist Mission
Mah¯asubh¯as.itasam. graha Vol. 1. ed. L. Sternbach. Hoshiarpur: Vish-
veshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, 1974.
1. Mr.cchakat.ik¯a of ´S¯udraka with two commentaries, the Suvarn. ¯alam. -
karan. a of Lalla D¯ıkshit and a Vr.tti or Vivr.ti of Pr.thiv¯ıdhara,
and various readings ed. N¯ar¯ayan. a B¯alakr.s.n. a Godabole.
Bombay: Government Central Book Depot, 1896.
2. Mr.cchakat.ika ed. with translation, introduction, notes and appen-
dices by R.D. Karmakar. Poona: Aryabhushan Press, 1950.
R¯ajan¯ıti-ratn¯akara by Can.d.e´svara. Ed. Kashi-Prasad Jayaswal. Patna:
The Bihar and Orissa Research Society, 1936 (2nd ed.).
Vikramacarita. Vikrama’s Adventures or the Thirty-Two Tales of the Throne
Edited and translated by Franklin Edgerton. 2 parts. Delhi:
Motilal Banarsidass, 1993 (First publ. Cambridge, 1926).
Ven. ¯ısam. h¯ara by Bhat.t.an¯ar¯ayan.a
1. Calcutta ed.: Ven. ¯ısam. h¯aran¯at.akam ed. ´Sr¯ı J¯ıv¯ananda Vidy¯as¯a-
gara Bhat.t. ¯ac¯arya. 4th ed. Calcutta: N¯ar¯ayan.ayantra, 1893.
2. Bombay ed.: Ven. ¯ısam. h¯ara with the commentary of Jagaddhara and
various readings etc. Ed. K¯a´s¯ın¯ath P¯an. d. urang Parab. Rev.
N¯ar¯ayan. R¯am ¯Ach¯arya. 9th ed. Bombay: Nirnay Sagar
´Si´sup¯alavadha with the commentary of Mallin¯atha ed. Pandit Durga-
prasad and Sivadatta. Rev. by Srinivasa Venkatram. Bom-
bay: Nirnay Sagar Press, 1923.
´Sukasaptati. Der Textus ornatior der ´Sukasaptati. ed. R. Schmidt. M¨un-
Subh¯as.it¯avalih. by Vallabhadeva ed. P. Peterson, revised by Pt Durg¯a-
pras¯ada. Bombay: Education Society, 1886.
Aufrecht, Th. 1962. Catalogus Catalogorum. An Alphabetical Register
of Sanskrit Works and Authors. Pt. 1. Wiesbaden, Franz Steiner
Filliozat, J. 1967. “L’abandon de la vie par le sage et les suicides du
criminel et du h´eros dans la tradition indienne.” Arts Asiatiques,
pade´sa.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 86.1, 1–19.
Keith, A.B. 1920. A History of Sanskrit Literature. Oxford: Oxford Uni-
Schmid, C. 2005. “Mah¯abalipuram: la Prosp´erit´e au double visage.”
Journal Asiatique, 293.2, 459–527.
Shulman, D. 1993. The Hungry God. Hindu Tales of Filicide and Devo-
tion. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
Sternbach, L. 1960. The Hitopade´sa and Its Sources. New Haven,
Conn.: American Oriental Society (American Oriental Series
Sternbach, L. 1967. “The C¯an.akya Collections and N¯ar¯ayan.a’s Hitopa-
de´sa: an Additional Comment.” Journal of the American Oriental
Society, 87.3, 306–8.
Sternbach, L. 1974. The K¯avya Portions in the Kath¯a Literature. Vol II.
Hitopade´sa, Vikramacarita. Delhi: Meharchand Lachhmandas.
Vogel, J. Ph. 1932. “The Head-oﬀering to the Goddess in Pallava Sculp-
ture.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 6
1 On Nar´ayana as a poet, see Ingalls 1966: 18.
2 The arguments are rehearsed in Ingalls (1966). The suggested
period of composition is based on the dating and relationship
of various recensions of the aphorisms attributed to Chan´akya,
which have parallels in the Hitopade´sa. However, according to
Sternbach (1967), who edited these recensions, “to come to any
conclusion as to the dating of the Hitopade´sa or any other work
by utilizing the diﬀerent versions of any collection of maxims and
sayings and by utilizing statistical compilations of this material
seems to be very risky, doubtful and liable to criticism.”
3 Sternbach 1974: 4–5, Ingalls 1966: 9–10. It seems that Ingalls’s
arguments are motivated more by his wish to make Nar´ayana a
poet during the Pala dynasty in Eastern Bengal than by the weight
of the evidence.
4 See Aufrecht 1962: 766. Note also Ingalls’s remark (1966) that
judging from Nar´ayana’s selection of Pa˜ncatantra material, he
could have been a southerner.
5 Sternbach (1974: 4–5) mentions verses 1.78 and 4.28 of John-
son’s edition and an additional verse found only in Schlegel’s
edition. The ﬁrst, identical with Kale’s 1.77, is not in the oldest
manuscript according to Peterson’s edition. The second verse,
our 4.116 , comes from Kam´andaki’s N¯ıtis¯ara (9.44), not from
nbach seems to have traced back to the Bengali recension of the
R¯am¯ayan. a: Johnson’s 4.21, i.e. our 4.97 . But this verse can
also be found in an almost identical version in the critical edition
of the Mah¯abh¯arata (5.37.15). Other citations from the epics shed
no greater light on the problem. Prologue 19 (0.23 ), found in
all versions of the Hitopade´sa, is missing in the critical edition of
the Mah¯abh¯arata, but is present in the Bengali and the Telugu re-
censions, the Vulgate, the Deva·n´agari composite recension, and
one Kashmiri manuscript. As Sternbach (1960: 2–4, 1967 and
1974: 13–4) has shown, citations identiﬁable in various recensions
of the Pa˜ncatantra and of Chan´akya’s aphorisms unfortunately do
not help in establishing the date and origin of the Hitopade´sa.
6 This has already been pointed out by Ingalls (1966: 9). Another
motif, that of oﬀering a head or heads to a goddess (as described
in Hitopade´sa 3.9), is well known in South India from ancient
Tamil literature and from icons of the warrior goddess (Kor
which often depict her devotees about to decapitate themselves.
(For references and discussion see e.g. Vogel 1932 and Filliozat
1967. On the possible relation of this goddess with the goddess of
good fortune, Lakshmi, in Pallava times, see Schmid 2005) The
theme of sacriﬁcing one’s son goes back to the Vedic myth of Shu-
nah·shepa (for an analysis and further, South Indian, examples
see Shulman 1993). It is of course also possible that Nar´ayana
described some rites he knew of, without being a native of the
place where they were practiced. Let us note that other arguments
cited by Ingalls (1966) in favor of the Bengali origin are not very
strong, especially the alleged Bengalism of the word divya in the
sense of “ordeal.” This meaning is recorded in dictionaries and is
attested in Y¯aj˜navalkyasmr.ti 2.22.95.
7 However, the direction of borrowing cannot be established as no
relative chronology has been determined among these works. See
Sternbach 1974: 7 citing Keith 1920: 264. For more details and
for a complete list of verse citations, see Sternbach 1960.
8 Following Sternbach 1960: 11.
9 This is Sternbach’s supposition in 1960: 14 and 1974: 25. He also
envisages the possibility that Nar´ayana did not quote the Artha-
´s¯astra on purpose, though he does not say what reason Nar´ayana
would have had for such an omission.
10 Of course, there are also examples for the conscious elimination
of such vocatives, see e.g. 2.142  citing Mah¯abh¯arata 5.39.2
(=Mah¯abh¯arata Calcutta edition 5.38.2), in which the vocative
Bh¯arata is replaced with the adjective ´s¯a´svatam.
11 See e.g. Prologue 0.23  = Mah¯abh¯arata 5.32.91/1056 in the
12 In the play, the verse is introduced by the words “this is what sages
have taught on this subject, is it not” (n¯unam upadis.t.am ev’ ˆatra
13 It is possible, of course, that the Hitopade´sa borrowed a number
of stanzas not directly from various literary sources and lawbooks,
but from a recension of the Pa˜ncatantra, as Sternbach (1974: 22)
14 Surprisingly, Sternbach 1974: 28 states that the stanzas of the
Hitopade´sa were probably the primary sources for these works,
arguing that the Hitopade´sa is an older text. But while the stories
of the Hitopade´sa must indeed be very ancient, its redaction seems
to come from a period later than that of the court poets cited,
and this is especially true in the case of the verses.
15 Sternbach 1960: 70.
16 See Sternbach 1974: 28.
17 An interesting feature of Peterson’s edition and the Nepalese
manuscript it is based on is that a number of their variants agree
with those found in the Southern recension of ‘King V´ıkrama’s
Adventures,’ see e.g. vv. 1.68, 1.128, 2.37 and 3.29.
18 E.g. yacchamam for yacchalam in 3.198 , proposing a rather
19 For instance, printing yudhyate and sidhyati instead of yuddhyate
20 Such was the case of the citations from Kam´andaki’s N¯ıtis¯ara,
which were quite faithfully reproduced by Peterson following
his old Nepalese manuscript, but which appear in a somewhat
corrupt form in Kale’s edition. It could be argued that such
distortions are not corruptions but characteristics of the Hitopa-
de´sa itself. However, as the old Nepalese manuscript shows, the
readings were originally correct and meaningful, which is why
I have emended Kale’s text rather heavily sometimes in these
21 References in this section are to book and story rather than book
22 The aim of this section being the elucidation of animal symbol-
ism, I have refrained from discussing precise zoological identiﬁ-
Siddhih. s¯adhye sat¯am astu0.1
pras¯ad¯at tasya Dh¯urjat.eh.,
yanAm¯urdhni ´sa´sinah. kal¯a. 
´sruto Hitopade´so ’yam.
p¯at.avam. sam. skr.t’Aˆoktis.u,
v¯ac¯am. sarvatra vaicitryam. ,
n¯ıtiAvidy¯am. dad¯ati ca. 
aAjar”AˆaAmaraAvat pr¯aj˜no vidy¯am artham. ca cintayet;
gr.h¯ıta iva ke´ses.u mr.tyun¯a dharmam ¯acaret. 
sarvaAdravyes.u vidy” ˆaiva dravyam ¯ahur anAuttamam
aAh¯aryatv¯ad, anAarghyatv¯ad, aAks.ayatv¯ac ca sarvad¯a. 
sam. yojayati vidy” ˆaiva0.5
n¯ıcaBg” ˆapi naram. sarit
samudram iva durAdhars.am.
nr.pam. ; bh¯agyam atah. param. 
vidy¯a dad¯ati vinayam. ,
vinay¯ad y¯ati p¯atrat¯am,
p¯atratv¯ad dhanam ¯apnoti,
dhan¯ad dharmam. , tatah. sukham. 
vidy¯a ´sastrasya ´s¯astrasya dve vidye pratipattaye;
¯ady¯a h¯asy¯aya vr.ddhatve, dvit¯ıy” ¯adriyate sad¯a. 
May good people succeed in their enterprises by 0.1
the grace of Lord Shiva, whose matted locks
bear a digit of the moon—a streak of foam, as it were,
in the Ganges, which is swirling about in his hair.*
If one takes heed of this Friendly Advice, it will bestow
proﬁciency in reﬁned discourses,* a variety of expres-
sions in every ﬁeld of learning and the knowledge of
A wise man should think about knowledge and money
as if he were immune to old age and death; but he
him by the hair. Knowledge is considered superior to
everything else, for it can never be taken away, bought
or destroyed. As a river, even if it ﬂows in the lowlands, 0.5
can bring one to an inaccessible sea, so knowledge—
but only knowledge—even in a person of low status,
can bring one into the presence of an unapproachable
king and afterwards, bring good fortune. Knowledge
bestows modesty, from which one becomes worthy.
Being worthy, one obtains riches, from riches, pious
acts, and then one reaches happiness. Control of the
battleﬁeld and mastery of the ﬁelds of learning both
lead to fame; but while the former makes for ridicule
in old age, the latter is always respected.
yan nave bh¯ajane lagnah.
sam. sk¯aro n’ ˆanyath¯a bhavet,
n¯ıtis tad iha kathyate. 
vigrahah., sam. dhir eva ca
Pa˜ncatantr¯at tath” ˆanyasm¯ad
granth¯ad ¯akr.s.ya likhyate. 
An impression made on a freshly molded clay pot does
not change afterwards, and such is the case with young
people; therefore good governance is taught to them
here in the guise of tales. These chapters on how to
win friends, how to break friendships, how to make
war and how to make peace have been taken from the
‘Five Discourses on Worldly Wisdom’ and elsewhere.*
asti Bh¯ag¯ırath¯ıAt¯ıre P¯at.aliputraAn¯amaAdheyam. naga-0.10
ram. tatra sarvaAsv¯amiAgun.’Aˆopetah. Sudar´sano n¯ama
naraApatir ¯as¯ıt. sa bh¯uApatir ekad¯a ken’ ˆapi pat.hyam¯anam.
sarvasya locanam. ´s¯astram. ;
yasya n’ ˆasty, andha eva sah.. 
yauvanam. , dhanaAsampattih.,
ek’Aˆaikam apy anAarth¯aya,
kim u yatra catus.t.ayam.» 
ity ¯akarn.y’ ¯atmanah. putr¯an. ¯am anAadhigataA´s¯astr¯an. ¯am, ni-
tyam unAm¯argaAg¯amin¯am. ´s¯astr’AˆanAanus.t.h¯anen’ ˆodvignaAma-
n¯ah. sa r¯aj¯a cintay¯am ¯asa:
«ko ’rthah. putren.a j¯atena
yo na vidv¯an na dh¯armikah.?
k¯an.ena caks.us.¯a kim. v¯a?
caks.uh.Ap¯ıd.” ˆaiva kevalam. 
aj¯ataAmr.taAm¯urkh¯an. ¯am. varam ¯adyau, na c’ ˆantimah.;0.15
sakr.dAduh.khaAkar¯av ¯ady¯av, antimas tu pade pade. 
On the bank of the river Ganges there is a city called 0.10
P´atali·putra. A king named Handsome once lived
there, possessing all the qualities a ruler should. One day he
heard someone recite the following two verses:
“Learning resolves countless doubts and reveals what
is beyond perception. Learning is the universal eye;
without it, you are blind.
Youth, wealth, power and recklessness can each lead to
disaster; all the more so when the four are combined!”
When the king heard these words, he became anxious
about his sons, who had not received any instruction, always
took the wrong path, and followed no good teaching. He
“What’s the use of a son if he is neither learned nor
righteous?—What’s the use of a bad eye? It only causes
Of an unborn, dead or stupid son, the ﬁrst two would 0.15
be preferable, for they cause pain only once, but the
last does so at every step.
sa j¯ato yena j¯atena y¯ati vam. ´sah. samunnatim.
parivartini sam. s¯are mr.tah. ko v¯a na j¯ayate? 
na patati kat.hin¯ı suAsambhram¯ad yasya,
ten’ ˆamb¯a yadi sutin¯ı,
vada, vandhy¯a k¯ıdr.´s¯ı n¯ama? 
d¯ane tapasi ´saurye ca yasya na prathitam. ya´sah.
vidy¯ay¯am arthaAl¯abhe ca, m¯atur ucc¯ara eva sah.. 
varam eko gun.¯ı putro, na ca m¯urkhaA´sat¯any api.
eka´s candras tamo hanti, na ca t¯ar¯aAgan.o ’pi ca. 
pun.yaAt¯ırthe kr.tam. yena
tapah. kv’ ˆapy atiAdus.Akaram,
tasya putro bhaved va´syah.,
samr.ddho, dh¯armikah., suAdh¯ıh.. 
arth’A¯agamo, nityam aArogit¯a ca,
priy¯a ca bh¯ary¯a, priyaAv¯adin¯ı ca,
va´sya´s ca putro, ’rthaAkar¯ı ca vidy¯a,
s.aj j¯ıvaAlokasya sukh¯ani, r¯ajan. 
ko dhanyo bahubhih. putraih. ku´s¯ul’A¯ap¯uran.’A¯ad.hakaih.?
varam ekah. kul’A¯alamb¯ı yatra vi´sr¯uyate pit¯a. 
He whose birth brings higher status to his family has
been rightly born. In this ever-revolving transmigra-
tion, who is not ordinarily reborn after death?
If a woman can be called a mother even when she has
given birth to a son who cannot be counted among the
virtuous,* then tell me, whom can you call a barren
woman? One who does not distinguish himself by his
generosity, asceticism, heroism, learning or wealth is
nothing more than his mother’s excrement.
Better to have a single virtuous son than a hundred
fools! One moon destroys darkness, but not even a
multitude of stars can do so.
A man who practices strict asceticism in a holy place
will have a son who is obedient, prosperous, virtuous
A large income, perpetual health, a wife who is dear
and who speaks pleasantly, an obedient son and
money-making know-how—these six are the sources
of happiness in this world, O king.
Who is fortunate to have many sons, if they are like
measures of grain that ﬁll up the store-house? It is
better to have only one who maintains his family and
makes his father famous.
r.n.aAkart¯a pit¯a ´satrur, m¯at¯a ca vyabhic¯arin.¯ı,0.25
bh¯ary¯a r¯upavat¯ı ´satruh., putrah. ´satrur aApan.d.itah.. 
anAabhy¯ase vis.am. vidy¯a, aAj¯ırn.e bhojanam. vis.am,
vis.am. sabh¯a daridrasya, vr.ddhasya tarun.¯ı vis.am. 
yasya kasya pras¯uto ’pi
gun.av¯an p¯ujyate narah.
dhanur vam. ´saBvi´suddho ’pi
nirBgun. ah. kim. karis.yati? 
h¯a h¯a putraka, n’ ˆadh¯ıtam. , suAgat’, ˆait¯asu r¯atris.u;
tena tvam. vidus.¯am. madhye pa˙nke gaur iva s¯ıdasi. 
tat katham id¯an¯ım ete mama putr¯a gun.avantah. kriyan-
s¯am¯anyam etat pa´subhir nar¯an. ¯am.
dharmo hi tes.¯am adhiko vi´ses.o;
dharmen.a h¯ın¯ah. pa´subhih. sam¯an¯ah.. 
yasy’ ˆaiko ’pi na vidyate,
tasya janma nirAarthakam. 
A father who incurs debts is an enemy, as is an adul- 0.25
terous mother; a beautiful wife is an enemy, and so is
an unlettered son.
Knowledge is poison if it is not maintained by assidu-
ous study,* food is poison in the case of indigestion, a
large gathering is poison for a poor man, and a young
wife is poison for an old husband.
A man of merit, even if he is not of noble descent, is
honored. What is the use of a bow without its string,
even if it is made of pure bamboo? : What can a man
without merits do, even if he is of pure warrior de-
Alas, my child, you have led an easy life, not studying
all these nights; so now, when you are in the company
of learned people, you will be stuck like a cow in mud.
Now how could I transform my sons into men of merit?
Eating, sleeping, feeling afraid and copulating—these 0.30
things men have in common with animals. But man
distinguishes himself by doing his duties; those who
neglect them are like beasts.
The birth of a person who does not succeed even in
one of the four life-aims—to fulﬁll one’s duties, obtain
riches, satisfy one’s desires or attain ﬁnal release—is as
useless as a nipple on a nanny-goat’s neck.
yac c’ ˆocyate—
¯ayuh., karma ca, vittam. ca,
vidy¯a, nidhanam eva ca—
pa˜nc’ ˆait¯any api sr.jyante
garbhaAsthasy’ ˆaiva dehinah.. 
ava´syam. Abh¯avino bh¯av¯a0.35
bhavanti mahat¯am api:
mah”AˆahiA´sayanam. Hareh.. 
yad aAbh¯avi na tad bh¯avi, bh¯avi cen na tad anyath¯a.
iti cint¯aAvis.aAghno ’yam agadah. kim. na p¯ıyate? 
etat k¯ary’AˆaAks.am¯an. ¯am. kes.¯am. cid ¯alasyaAvacanam.
na daivam api sam. cintya tyajed udyogam ¯atmanah.;
anAudyogena tail¯ani tilebhyo n’ ¯aptum arhati. 
udyoginam. purus.aAsim. ham upaiti Laks.m¯ır;
«daivena deyam» iti k¯apurus.¯a vadanti.
daivam. nihatya kuru paurus.am ¯atmaA´sakty¯a;
yatne kr.te yadi na sidhyati, ko ’tra dos.ah.? 
And it is also said:
One’s life-span, deeds, wealth, knowledge and the mo-
ment when one dies—these ﬁve are already deter-
mined for a mortal when he is in his mother’s womb.
What is destined to take place does take place, even 0.35
for the great: Shiva, the blue-necked god, cannot help
but be naked, and Vishnu has to lie on an enormous
What is not to happen will never happen, and what
has to happen will not be otherwise. Why don’t you
use this as an antidote against the poison of worry?
Some people, unable to act, say such words to justify
their idleness. However,
One should not give up one’s eﬀorts, even when ac-
knowledging the role of fate; without eﬀort, one can-
not obtain oil from sesame seeds.
And there is another verse on this: 0.40
Fortune gravitates towards eminent men who work
hard; only cowards say it depends on fate. Forget about
fate and be a man—use your strength! Then, if you
don’t succeed in spite of your eﬀorts, what is there to
yath¯a hy ekena cakren.a na rathasya gatir bhavet,
evam. purus.aAk¯aren.a vin¯a daivam. na sidhyati. 
p¯urvaAjanmaAkr.tam. karma tad «daivam» iti kathyate.
tasm¯at purus.aAk¯aren.a yatnam. kury¯ad aAtandritah.. 
yath¯a mr.tApin.d.atah. kart¯a kurute yad yad icchati,0.45
evam ¯atmaAkr.tam. karma m¯anavah. pratipadyate. 
k¯akat¯al¯ıyavat pr¯aptam. dr.s.t.v” ˆapi nidhim agratah.
na svayam. daivam ¯adatte: purus.’Aˆartham apeks.ate. 
udyamena hi sidhyanti k¯ary¯an.i, na manoArathaih.:
na hi suptasya sim. hasya pravi´santi mukhe mr.g¯ah.. 
m¯at¯aApitr.Akr.t’Aˆabhy¯aso gun.it¯am eti b¯alakah.,
na garbhaAcyutiAm¯atren.a putro bhavati pan.d.itah.. 
m¯at¯a ´satruh. pit¯a vair¯ı
yena b¯alo na p¯at.hitah..
na ´sobhate sabh¯aAmadhye
ham. saAmadhye bako yath¯a. 
Just as a cart cannot move forward on one wheel, so
fate itself cannot be fulﬁlled without human eﬀort.
And in the same way,
“Fate” is the karma one accumulated in a previous life.
That’s why one should exert oneself in manly activity,
Just as a potter fashions whatever he likes out of a lump 0.45
of clay, the karma a man encounters is what he created
Even if you unexpectedly come across treasure in front
of you, fate itself does not pick it up; that needs human
Desired outcomes are achieved through eﬀort alone,
not through mere wishes; for gazelles don’t rush into
the mouth of a sleeping lion.
A child becomes accomplished if his parents educate
him. A son does not become learned just by dropping
from the womb.
A mother and a father who do not educate their son
are his enemies, for he won’t shine in public—he will
be like a crane among swans!
Men who are handsome, young and well-born will 0.50
not excel without knowledge—they are like k´ınshuka
ﬂowers, which have no scent.
m¯urkho ’pi ´sobhate t¯avat
t¯avac ca ´sobhate m¯urkho
y¯avat kim. cin na bh¯as.ate.» 
etaccintayitv¯a,sar¯aj¯apan.d.itaAsabh¯am. k¯aritav¯an.r¯aj” ˆov¯a-
ca: «bho bhoh. pan.d.it¯ah., ´sr¯uyat¯am. asti ka´s cid evamAbh¯uto
vidv¯an yo mama putr¯an. ¯am. nityam unAm¯argaAg¯amin¯am anA
adhigataA´s¯astr¯an. ¯am id¯an¯ım. n¯ıtiA´s¯astr’Aˆopade´sena punarAjan-
ma k¯arayitum. samarthah.? yatah.,
k¯acah. k¯a˜ncanaAsam. sarg¯ad dhatte m¯arakat¯ım. dyutim;
tath¯a satAsam. nidh¯anena m¯urkho y¯ati prav¯ın.at¯am. 
h¯ıyate hi matis, t¯ata, h¯ınaih. saha sam¯agam¯at,0.55
samai´s ca samat¯am eti, vi´sis.t.ai´s ca vi´sis.t.at¯am.» 
atr’ ˆantare Vis.n.u´sarmaAn¯am¯a mah¯aApan.d.itah. sakalaAn¯ıtiA
´s¯astraAtattvaAj˜no Br.haspatir iv’ ˆabrav¯ıt: «deva, mah¯aAkulaAsa-
mbh¯ut¯a ete r¯ajaAputr¯ah.. tan may¯a n¯ıtim. gr¯ahayitum. ´sakya-
n’ ˆaAdravye nihit¯a k¯a cit kriy¯a phalavat¯ı bhavet;
na vy¯ap¯araA´saten’ ˆapi ´sukavat p¯at.hyate bakah.. 
Even an idiot can appear distinguished in an assembly
if he wears the appropriate clothes, but he will remain
so only as long as he does not say a word.”
Prompted by these thoughts, the king summoned an as-
sembly of learned men. He then asked: “O learned scholars,
listen, is there a wise man among you who could teach my
ignorant and perpetually wayward sons the science of po-
litical ethics and thus give them a new birth, as it were?
When a piece of glass is set in gold, it takes on an
emerald luster; in the same way, if a fool remains in
the company of the wise, he will become clever.
And it is also said:
Dear friend, one’s intelligence diminishes in the com- 0.55
pany of inferior intellects, it remains the same if one is
with equals and improves in the company of superior
Thereupon a great scholar called Vishnu·sharman, who
knew all the learned works on statecraft very well and was
come from a distinguished family, so they could be taught
good governance, and I am ready to instruct them. For,
No action can bear fruit if it is performed on an in-
appropriate object; a crane cannot be taught to speak
like a parrot, even after a hundred exercises.
asmim. s tu nirAgun.am. gotre n’ ˆapatyam upaj¯ayate;
¯akare padmar¯ag¯an. ¯am. janma k¯acaAman.eh. kutah.? 
ato ’ham. s.an.Am¯as’Aˆabhyantare tava putr¯an n¯ıtiA´s¯astr’Aˆabhi-0.60
j˜n¯an karis.y¯ami.» r¯aj¯a saAvinayam. punar uv¯aca:
«k¯ıt.o ’pi suAmanah.Asa˙ng¯ad ¯arohati sat¯am. ´sirah..
a´sm” ˆapiy¯atidevatvam. mahadbhih. suApratis.t.hitah..
yath” ˆOdayaAgirer dravyam. sam. nikars.en.a d¯ıpyate
tath¯a satAsam. nidh¯anena h¯ınaAvarn.o ’pi d¯ıpyate 
gun. ¯a gun.aAj˜nes.u gun. ¯a bhavanti,
te nirAgun.am. pr¯apya bhavanti dos.¯ah..
¯asv¯adyaAtoy¯ah. prabhavanti nadyah.,
samudram ¯as¯adya bhavanty aApey¯ah.. 
tad etes.¯am asmatAputr¯an. ¯am. n¯ıtiA´s¯astr’Aˆopade´s¯aya bhavan-0.65
tah. pram¯an.am.» ity uktv¯a tasya Vis.n.u´sarman.o bahuAm¯anaA
purah.Asaram putr¯an samarpitav¯an.
What is more,
In this family, no child could be born without merits;
how could a mine of rubies produce a shard of glass?
Therefore I shall transform your sons into experts on 0.60
statecraft within six months.” The king replied politely:
“Even an insect can climb up good people’s heads by
sticking to the ﬂowers they wear. Even a stone can
become a god if it is consecrated by the great.
Just as objects on the Eastern Mountain shine because
of their proximity to the rising sun, so too can a person
of low rank shine if he is close to good folk.
Good qualities remain good qualities in those who
appreciate them, but become faults in a person of no
merit. River water tastes good at its source, but when
it reaches the ocean it becomes undrinkable.
Therefore I give you a free hand in teaching my sons 0.65
the science of politics.” And with these words he paid his
respect to Vishnu·sharman and entrusted to him his sons.
On How To Win Friends
atha pr¯as¯adaApr.s.t.he sukh’Aˆopavis.t.¯an¯am. r¯ajaAputr¯an. ¯am.1.1
purast¯at prast¯avaAkramen.a sa pan.d.ito ’brav¯ıt—
«k¯avyaA´s¯astraAvinodena k¯alo gacchati dh¯ımat¯am,
vyasanena ca m¯urkh¯an. ¯am. , nidray¯a, kalahena v¯a. 
tad bhavat¯am. vinod¯aya k¯akaAk¯urm’A¯ad¯ın¯am. vicitr¯am. ka-
r¯ajaAputrair uktam, «¯arya, kathyat¯am.» Vis.n.u´sarm” ˆov¯aca:
«´sr.n.uta. samprati MitraAl¯abhah. prast¯uyate yasy’ ˆayam ¯adyah.
aAs¯adhan¯a, vittaAh¯ın¯a, buddhimantah., suhr.ttam¯ah.—1.5
s¯adhayanty ¯a´su k¯ary¯an.i k¯akaAk¯urmaAmr.g’A¯akhavah..» 
r¯ajaAputr¯a ¯ucuh., «katham etat?» Vis.n.u´sarm¯a kathayati—
«asti God¯avar¯ıAt¯ıre vi´s¯alah. ´s¯almal¯ıAtaruh.. tatra n¯an¯aAdigAde-
´s¯ad ¯agatya r¯atrau paks.in.o nivasanti. atha kad¯a cid avasan-
n¯ay¯am. r¯atr¯av Ast’AˆacalaAc¯ud.”Aˆavalambini bhagavati kamudi-
n¯ıAn¯ayake candramasi LaghupatanakaAn¯am¯a v¯ayasah. prabu-
ddhah. kr.t’Aˆantam iva dvit¯ıyam ¯ay¯antam. vy¯adham apa´syat.
tam avaloky’ ˆacintayat: ‹adya pr¯atar ev’ ˆanAis.t.aAdar´sanam. j¯a-
tam. na j¯ane kim anAabhimatam. dar´sayis.yati.›
While the princes were sitting comfortably on a ter- 1.1
race of the palace, the learned scholar said the fol-
lowing by way of an introduction.
“The wise spend their time diverting themselves with
poetry and learned treatises, while fools succumb to
vice, sleep or quarrels.
So to amuse you, I shall relate the wonderful story of the
crow, the tortoise and their friends.”
The princes asked him to do so, and Vishnu·sharman
began: “Listen, I shall start with the book on how to win
friends, of which the ﬁrst verse is:
They had neither means nor wealth, but they were 1.5
intelligent and the best of friends—and they quickly
obtained their ends. Such is the story of the crow, the
tortoise, the deer and the mouse.”
The princes asked him to explain the story, and Vishnu·
sharman did so.
“Once upon a time there was a huge silk-cotton tree
on the bank of the river God´avari. Birds came from every
quarter to roost there at night. Once at the end of the night
when the moon god, lord of the night-lotuses, was reclining
upon the peak of the Western Mountain, a crow called Fast-
Flying awoke to see a fowler approach like a second god of
death. Watching him, the crow thought: ‘Today already at
dawn I see an ill omen! I wonder what unwanted thing this
ity uktv¯a tadAanusaran.aAkramen.a vy¯akula´s calitah.. yatah.,
´sokaAsth¯anaAsahasr¯an.i bhayaAsth¯anaA´sat¯ani ca
divase divase m¯ud.ham ¯avi´santi, na pan.d.itam. 
anyac ca. vis.ayin. ¯am idam ava´syam. kartavyam,1.10
utth¯ay’ ˆotth¯aya boddhavyam. :
‹mahad bhayam upasthitam.
kim adya nipatis.yati?› 
atha tena vy¯adhena tan.d.ulaAkan. ¯an vik¯ırya j¯alam. vist¯ır-
n.am. sa ca pracchanno bh¯utv¯a sthitah.. tasminn eva k¯ale Ci-
tragr¯ıvaAn¯am¯a kapotaAr¯ajah. saApariv¯aro viyati visarpam. s t¯am. s
tan.d.ulaAkan. ¯an avalokay¯am ¯asa. tatah. kapotaAr¯ajas tan.d.ulaA
kan.aAlubdh¯an kapot¯an praty ¯aha: ‹kuto ’tra nirAjane vane
tan.d.ulaAkan. ¯an¯am. sambhavah.? tan nir¯upyat¯am. t¯avat. bha-
dram idam. na pa´sy¯ami. pr¯ayen.’ ˆanena tan.d.ulaAkan.aAlobhen’
ˆasm¯abhir api tath¯a bhavitavyam. . .
ka˙nkan.asya tu lobhena
magnah. pa˙nke suAdusAtare
pathikah. sa mr.to yath¯a.› 
kapot¯a ¯ucuh., ‹katham etat?› so ’brav¯ıt—
on how to win friends
Deeply anxious, he left and followed the fowler. For,
Day after day, fools are overtaken by thousands of
reasons to be upset and hundreds of reasons to be
afraid—unlike the wise.
What’s more, men of the world would surely do the 1.10
As they get up every day, they would think: ‘Something
awful is about to happen. What will befall us today?
Death, disease or sorrow?’
The fowler scattered some grains of rice, spread out his
net, hid himself away, and waited. At that very moment the
king of pigeons, called Speckled-Neck, was cruising in the
sky with his retinue and saw the grains. The pigeons were
eager to pick up the grains, but their ruler warned them:
‘How can there possibly be grains of rice in an uninhabited
forest? Let’s look around. This doesn’t look so promising to
me. Since we are so attracted to rice grains, we may end up
in the same way. . .
as the traveler who coveted a bracelet, sank in an im-
passable mire, got caught by an old tiger, and died.’
The pigeons asked him to tell the story, and so he began:
‹aham ekad¯a Daks.in.’Aˆaran.ye carann apa´syam: eko vr.ddhaA1.15
vy¯aghrah. sn¯atah. ku´saAhastah. sarasAt¯ırebr¯ute:«bhobhoh. p¯an-
th¯a, idam. suvarn.aAka˙nkan.am. gr.hyat¯am.» tato lobh’A¯akr.s.t.ena
kena cit p¯anthen’ ¯alocitam: «bh¯agyen’ ˆaitat sambhavati. kim.
tv asminn ¯atmaAsam. dehe pravr.ttir na vidhey¯a. yatah.,
anAis.t.¯ad is.t.aAl¯abhe ’pi na gatir j¯ayate ´subh¯a.
yatr’ ¯aste vis.aAsam. sargo ’mr.tam. tad api mr.tyave. 
kim. tu sarvatr’ ˆarth’Aˆarjane pravr.ttih. sam. deha eva. tath¯a
na sam. ´sayam anA¯aruhya naro bhadr¯an.i pa´syati.
sam. ´sayam. punar ¯aruhya yadi j¯ıvati, pa´syati. 
tan nir¯upay¯ami t¯avat.» prak¯a´sam. br¯ute, «kutra tava ka˙n-
vy¯aghro hastam. pras¯arya dar´sayati.1.20
p¯antho ’vadat: «katham. m¯ar’A¯atmake tvayi vi´sv¯asah.?»
the old tiger and the traveler
‘Once, when I was soaring over the Southern Forest, I saw 1.15
an old tiger by the shore of a lake. He had already taken a
ritual bath, and holding holy kusha grass in his paw,* he kept
saying: “O travelers, please take this golden bracelet!” Then
a traveler, impelled by greed, reﬂected: “What good luck
that this should happen to me. But if there is any personal
risk, I shouldn’t move. For
Although it is possible to get something desirable from
an undesirable source, no good can come of it. Even
the nectar of immortality is deadly when it has touched
However, if one wants to obtain wealth, there is always
some risk. It is also said:
A man will not prosper if he takes no risks. But if he
does take a risk, and survives, he will prosper.
So let me investigate the matter.” Then he said aloud:
“Where is your bracelet?”
The tiger held out his paw and showed it to him. 1.20
The traveler then asked: “How can I trust you? You are
vy¯aghra uv¯aca: «´sr.n.u, re p¯antha, pr¯ag eva yauvanaAda-
´s¯ay¯am atiAdurAvr.tta ¯asam. anekaAgoAm¯anus.¯an. ¯am. vadh¯an me
putr¯a mr.t¯a d¯ar¯a´s ca. vam. ´saAh¯ına´s c’ ˆaham. tatah. kena cid
dh¯armiken.’ ˆaham ¯adis.t.ah.: ‹d¯anaAdharm’A¯adikam. caratu bha-
v¯an.› tadAupade´s¯ad id¯an¯ım aham. sn¯anaA´s¯ılo d¯at¯a vr.ddho ga-
litaAnakhaAdanto na katham. vi´sv¯asaAbh¯umih.? yatah.,
tapah., satyam. , dhr.tih., ks.am¯a,
aAlobha—iti m¯argo ’yam.
dharmasy’ ˆas.t.aAvidhah. smr.tah.. 
tatra p¯urva´s caturAvargo
dambh’Aˆartham api sevyate,
uttaras tu caturAvargo
mah”A¯atmany eva tis.t.hati. 
mama c’ ˆait¯av¯a˜l lobhaAviraho, yena svaAhastaAstham api1.25
suvarn.aAka˙nkan.am. yasmai kasmai cid d¯atum icch¯ami. ta-
th” ˆapi, ‹vy¯aghro m¯anus.am. kh¯adat’› ˆıti lok’Aˆapav¯ado durAni-
pram¯an.ayati no dharme,
yath¯a goAghnam api dviAjam. 
may¯a ca dharmaA´s¯astr¯an.y adh¯ıt¯ani. ´sr.n.u—
the old tiger and the traveler
long ago, when I was young, and because I killed many cows
and men, my sons and wife died. Now I have no descen-
dents. Then a pious man suggested that I should practice
charity, fulﬁll my religious duties, and so on. Following his
advice, I now take ritual baths and make donations. I am
old, and have no claws or fangs—why wouldn’t I be trust-
Ritual oﬀerings, the study of the Vedas, alms-giving,
asceticism, truthfulness, patience, forgiveness and lack
of greed—this is known as the eightfold path of righ-
teousness. Of these eight, the ﬁrst four can be prac-
ticed as a matter of hypocrisy, but the latter four can
be found only in great souls.
I am so devoid of greed that I want to give away this 1.25
golden bracelet to anyone at all, even though it’s in my
very hand. Nevertheless, it’s hard to dispel the pejorative
commonplace that tigers eat humans. For,
People simply follow the herd, and they would never
listen to what a procuress might teach them about
religious matters: but they would obey a brahmin, even
if he had killed a cow.
And I have studied treatises on religious duties. Listen:
maruAsthaly¯am. yath¯a vr.s.t.ih.,
ks.udh”A¯arte bhojanam. , tath¯a
daridre d¯ıyate d¯anam.
saAphalam. , P¯an.d.uAnandana. 
pr¯an. ¯a yath” ¯atmano ’bh¯ıs.t.¯a,
bh¯ut¯an¯am api te tath¯a.
day¯am. kurvanti s¯adhavah.. 
praty¯akhy¯ane ca, d¯ane ca, sukhaAduh.khe, priy’Aˆapriye,
¯atm’Aˆaupamyena purus.ah. pram¯an.am adhigacchati. 
m¯atr.vat paraAd¯ares.u, paraAdravyes.u los.t.avat,
¯atmavat sarvaAbh¯utes.u yah. pa´syati, sa pan.d.itah.. 
tvam. c’ ˆat¯ıva durAgatas, tena tat tubhyam. d¯atum. saAyatno
’ham. tath¯a c’ ˆoktam—
daridr¯an bhara, Kaunteya,1.35
m¯a prayacch’ ¯e´svare dhanam.
vy¯adhitasy’ ˆaus.adham. pathyam. ,
n¯ıArujasya kim aus.adhair? 
d¯atavyam iti yad d¯anam. d¯ıyate ’nAupak¯arin.e,
de´se, k¯ale ca, p¯atre ca, tad d¯anam. s¯attvikam. viduh.. 
the old tiger and the traveler
Like rain in a desert land, like food for the famished,
a gift given to a poor man is given fruitfully, O son of
Pandu.* Just as you treasure your life, so do other living
creatures treasure theirs. Good folk take pity on living
beings, judging everyone the same as themselves.
Whether refusing something or donating something,
whether in times of pleasure or pain, whether some-
thing is liked or not, a man knows the measure of his
actions by imagining himself in the other’s place.
And there’s more,
It’s a wise man who regards the wife of another man
as his own mother, the wealth of others as a clod of
earth, and all creatures as himself.
You’re in a bad way, which is why I’m trying to give this
bracelet to you. And it is also said:
Be generous to the poor, O son of Kunti,* you don’t 1.35
need to give money to kings. Medicine is beneﬁcial for
the sick. But what use is it to a healthy person?
A gift ought to be given in a generous spirit to someone
unable to repay it, at the right place and time, and to
a man of merit—that is the best kind of charity.
tad atra sarasi sn¯atv¯a suvarn.aAka˙nkan.am. gr.h¯an.a.»
tato y¯avad asau tadAvacah. prat¯ıto lobh¯at sarah. sn¯atum.
pravi´sati. t¯avan mah¯aApa˙nke nimagnah. pal¯ayitum aAks.amah..
pa˙nke patitam. dr.s.t.v¯a vy¯aghro ’vadat: «ahaha, mah¯aApa˙nke
patito ’si. atas tv¯am aham utth¯apay¯ami.»
ity uktv¯a ´sanaih. ´sanair upagamya tena vy¯aghren.a dhr.tah.1.40
sa p¯antho ’cintayat:
«na dharmaA´s¯astram. pat.hat’ ˆıti k¯aran.am. ,
na c’ ˆapi ved’Aˆadhyayanam. durA¯atmanah.—
svaAbh¯ava ev’ ˆatra tath” ˆatiricyate,
yath¯a prakr.ty¯a madhuram. gav¯am. payah.. 
hastiAsn¯anam iva kriy¯a;
j˜n¯anam. bh¯arah. kriy¯am. vin¯a. 
tan may¯a bhadram. na kr.tam. yad atra m¯ar’A¯atmake vi´sv¯a-
sah. kr.tah.. tath¯a hy uktam—
nad¯ın¯am. , ´sastraAp¯an.¯ın¯am. , nakhin¯am. , ´sr.˙ngin. ¯am. tath¯a1.45
vi´sv¯aso n’ ˆaiva kartavyah. str¯ıs.u r¯ajaAkules.u ca. 
sarvasya hi par¯ıks.yante svaAbh¯av¯a, n’ ˆetare gun. ¯ah..
at¯ıtya hi gun. ¯an sarv¯an svaAbh¯avo m¯urdhni vartate. 
the old tiger and the traveler
So bathe in this lake and take this golden bracelet.”
The traveler accepted the tiger at his word and, motivated
by greed, entered the lake to bathe. But as soon as he did
so, he sank in the mud and was unable to escape. When the
tiger saw him stuck in the mud, he exclaimed: “Alas, you
have fallen into the deep mire! I shall pull you out.”
As the tiger slowly approached the traveler and seized 1.40
him, the man reﬂected:
“It is not because he has read treatises on religious duty
or because he has studied the Vedas that he behaves
like this—it is the wicked creature’s own nature that
prevails here, just as cow’s milk is naturally sweet.
The actions of people with uncontrolled minds and
senses are as useless as bathing an elephant. But knowl-
edge without action is just a burden, like jewelry on
an ugly woman.*
So I did not do well to trust this murderer. For it is also
One should never trust rivers, men holding weapons, 1.45
beasts with claws or horns, women, and royal families.
And there is another saying,
People’s true natures should be considered, not their
other qualities. For one’s true nature is uppermost,
prevailing over all those qualities.
sa hi gaganaAvih¯ar¯ı
vidhur api vidhiAyog¯ad
grasyate R¯ahun.” ˆasau.
likhitam api lal¯at.e
projjhitum. kah. samarthah.?» 
iti cintayann ev’ ˆasau vy¯aghren.a vy¯ap¯aditah. kh¯adita´s ca.1.50
ato ’ham. brav¯ımi: «ka˙nkan.asya tu lobhen’ ˆety» ¯adi.
atah. sarvath” ˆaAvic¯aritam. karma na kartavyam. yatah.
suAj¯ırn.am annam. , suAvicaks.an.ah. sutah.,
suA´s¯asit¯a str¯ı, nr.Apatih. suAsevitah.,
suAcintya c’ ˆoktam. , suAvic¯arya yat kr.tam,
suAd¯ırghaAk¯ale ’pi na y¯ati vikriy¯am.› 
tadAvacanam. ´srutv¯a ka´s cit kapotah. saAdarpam ¯aha: ‹¯ah.,
kim evam ucyate!
vr.ddh¯an¯am. vacanam. gr¯ahyam ¯apatAk¯ale hy upasthite;1.55
sarvatr’ ˆaivam. vic¯aren.a bhojane ’py aApravartanam. 
on how to win friends
And it is also said,
The thousand-rayed moon plays in the sky, destroys
his own stain : destroys all sins and drifts between the
stars—but even he is subject to his fate and must be
devoured by Rahu.* Who can wipe oﬀ what is written
on his forehead?”*
As he was musing in this way, he was killed and eaten by 1.50
That’s why I said: “. . . as the traveler who coveted a
bracelet, sank in an impassable mire, got caught by an old
tiger, and died.”
So under no circumstances should one act thoughtlessly.
Well-digested food, a well-educated son, a well-
controlled wife, a well-served king, speaking after
cause harm, not even in the long run.’*
Hearing these words, one pigeon spoke up arrogantly:
‘What a lesson!
If disaster were near, we would listen to the words of 1.55
our elders. But if we were to think so carefully in all
cases, we wouldn’t even get round to eating!
´sa˙nk¯abhih. sarvam ¯akr¯antamannam. p¯anam. cabh¯uAtale.
pravr.ttih. kutrakartavy¯a?j¯ıvitavyam. katham. nuv¯a?
¯ırs.y¯ı, ghr.n.¯ı tv, aAsam. tus.t.ah., krodhano, nityaA´sa˙nkitah.,
paraAbh¯agy’Aˆopaj¯ıv¯ı ca—s.ad. ete duh.khaAbh¯aginah..› 
etac chrutv¯a sarve kapot¯as tatr’ ˆopavis.t.¯ah.. yatah.,
suAmah¯anty api ´s¯astr¯an.i1.60
chett¯arah. sam. ´say¯an¯am. ca
kli´syante lobhaAmohit¯ah.. 
lobh¯at krodhah. prabhavati,
lobh¯at k¯amah. praj¯ayate;
lobh¯an moha´s ca n¯a´sa´s ca:
lobhah. p¯apasya k¯aran.am. 
aAsambhavam. hemaAmr.gasya janma—
tath” ˆapi R¯amo lulubhe mr.g¯aya.
dhiyo ’pi pum. s¯am. malin¯a bhavanti. 
anAantaram. sarve j¯alena baddh¯a babh¯uvuh.. tato yasya va-1.65
can¯at tatr’ ˆavalambit¯as tam. sarve tirasAkurvanti. yatah.,
on how to win friends
normal lives? How can we survive?
He who is envious, he who criticizes everything, he
who is never satisﬁed, the angry man and the ever
fearful, and he who lives oﬀ someone else’s fortune—
these six have a miserable fate.’
Hearing this, all the pigeons alighted on the ground. For,
Even the very learned who have studied major treatises 1.60
and are able to dispel doubts, even they suﬀer if they
are blinded by greed.
And there is another verse,
and destruction: greed is the cause of evil.
A golden deer cannot exist—yet Rama coveted such a
deer.* People’s judgment generally turns faulty under
the threat of a great calamity.
All the pigeons were immediately caught in the net, and 1.65
they all started to blame the one that had urged them to
na gan.asy’ ˆagrato gacchet,
siddhe k¯arye samam. phalam.
yadi k¯aryaAvipattih. sy¯an,
mukharas tatra hanyate. 
tasya tirasAk¯aram. ´srutv¯a Citragr¯ıva uv¯aca: ‹n’ ˆayam asya
¯apad¯am ¯apatant¯ın¯am. hito ’py ¯ay¯ati hetut¯am;
sa bandhur yo vipann¯an¯am ¯apadAuddharan.aAks.amah.,1.70
na tu durAvihit’Aˆat¯ıtaAvast’Aˆup¯alambhaApan.d.itah.. 
vipatAk¯ale vismaya eva k¯apurus.aAlaks.an.am. tad atra dhair-
yam avalambya prat¯ık¯ara´s cintyat¯am. yatah.,
vipadi dhairyam, ath’ ˆabhyudaye ks.am¯a,
sadasi v¯akApat.ut¯a, yudhi vikramah.,
ya´sasi c’ ˆabhirucir, vyasanam. ´srutau—
prakr.tiAsiddham idam. hi mah”A¯atman¯am. 
sampadi yasya na hars.o,
vipadi vis.¯ado, ran.e ca dh¯ıratvam,
janayati janan¯ı sutam. viralam.