THE CLAY SANSKRIT LIBRARY
FOUNDED BY JOHN & JENNIFER CLAY
GENERAL EDITORS
RICHARD GOMBRICH
SHELDON POLLOCK
EDITED BY
ISABE...
Copyright c 2007 by the CSL.
All rights reserved.
First Edition 2007
The Clay Sanskrit Library is co-published by
New York...
“Friendly Advice”
by N¯ar¯ayan. a
&
“King Vikrama’s
Adventures”
TRANSLATED BY
JUDIT T ¨ORZS ¨OK
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS
...
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Hitopade´sa. English & Sanskrit.
Friendly advice by N¯ar¯ayan.a & King ...
Contents
Sanskrit alphabetical order 11
CSL conventions 11
“FRIENDLY ADVICE” AND “KING V´IKRAMA’S
ADVENTURES”
Preface 17
F...
Story 6 The Woman with Two Lovers 286
Story 7 The Crows and the Snake 290
Story 8 The Lion and the Hare 292
Story 9 The La...
KING V´IKRAMA’S ADVENTURES 539
Introduction 541
Chapter I Invocation and the Conversation
of Shiva and P´arvati 557
Chapte...
Story 11 The Spendthrift Heir and the Woman
Tormented by an Ogre 628
Story 12 V´ıkrama’s Lavishness 632
Story 13 V´ıkrama ...
Story 31 V´ıkrama and the Vampire 678
Story 32 V´ıkrama’s Power and Generosity 680
Conclusion The Statuettes are Released ...
csl conventions
sanskrit alphabetical order
Vowels: a ¯a i ¯ı u ¯u r. ¯r. l.
¯l. e ai o au m. h.
Gutturals: k kh g gh ˙n
P...
friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures
of tongue turned up to
touch the hard palate)
t French tout
th tent hook
d ...
csl conventions
not alter the sandhi or the scansion. Proper names are capitalized. Most
Sanskrit metres have four “feet” ...
friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures
¯a, ¯a (i.e., the same)
¯ı, ¯ı (i.e., the same)
¯u, ¯u (i.e., the same)
¯e,...
form: tad hasati is commonly written as tad dhasati, but we write tadd
hasati so that the original initial letter is obvio...
friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures
punning original in the Sanskrit, we use a slanted font (different from
ital...
Preface
This is the first time that the two works translated
here have been published in one single volume, and
there are a number...
Friendly Advice
Introduction
The Hitopade´sa (lit. “Beneficial Counsel” or “Instruc-
tion on What is Good”) gives its reader much more
than ‘Friendly Ad...
friendly advice
other great Sanskrit classics and are arranged here themati-
cally, according to the subject matter of the...
introduction
The Date and the Author
The only clue to the identity of the author of ‘Friendly
Advice’ is found in the conc...
friendly advice
seems that the book was also known and current in South
India.4 The popularity of the work in Bengal does ...
introduction
As the structure of ‘Friendly Advice’ shows, it is greatly
indebted to the best known collection of fables in...
friendly advice
works on religious duty and law (dharma) and other, mostly
literary pieces.
Among the sources on political...
introduction
of ‘Friendly Advice,’ therefore the reader can sometimes
find vocatives in them that are out of context and cl...
friendly advice
editions of ‘Friendly Advice’ differ in the ways that they in-
corporate some passages. It can happen that ...
introduction
shortestofthevariousversions,isprobablythemostauthen-
tic one, it needs a number of corrections and emendatio...
friendly advice
Nevertheless, there are several reasons why Kale’s edition
has been the basis of our text. Kale’s seems to...
introduction
been adopted very often. Among the available English trans-
lations, Kale’s is probably the closest to the wo...
friendly advice
stories. As for people, few professions remain uncriticized.
What nevertheless stands out as a recurring t...
introduction
similarly poor, and he kills his only helper, the mon-
goose, by mistake. Brahmins are depicted as credulous
...
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indicates that it also lives near lakes (Ardea sibirica
according to Monier-Williams). The latter is some-...
introduction
deer The deer is mostly seen as the innocent and na¨ıve
victim of other animals, of the jackal for instance i...
friendly advice
the foolish tortoise. However, the good-willed goose
in 3.4 gets himself killed because of the misdeed of ...
introduction
ready to sacrifice himself for the sake of his loyal ser-
vant. In other stories, the king or local ruler of a...
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the sheldrake ministers are both wise and of good in-
tention, the only problem is that their masters do n...
introduction
words are not always heeded.
prince The wayward princes of the frame story are not de-
scribed in detail, but...
friendly advice
swan The royal swan in the frame stories of Books 3 and
4 embodies kingly qualities. But although he is ge...
introduction
lost his sight (which may be interpreted metaphori-
cally again) and was tricked by the cunning cat.
warrior ...
friendly advice
Bibliography
editions used or cited
Hitopade´sa: The Sanskrit text with a grammatical analysis alphabetica...
introduction
Garud. apur¯an. a
1. ed. J¯ıv¯ananda Vidy¯as¯agara. Calcutta: Sarasvat¯ıyantra, 1890.
2. ed. Ramshankar Bhatt...
friendly advice
3. The N¯ıti´sataka, ´Sr. ˙ng¯ara´sataka and Vair¯agya´sataka of Bhartr.hari
ed. Purohit Gopi Nath. Bombay...
introduction
2. Bombay ed.: Ven. ¯ısam. h¯ara with the commentary of Jagaddhara and
various readings etc. Ed. K¯a´s¯ın¯ath...
friendly advice
Sternbach, L. 1974. The K¯avya Portions in the Kath¯a Literature. Vol II.
Hitopade´sa, Vikramacarita. Delh...
introduction
manuscript according to Peterson’s edition. The second verse,
our 4.116 [29], comes from Kam´andaki’s N¯ıtis¯...
friendly advice
7 However, the direction of borrowing cannot be established as no
relative chronology has been determined ...
introduction
to come from a period later than that of the court poets cited,
and this is especially true in the case of th...
Invocation
Siddhih. s¯adhye sat¯am astu0.1
pras¯ad¯at tasya Dh¯urjat.eh.,
J¯ahnav¯ıAphenaAlekh” ˆeva
yanAm¯urdhni ´sa´sinah. kal¯a. [...
May good people succeed in their enterprises by 0.1
the grace of Lord Shiva, whose matted locks
bear a digit of the moon—a...
friendly advice
yan nave bh¯ajane lagnah.
sam. sk¯aro n’ ˆanyath¯a bhavet,
kath¯aAchalena b¯al¯an¯am.
n¯ıtis tad iha kathy...
invocation
An impression made on a freshly molded clay pot does
not change afterwards, and such is the case with young
peo...
Prologue
asti Bh¯ag¯ırath¯ıAt¯ıre P¯at.aliputraAn¯amaAdheyam. naga-0.10
ram. tatra sarvaAsv¯amiAgun.’Aˆopetah. Sudar´sano n¯ama
nar...
On the bank of the river Ganges there is a city called 0.10
P´atali·putra. A king named Handsome once lived
there, possess...
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sa j¯ato yena j¯atena y¯ati vam. ´sah. samunnatim.
parivartini sam. s¯are mr.tah. ko v¯a na j¯ayate? [14]
...
prologue
He whose birth brings higher status to his family has
been rightly born. In this ever-revolving transmigra-
tion,...
friendly advice
r.n.aAkart¯a pit¯a ´satrur, m¯at¯a ca vyabhic¯arin.¯ı,0.25
bh¯ary¯a r¯upavat¯ı ´satruh., putrah. ´satrur a...
prologue
A father who incurs debts is an enemy, as is an adul- 0.25
terous mother; a beautiful wife is an enemy, and so is...
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yac c’ ˆocyate—
¯ayuh., karma ca, vittam. ca,
vidy¯a, nidhanam eva ca—
pa˜nc’ ˆait¯any api sr.jyante
garbh...
prologue
And it is also said:
One’s life-span, deeds, wealth, knowledge and the mo-
ment when one dies—these five are alrea...
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yath¯a hy ekena cakren.a na rathasya gatir bhavet,
evam. purus.aAk¯aren.a vin¯a daivam. na sidhyati. [32]
...
prologue
Just as a cart cannot move forward on one wheel, so
fate itself cannot be fulfilled without human effort.
And in th...
friendly advice
m¯urkho ’pi ´sobhate t¯avat
sabh¯ay¯am. vastraAves.t.itah.—
t¯avac ca ´sobhate m¯urkho
y¯avat kim. cin na ...
prologue
Even an idiot can appear distinguished in an assembly
if he wears the appropriate clothes, but he will remain
so ...
friendly advice
anyac ca,
asmim. s tu nirAgun.am. gotre n’ ˆapatyam upaj¯ayate;
¯akare padmar¯ag¯an. ¯am. janma k¯acaAman....
prologue
What is more,
In this family, no child could be born without merits;
how could a mine of rubies produce a shard o...
Book 1
On How To Win Friends
atha pr¯as¯adaApr.s.t.he sukh’Aˆopavis.t.¯an¯am. r¯ajaAputr¯an. ¯am.1.1
purast¯at prast¯avaAkramen.a sa pan.d.ito ’brav¯ıt...
While the princes were sitting comfortably on a ter- 1.1
race of the palace, the learned scholar said the fol-
lowing by w...
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ity uktv¯a tadAanusaran.aAkramen.a vy¯akula´s calitah.. yatah.,
´sokaAsth¯anaAsahasr¯an.i bhayaAsth¯anaA´s...
on how to win friends
Deeply anxious, he left and followed the fowler. For,
Day after day, fools are overtaken by thousand...
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1
‹aham ekad¯a Daks.in.’Aˆaran.ye carann apa´syam: eko vr.ddhaA1.15
vy¯aghrah. sn¯atah. ku´saAhastah. sara...
the old tiger and the traveler
1
‘Once, when I was soaring over the Southern Forest, I saw 1.15
an old tiger by the shore ...
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vy¯aghra uv¯aca: «´sr.n.u, re p¯antha, pr¯ag eva yauvanaAda-
´s¯ay¯am atiAdurAvr.tta ¯asam. anekaAgoAm¯anu...
the old tiger and the traveler
Thetigerreplied:“Listen,Otraveler,Ibehavedverybadly
long ago, when I was young, and because...
friendly advice
maruAsthaly¯am. yath¯a vr.s.t.ih.,
ks.udh”A¯arte bhojanam. , tath¯a
daridre d¯ıyate d¯anam.
saAphalam. , P...
the old tiger and the traveler
Like rain in a desert land, like food for the famished,
a gift given to a poor man is given...
friendly advice
tad atra sarasi sn¯atv¯a suvarn.aAka˙nkan.am. gr.h¯an.a.»
tato y¯avad asau tadAvacah. prat¯ıto lobh¯at sar...
the old tiger and the traveler
So bathe in this lake and take this golden bracelet.”
The traveler accepted the tiger at hi...
friendly advice
anyac ca,
sa hi gaganaAvih¯ar¯ı
kalmas.aBdhvam. saBk¯ar¯ı
da´saA´sataAkaraAdh¯ar¯ı
jyotis.¯am. madhyaAc¯ar...
on how to win friends
And it is also said,
The thousand-rayed moon plays in the sky, destroys
his own stain : destroys all...
friendly advice
´sa˙nk¯abhih. sarvam ¯akr¯antamannam. p¯anam. cabh¯uAtale.
pravr.ttih. kutrakartavy¯a?j¯ıvitavyam. katham....
on how to win friends
Everythingonthesurfaceoftheearthisbesetbydoubt,
includingeatinganddrinking.Howthenarewetolead
normal...
friendly advice
na gan.asy’ ˆagrato gacchet,
siddhe k¯arye samam. phalam.
yadi k¯aryaAvipattih. sy¯an,
mukharas tatra hany...
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[Naráyana] friendly advice_

King Vikramaditya's Adventures
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      Technology      
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Transcripts - [Naráyana] friendly advice_

  • 1. THE CLAY SANSKRIT LIBRARY FOUNDED BY JOHN & JENNIFER CLAY GENERAL EDITORS RICHARD GOMBRICH SHELDON POLLOCK EDITED BY ISABELLE ONIANS SOMADEVA VASUDEVA WWW.CLAYSANSKRITLIBRARY.COM WWW.NYUPRESS.ORG
  • 2. Copyright c 2007 by the CSL. All rights reserved. First Edition 2007 The Clay Sanskrit Library is co-published by New York University Press and the JJC Foundation. A list of published volumes can be found after the index. Further information about this volume and the rest of the Clay Sanskrit Library is available on the following websites: www.claysanskritlibrary.com www.nyupress.org ISBN: 978-0-8147-8305-4 (cloth : alk. paper) Artwork by Robert Beer. Typeset in Adobe Garamond at 10.25 : 12.3+pt. XML-development by Stuart Brown. Editorial input from Linda Covill, Tomoyuki Kono, Guy Leavitt, Eszter Somogyi & P´eter Sz´ant´o. Printed in Great Britain by St Edmundsbury Press Ltd, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, on acid-free paper. Bound by Hunter & Foulis, Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • 3. “Friendly Advice” by N¯ar¯ayan. a & “King Vikrama’s Adventures” TRANSLATED BY JUDIT T ¨ORZS ¨OK NEW YORK UNIVERSITY PRESS JJC FOUNDATION
  • 4. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hitopade´sa. English & Sanskrit. Friendly advice by N¯ar¯ayan.a & King V´ıkrama’s adventures / translated by T¨orzs¨ok, Judit. – 1st ed. p. cm. – (The Clay Sanskrit library) In English and Sanskrit (romanized) on facing pages. ISBN: 978-0-8147-8305-4 (cloth : alk. paper) 1. Fables, Indic–Translations into English. 2. Didactic literature, Sanskrit–Translations into English. I. Narayana. II. T¨orzs¨ok, Judit. III. Vikramacarita. English & Sanskrit. IV. Title. V. Title: King Vikrama’s adventures. PK3741.H6E5 2007 398.20954–dc22 2007010792
  • 5. Contents Sanskrit alphabetical order 11 CSL conventions 11 “FRIENDLY ADVICE” AND “KING V´IKRAMA’S ADVENTURES” Preface 17 FRIENDLY ADVICE 21 Introduction 23 Invocation 55 Prologue 61 Book I On How to Win Friends 77 Story 1 The Old Tiger and the Traveler 82 Story 2 The Deer, the Crow and the Jackal 108 Story 3 The Old Vulture and the Cat 110 Story 4 The Monks and the Mouse 142 Story 5 The Old Man and his Young Wife 144 Story 6 The Greedy Jackal 170 Story 7 The Prince and the Merchant’s Wife 190 Story 8 The Jackal and the Elephant 194 Book II On How to Break Friendships 211 Story 1 The Monkey and the Wedge 226 Story 2 The Ass and the Dog 228 Story 3 The Lion and the Cat 258 Story 4 The Procuress and the Bell 264 Story 5 The Prince, the Go-Between and the Gem-Merchant 276
  • 6. Story 6 The Woman with Two Lovers 286 Story 7 The Crows and the Snake 290 Story 8 The Lion and the Hare 292 Story 9 The Lapwing and the Sea 310 Book III War 335 Story 1 The Birds who Advised the Monkeys 340 Story 2 The Ass Disguised as a Tiger 342 Story 3 The Elephant and the Hare 346 Story 4 The Goose and the Crow 358 Story 5 The Quail and the Crow 358 Story 6 The Cuckolded Wheelwright 360 Story 7 The Blue Jackal 380 Story 8 The King’s Faithful Servant 402 Story 9 The Barber who Killed a Beggar 412 Book IV Peace 443 Story 1 The Tortoise and the Ganders 446 Story 2 The Three Fishes 448 Story 3 The Merchant’s Wife and her Lover 448 Story 4 The Cranes and the Mongooses 454 Story 5 The Sage and the Mouse 460 Story 6 The Old Crane and the Crab 462 Story 7 The Brahmin who Broke Pots and Pans 466 Story 8 The Two Demons 470 Story 9 The Brahmin and the Three Rogues 486 Story 10 The Lion, his Servants and the Camel 488 Story 11 The Cunning Snake and the Frogs 496 Story 12 The Brahmin and the Mongoose 512
  • 7. KING V´IKRAMA’S ADVENTURES 539 Introduction 541 Chapter I Invocation and the Conversation of Shiva and P´arvati 557 Chapter II King Bhartri·hari and the Fruit of Immortality or How V´ıkrama Became King 565 Chapter III V´ıkrama Meets a Vampire; He Receives a Throne from Indra for his Help 579 Chapter IV King V´ıkrama’s Death and the Hiding of the Throne 587 Chapter V King Bhoja Finds the Throne 593 Chapter VI Bhoja Attempts to Mount the Throne 601 Story 1 V´ıkrama’s Principle for Giving Alms 604 Story 2 The Brahmin’s Unsuccessful Sacrifice 606 Story 3 The Four Magic Jewels Given by the Sea-God 610 Story 4 V´ıkrama’s Gratitude Tested by a Brahmin 614 Story 5 Two Lifeless Bodies Resurrected by V´ıkrama 616 Story 6 V´ıkrama Gratifies a Lying Ascetic 618 Story 7 The Dilemma of the Jewel-Carrier 620 Story 8 Sacrifice for a Man who was Dedicated to an Ogre 622 Story 9 V´ıkrama Causes a Water Tank to be Filled 624 Story 10 V´ıkrama Obtains a Magic Mantra from an Ascetic 626
  • 8. Story 11 The Spendthrift Heir and the Woman Tormented by an Ogre 628 Story 12 V´ıkrama’s Lavishness 632 Story 13 V´ıkrama Helps the Spirit of a Brahmin 634 Story 14 An Ascetic Warns V´ıkrama against the Neglect of Kingly Duty 636 Story 15 The Nymph and the Cauldron of Boiling Oil 638 Story 16 The Spring Festival 640 Story 17 V´ıkrama Offers Himself for his Rival’s Benefit 642 Story 18 V´ıkrama Visits the Sun’s Orb 644 Story 19 V´ıkrama Visits Bali, the King of the Underworld 646 Story 20 V´ıkrama Visits a Forest Ascetic 648 Story 21 V´ıkrama Entertained by Personifications of Eight Magic Powers 652 Story 22 V´ıkrama Wins the Science of Alchemy for a Brahmin 654 Story 23 V´ıkrama’s Inauspicious Dream 656 Story 24 Shali·v´ahana, V´ıkrama, and the Nectar of Immortality 658 Story 25 V´ıkrama Obtains Rain from the Goddess 662 Story 26 V´ıkrama and the Cow of Plenty 664 Story 27 V´ıkrama and the Gambler 666 Story 28 V´ıkrama Abolishes the Sacrificing of Men to a Goddess 670 Story 29 The Courtesan Visited by an Ogre 672 Story 30 The Conjurer’s Trick 674
  • 9. Story 31 V´ıkrama and the Vampire 678 Story 32 V´ıkrama’s Power and Generosity 680 Conclusion The Statuettes are Released from P´arvati’s Curse 682 Meters Used 687 Notes 691 Index 711 Sandhi grid 738
  • 10. csl conventions sanskrit alphabetical order Vowels: a ¯a i ¯ı u ¯u r. ¯r. l. ¯l. e ai o au m. h. Gutturals: k kh g gh ˙n Palatals: c ch j jh ˜n Retroflex: t. t.h d. d. h n. Dentals: t th d dh n Labials: p ph b bh m Semivowels: y r l v Spirants: ´s s. s h guide to sanskrit pronunciation a but ¯a, ˆa father i sit ¯ı, ˆı fee u put ¯u,ˆu boo r. vocalicr,Americanpurdy or English pretty ¯r. lengthened r. l. vocalic l, able e, ˆe, ¯e made, esp. in Welsh pro- nunciation ai bite o, ˆo, ¯o rope, esp. Welsh pronun- ciation; Italian solo au sound m. anusv¯aranasalizesthepre- ceding vowel h. visarga, a voiceless aspira- tion (resembling English h),orlikeScottishloch,or an aspiration with a faint echoing of the preceding vowel so that taih. is pro- nounced taihi k luck kh blockhead g go gh bighead ˙n anger c chill ch matchhead j jog jh aspirated j, hedgehog ˜n canyon t. retroflex t, try (with the tip of tongue turned up to touch the hard palate) t.h same as the preceding but aspirated d. retroflex d (with the tip of tongue turned up to touch the hard palate) d. h same as the preceding but aspirated n. retroflex n (with the tip 11
  • 11. friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures of tongue turned up to touch the hard palate) t French tout th tent hook d dinner dh guildhall n now p pill ph upheaval b before bh abhorrent m mind y yes r trilled,resemblingtheIta- lian pronunciation of r l linger v word ´s shore s. retroflex sh (with the tip of the tongue turned up to touch the hard palate) s hiss h hood csl punctuation of english The acute accent on Sanskrit words when they occur outside of the Sanskrit text itself, marks stress, e.g. Ram´ayana. It is not part of tra- ditional Sanskrit orthography, transliteration or transcription, but we supply it here to guide readers in the pronunciation of these unfamiliar words. Since no Sanskrit word is accented on the last syllable it is not necessary to accent disyllables, e.g. Rama. The second CSL innovation designed to assist the reader in the pro- nunciation of lengthy unfamiliar words is to insert an unobtrusive mid- dle dot between semantic word breaks in compound names (provided the word break does not fall on a vowel resulting from the fusion of two vowels), e.g. Maha·bh´arata, but Ram´ayana (not Rama·´ayana). Our dot echoes the punctuating middle dot (·) found in the oldest surviving forms of written Indic, the Ashokan inscriptions of the third century bce. The deep layering of Sanskrit narrative has also dictated that we use quotation marks only to announce the beginning and end of every direct speech, and not at the beginning of every paragraph. csl punctuation of sanskrit The Sanskrit text is also punctuated, in accordance with the punc- tuation of the English translation. In mid-verse, the punctuation will 12
  • 12. csl conventions not alter the sandhi or the scansion. Proper names are capitalized. Most Sanskrit metres have four “feet” (p¯ada): where possible we print the common ´sloka metre on two lines. In the Sanskrit text, we use French Guillemets (e.g. «kva sam. cic¯ırs.uh. ?») instead of English quotation marks (e.g. “Where are you off to?”) to avoid confusion with the apostrophes used for vowel elision in sandhi. Sanskrit presents the learner with a challenge: sandhi (“euphonic com- bination”). Sandhi means that when two words are joined in connected speech or writing (which in Sanskrit reflects speech), the last letter (or even letters) of the first word often changes; compare the way we pro- nounce “the” in “the beginning” and “the end.” In Sanskrit the first letter of the second word may also change; and if both the last letter of the first word and the first letter of the second are vowels, they may fuse. This has a parallel in English: a nasal consonant is inserted between two vowels that would otherwise coalesce: “a pear” and “an apple.” Sanskrit vowel fusion may produce ambiguity. The chart at the back of each book gives the full sandhi system. Fortunately it is not necessary to know these changes in order to start reading Sanskrit. For that, what is important is to know the form of the second word without sandhi (pre-sandhi), so that it can be recognized or looked up in a dictionary. Therefore we are printing Sanskrit with a system of punctuation that will indicate, unambiguously, the original form of the second word, i.e., the form without sandhi. Such sandhi mostly concerns the fusion of two vowels. In Sanskrit, vowels may be short or long and are written differently accordingly. We follow the general convention that a vowel with no mark above it is short. Other books mark a long vowel either with a bar called a macron (¯a) or with a circumflex (ˆa). Our system uses the macron, except that for initial vowels in sandhi we use a circumflex to indicate that originally the vowel was short, or the shorter of two possibilities (e rather than ai, o rather than au). When we print initial ˆa, before sandhi that vowel was a ˆı or ˆe, i ˆu or ˆo, u ˆai, e ˆau, o 13
  • 13. friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures ¯a, ¯a (i.e., the same) ¯ı, ¯ı (i.e., the same) ¯u, ¯u (i.e., the same) ¯e, ¯ı ¯o, ¯u ¯ai, ai ¯au, au ’, before sandhi there was a vowel a further help with vowel sandhi When a final short vowel (a, i or u) has merged into a following vowel, we print ’ at the end of the word, and when a final long vowel (¯a, ¯ı or ¯u) has merged into a following vowel we print ” at the end of the word. The vast majority of these cases will concern a final a or ¯a. Examples: What before sandhi was atra asti is represented as atr’ ˆasti atra ¯aste atr’ ¯aste kany¯a asti kany” ˆasti kany¯a ¯aste kany” ¯aste atra iti atr’ ˆeti kany¯a iti kany” ˆeti kany¯a ¯ıpsit¯a kany” ¯epsit¯a Finally, three other points concerning the initial letter of the sec- ond word: (1) A word that before sandhi begins with r. (vowel), after sandhi begins with r followed by a consonant: yatha” rtu represents pre-sandhi yath¯a r.tu. (2) When before sandhi the previous word ends in t and the following word begins with ´s, after sandhi the last letter of the previous word is c and the following word begins with ch: sy¯ac ch¯astravit represents pre- sandhi sy¯at ´s¯astravit. (3) Where a word begins with h and the previous word ends with a double consonant, this is our simplified spelling to show the pre-sandhi 14
  • 14. form: tad hasati is commonly written as tad dhasati, but we write tadd hasati so that the original initial letter is obvious. We also punctuate the division of compounds (sam¯asa), simply by inserting a thin vertical line between words. There are words where the decision whether to regard them as compounds is arbitrary. Our principlehasbeentotrytoguidereaderstothecorrectdictionaryentries. Where the Deva·n´agari script reads: Others would print: kumbhasthal¯ı raks.atu vo vik¯ırn.asind¯uraren.ur dvirad¯ananasya / pra´s¯antaye vighnatama´schat.¯an¯am. nis.t.hy¯utab¯al¯atapapallaveva // We print: kumbha sthal¯ı raks.atu vo vik¯ırn.a sind¯ura ren.ur dvirad’ ¯ananasya pra´s¯antaye vighna tama´s chat.¯an¯am. nis.t.hy¯uta b¯al’ ¯atapa pallav” ˆeva. And in English: “MayGan´esha’sdomedforeheadprotectyou!Streakedwithvermilion dust, it seems to be emitting the spreading rays of the rising sun to pacify the teeming darkness of obstructions.” “Nava·s´ahasanka and the Serpent Princess” I. by Padma·gupta Classical Sanskrit literature can abound in puns (´sles.a). Such pa- ronomasia, or wordplay, is raised to a high art; rarely is it a clich´e. Multiplemeaningsmerge(´slis.yanti)intoasinglewordorphrase.Most common are pairs of meanings, but as many as ten separate meanings are attested. To mark the parallel senses in the English, as well as the
  • 15. friendly advice and king v´ıkrama’s adventures punning original in the Sanskrit, we use a slanted font (different from italic) and a triple colon (: ) to separate the alternatives. E.g. yuktam. K¯adambar¯ım. ´srutv¯a kavayo maunam ¯a´srit¯ah. B¯an. aBdhvan¯av anAadhy¯ayo bhavat’ ˆıti smr.tir yatah.. It is right that poets should fall silent upon hearing the K´adambari, for the sacred law rules that recitation must be suspended when the sound of an arrow : the poetry of Bana is heard. Som´eshvara·deva’s “Moonlight of Glory” I.15 16
  • 16. Preface
  • 17. This is the first time that the two works translated here have been published in one single volume, and there are a number of reasons for this marriage. Although one work is a book of fables and the other is a collection of tales about a legendary king, they both contain interlinked stories that are in one way or another related to kingship. The aim of the book of ‘Friendly Advice’ is to teach worldly knowledge and the basics of statecraft to certain wayward princes, while ‘King V´ıkrama’s Adventures’ sets an example of generous behavior for kings, in addition to im- mortalizing V´ıkrama’s adventures. Thus both books provide instruction for kings and future rulers in the shape of amus- ing stories related in an entertaining manner. Although they do not date from the same period, they were both redacted after what is often considered the classical age (i.e. after the seventh century ce); and in both cases, the origin of the stories seems to extend back to many centuries before the texts as we have them gained their final shape. Interestingly, they both contain references to the practice of offering one’s head to a terrifying goddess in order to save someone else. Finally, both works are written in fairly simple Sanskrit, the majority of the texts consisting of straightforward prose; they are therefore ideal for beginners in Sanskrit. Since the somewhat more difficult verses of the ‘Friendly Advice’ are not indispensable to the narrative, they can be omitted by first-time readers of Sanskrit. We hope that in addition to entertaining the reader, this volume will provide a useful tool for learning Sanskrit. Enjoy! 19
  • 18. Friendly Advice
  • 19. Introduction
  • 20. The Hitopade´sa (lit. “Beneficial Counsel” or “Instruc- tion on What is Good”) gives its reader much more than ‘Friendly Advice.’ Numerous animal fables along with some human stories, tales of adultery and faithfulness, trea- son and loyalty, religious piety and hypocrisy, cleverness and na¨ıve belief, generosity and greed, war and peace are all con- tained in one handy collection. Stories of canny procuresses rival those of cunning crows and tigers. An officious ass sim- ply gets beaten by his master, but the meddlesome monkey ends up with crushed testicles. A prince manages to enjoy himself with a merchant’s wife with her husband’s consent, while another one gets kicked out of paradise by a painted image. The author of the work, Nar´ayana, is not only an ex- cellent anthologist, who put together the best examples of ancient Indian story-telling in this book, but a poet and story-teller in his own right.1 ‘Friendly Advice’ is also one of the most widely read works of Sanskrit literature, and one of the most frequently translated into European languages. Its lucid style is a model for Sanskrit composition and it has provided exemplary reading material for most beginning students of Sanskrit, in India as well as elsewhere. Another reason why ‘Friendly Advice’ has always been popular is that it is also a collection of proverbs, maxims, and gnomic poems, some of which form part of the fables and some of which can be read and understood indepen- dently of the narrative. In addition to Nar´ayana’s own verses, a number of these wise sayings and poems were taken from 25
  • 21. friendly advice other great Sanskrit classics and are arranged here themati- cally, according to the subject matter of the various stories. As the prologue explains, the aim of the work is twofold: to teach and serve as a model for refined discourse and to instruct people in what is called n¯ıti in Sanskrit. This word, derived from the verbal root n¯ı-, “to lead, to guide,” includes among its meanings the following: right behavior, propriety, right course, righteousness, ethics, wisdom, and political science. Thus n¯ıti covers both the way in which one should guide oneself, “right conduct,” and the way in which one should lead others, “politics.” This aim is clearly reflected in the frame story. It relates that a king, distressed by his sons’ lacking of learning and their disinclination to act as they should, summoned an as- sembly of learned scholars and asked whether one of them would take on the task of teaching the wayward princes. A learned man called Vishnu·sharman rose and undertook to teach the principles of policy to them, promising to com- plete their instruction in six months. The king thus sent his sons to him, and Vishnu·sharman told them the four books of ‘Friendly Advice,’ to their great amusement. In addition to this frame story, several tales also include one or more additional stories, some of which cite yet further tales. Thus ‘Friendly Advice’ continues the ancient Indian tradition of emboxing stories, creating several layers of nar- ration, although here, unlike in some very elegant and elab- orate works of court poetry, the story line is always easy to follow. 26
  • 22. introduction The Date and the Author The only clue to the identity of the author of ‘Friendly Advice’ is found in the concluding verses of the work, which give us the name Nar´ayana, and which mention the pa- tronage of a king or local ruler called Dh´avala·chandra. As no other work by this author is known, and since the ruler mentioned has not been traced in other sources, we know almost nothing of either of them. It seems likely that Nar´ayana was a learned scholar and preceptor employed in Dh´avala·chandra’s court, just as the narrator of the stories, Vishnu·sharman, was employed by a king. Since the invo- catory and final verses evoke the god Shiva, he was most probably a Shaivite. Although the exact time and place in which Nar´ayana lived is unknown, some additional data help us to get closer to him. ‘Friendly Advice’ cites two works (‘The Essence of Polity,’ N¯ıtis¯ara, by Kam´andaki and the play ‘Tying a Braid,’ Ven. ¯ısam. h¯ara, by Bhatta·nar´ayana) from the eighth century ce, while its earliest known manuscript is dated to the equivalent of 1373 ce. It has been suggested that the text was composed between these two dates, perhaps between 800 and 950, though this tentative dating is rather controversial.2 The geographical origin of ‘Friendly Advice’ is also rather uncertain. Eastern India, Bengal in particular, has been sug- gested for various reasons, none of which is particularly strong.3 Firstly, it has been stated that in addition to Nagari manuscripts, the text was mainly transmitted in Newari and Bengali scripts. However, no list has ever been published to prove this statement; and from the available catalogs, it 27
  • 23. friendly advice seems that the book was also known and current in South India.4 The popularity of the work in Bengal does not nec- essarily imply that it comes from that region. Citations that have allegedly been traced only in the Bengali recension of the ‘Ram´ayana’ are not to be found in the oldest version of ‘Friendly Advice,’ and one citation is also traceable in the ‘Maha·bh´arata.’5 The argument which hinges on an eastern location for place names (nine out of the thirty-five mentioned in ‘Friendly Advice’) is not very strong either, for the mention of holy places such as Ay´odhya or Benares cannot be taken as a geographical indication. Finally, the assumption that the mention of a Tantric ritual involving sexual relations with the wife of another man in story 1.8 points to the east- ern origin of the text is rather questionable.6 Nevertheless, Bengal remains a possible place of origin. ‘Friendly Advice,’ its Structure and its Sources The text of the Hitopade´sa starts with a number of intro- ductory stanzas, which include the invocation of Shiva, the definition of the purpose and content of the work, and the praise of knowledge and learning in general. These stanzas are followed by the exposition of the frame story mentioned above. The stories are organized into four books, each of which starts and ends at the level of the frame story. The first two books on how to win friends and how to break friend- ships concentrate on giving examples of right conduct. The last two books on war and peace are more dominated by teachings on politics and statecraft. 28
  • 24. introduction As the structure of ‘Friendly Advice’ shows, it is greatly indebted to the best known collection of fables in Sanskrit, ‘Five Discourses on Worldly Wisdom’ (Pa˜ncatantra). The author himself acknowledges this work as his main source in the ninth stanza of the prologue, and it has been shown that indeed almost three quarters of the stories and a great number of verses in the ‘Friendly Advice’ are related to different versions of the ‘Five Discourses.’ While a large number of the stories have a parallel there, it is the first two books of the ‘Friendly Advice’ that contain most of the verses borrowed from the ‘Five Discourses.’ The arrangement of the stories is also quite different. Moreover, it is not certain which version of the Pa˜ncatantra was used by the author-compiler of the Hitopade´sa, for at times it is closer to the southern recension, at times to the Nepalese, Kashmiri or the old Syriac version. Furthermore, the ‘Five Discourses’ is not the only source for our text, even if it is definitely the most important one. Therefore ‘Friendly Advice’ cannot be considered a simple recast of the ‘Five Discourses’; it is rather a very closely related, but original work. Concerning the sources of the fables and stories, some other anthologies could also be considered. ‘Friendly Ad- vice’ shares stories (2.6 and 3.8) with the ‘Seventy Tales of the Parrot’ (´Sukasaptati) as well as with the ‘Twenty-five Stories of the Vampire’ (Vet¯alapa˜ncavim. ´satik¯a).7 As for the verses, passages of varying length from sev- eral other works have been incorporated into the text of ‘Friendly Advice.’ These works fall into three main catego- ries:8 writings on political theory and right conduct (n¯ıti), 29
  • 25. friendly advice works on religious duty and law (dharma) and other, mostly literary pieces. Among the sources on political theory and right conduct, the most significant one is the above-mentioned ‘Essence of Polity’ by Kam´andaki, quoted mostly in the third and fourth books. Unlike other citations, these often form long sequences reproducing the original, such as from 4.301 [111] to 4.322 [132]. In spite of its great interest in statecraft, ‘Friendly Advice’ never quotes the classical work on the subject, the ‘Artha·shastra’ attributed to Kaut´ılya (dated to the fourth century bce by some and to the third or fourth century ce by others). This may be due to the fact that the text of the ‘Artha·shastra,’ which is mainly in prose, is moredifficulttomemorizeandthereforelessadaptedforthe purposes of ‘Friendly Advice.’ Moreover, the ‘Artha·shastra’ uses a much more technical and terse language than its versified successor. It is also possible, although perhaps less likely, that the ‘Artha·shastra’ was not available or known to Nar´ayana.9 Our author-compiler also borrows a great number of verses from various anthologies on politics and right conduct named after Chan´akya (undated), as well as from the poet Bhartri·hari (fourth century ce). The most commonly cited source on religious duty and law is the ‘Lawbook of Manu’ (Manusmr.ti), compiled be- tween the third century bce and the third century ce, which is generally considered the best known and greatest author- ity on the subject. But Nar´ayana also takes many verses from the twelfth and thirteenth books of the ‘Maha·bh´arata,’ which contain much material on dharma. On many oc- casions, these citations are not altered to fit in the story line 30
  • 26. introduction of ‘Friendly Advice,’ therefore the reader can sometimes find vocatives in them that are out of context and clearly betray their source (such as “oh, son of Pandu” in 1.28 [11] and 4.238 [92], or “son of Kunti” in 1.35 [15]).10 It may sometimes strike the reader that the maxims con- tradict each other or speak about very remotely related sub- jects. They show that Nar´ayana’s aim was not to argue in favor of a particular view on a subject, but rather to rep- resent all the possible opinions about and connected to a particular topic. His aim is to include many points of views, and not to argue for or against any one of them. Theadditionalsourcescitedarethetwoepics,thePur¯an. as (encyclopaedic texts mainly on mythology and religious duty) and some well-known works of court poetry. Inter- estingly, the citations of the ‘Maha·bh´arata’ are often to be found in the Calcutta edition based mainly on Ben- gali manuscripts, which may confirm the Bengali origin of ‘Friendly Advice.’11 Works of court poetry quoted in ‘Friendly Advice’ include Magha’s ‘The Slaying of Shishu· pala’ (´Si´sup¯alavadha; e.g. 2.30 cited in ‘Friendly Advice’ 3.249 [96]), Bh´aravi’s ‘The Hunter and the Hero’ (Kir¯at¯ar- jun¯ıya; 2.33 cited in 4.278 [103]) and Harsha’s ‘How the Nagas were Pleased’ (N¯ag¯ananda; 4.8 cited in 4.203 [68]); Krishna·mishra’s ‘The Rise of Wisdom Moon’ (Prabodha- candrodaya; second half of the eleventh century ce) 5.29 has a parallel in 4.229 [88], but it is not clear who borrows from whom or whether they are both citing a proverb.12 In general, the verses have been taken over with varying degrees of adaptation.13 Moreover, various manuscripts and 31
  • 27. friendly advice editions of ‘Friendly Advice’ differ in the ways that they in- corporate some passages. It can happen that one manuscript maintains the reading of the source or remains closer to it, while others alter the source to suit the new context. Sometimes different manuscripts of ‘Friendly Advice’ tend to agree with different manuscripts of the source they cite. All in all, it seems much more likely that ‘Friendly Advice’ borrowed from these classical sources than the other way round.14 While some verses are clearly borrowings from particu- lar sources, others, which can recur in several texts, may be regarded as proverbial sayings current at a certain time. Such is the famous verse 1.174 [71], which occurs in ‘The Five Discourses’ (5.38), Chan´akya’s N¯ıti´s¯astra (1.69) and, in somewhat different guise, in ‘King V´ıkrama’s Adventures’ (Vikramacarita; southern recension 3.1).15 Some also occur in other languages, such as in Old Javanese, Tibetan and Mongolian.16 Here, too, the direction of borrowing can- not be established; but these parallels again show the great popularity of the maxims of ‘Friendly Advice.’ On This Edition and Translation It would be reasonable to assume that a work as popu- lar as ‘Friendly Advice’ has at least one critical edition; but surprisingly, none of its editions can be called critical. The one that comes closest is Peterson’s, which is mostly based on the oldest manuscript of the text from Nepal. How- ever, Peterson was unable to revise the fifty-eight pages he had already edited before this manuscript became available to him. Moreover, although Peterson’s text, which is the 32
  • 28. introduction shortestofthevariousversions,isprobablythemostauthen- tic one, it needs a number of corrections and emendations on the basis of other manuscripts. Therefore in spite of its great merits, this edition cannot be called a fully critical one.17 The most commonly used edition is M.R. Kale’s, which has been adopted as the basis of the text presented here, with a number of corrections in the verses. In general, compared to Peterson’s edition, it certainly represents a later—and more expanded—state of what one may call the original. The prose is somewhat longer, with many explanatory ad- ditions, and the versified sayings and poems are also more numerous. This most probably indicates that later scribes and redactors tried to make the prose even clearer and to include even more maxims on the same subject. One of the most noticeable additions to the wise sayings is that of a verse (3.114 [30]) about wives who will go to heaven, even if they have committed hundreds of sins, provided that they sacrifice themselves on their husbands’ funerary pyres. This strong support of the practice of suttee is missing in the earliest manuscript used by Peterson. Similarly, a verse on how much women enjoy cheating on their husbands (2.288 [115]) is included in Kale’s edition, but it was proba- bly a later addition to the text and is omitted in Peterson’s. A frequently mentioned curiosity in Kale’s edition is that the editor seems to have excised part of a verse he must have found too explicit to print in full. This verse is altogether missing in the Nirnay Sagar editions, perhaps for the same reason. It has been restored using Peterson’s edition and translated in full here (1.276 [116]). 33
  • 29. friendly advice Nevertheless, there are several reasons why Kale’s edition has been the basis of our text. Kale’s seems to be the most correct text, for he also used Peterson’s edition to improve on a number of problematic readings. Since the prose is often less ambiguous, it is also better adapted to beginning students’ needs. Moreover, a student of Sanskrit can now use the corrected text printed here and at the same time profit from most of Kale’s grammatical and other explanatory notes. One major drawback of Kale’s edition is that it has a large number of misprints, which can be very disconcerting for students. These misprints have been corrected here, and in several verses Kale’s reading has been rejected in favor of Peterson’s.ItmustbenotedherethatPetersonsometimes also accepted readings that were quite obviously corrupt.18 Spelling has also been standardized.19 Two slightly different editions by the Nirnay Sagar Press have also been collated for the edition of verses. They are close to Kale’s text and sometimes helped to make some additional improvements. On many occasions, parallels, the origin of the citations and their critical editions were of great help in establishing the reading.20 For a list of citations and parallels, the reader can consult Sternbach’s analysis in ‘The Hitopade´sa and Its Sources’ (1960). All these corrections do not amount to a true critical edition, which is a task that could not be undertaken in the present work. Nevertheless, the text printed here is, hopefully, an improvement on the available editions. The present translation attempts to combine precision with readability, a very obvious aim, but one that has not 34
  • 30. introduction been adopted very often. Among the available English trans- lations, Kale’s is probably the closest to the wording of the original Sanskrit, but it is hardly readable. Hutchi- ns published an elegant translation of Peterson’s edition, in which he avoids even those repetitions that are in the original. To reflect the mnemonic character of the stanzas, Haksar translates the maxims in “simple rhyming verse of the doggerel type,” which may not be the luckiest choice, but in spite of this, he remains quite close to the Sanskrit, adopting Kale’s text. Following the practice of many translators, the stories have been given titles for easier reference. It is to be hoped that this new translation based on an improved edition will satisfy both the needs of students of Sanskrit and of readers interested in the fables and wisdom of ancient India. Animals and Professions in ‘Friendly Advice’21 The following characterizations do not include all the an- imals and professions occurring in the text. Some animals or professions are mentioned in a cursory way (washermen, hunters, monks, policemen, a scribe or a mendicant, for in- stance), others (such as the bull in the frame story of Book 2, the camel in 4.10, the crab in 4.6 or the quail in 3.5) may be important figures in a story but without representing a character type of their own. Animals and professions that are mentioned only in the wise sayings but do not figure in the stories have also been omitted. With regard to animals, herbivores are usually depicted as na¨ıve victims, while carni- vores are mostly seen as cunning and deceitful.22 Oddly, the most sacred Hindu animal, the cow, never figures in these 35
  • 31. friendly advice stories. As for people, few professions remain uncriticized. What nevertheless stands out as a recurring theme is that wives are always very clever when it comes to cheating on their husbands. ascetic Ascetics and sages are depicted as wise or as people who have become wise, such as Banner-of-Love in 2.5. They may possess supernatural powers, like the sage called Great-Power in 4.5. ass The ass is unwise and lacks caution; it acts without considering the consequences of what it does. In 2.2 an ass gets thrashed because he interferes with oth- ers’ business, although he wants to help his master. In 3.2, another one betrays his true nature when he brays loudly, and this lack of self-restraint costs him his life. barber The barber is depicted as being greedy and stupid in 3.9, but this is probably due to the nature of that particular story. In 2.5, he is simply the object of an unjust accusation. bird Birds are often shown as intelligent but vulnerable creatures. Those who give advice to the monkeys in 3.1 have their nest destroyed; but the lapwing in 2.9, al- though he is powerless himself, manages to discipline the ocean. The parrot in the frame story of Book 3 is also wise enough to understand the crane’s nature and plans. See also crane, crow, gander, peacock, pigeon, sheldrake, swan, vulture. brahmin Brahmins are more often ridiculed than re- spected. 4.7 shows a daydreamer who ends up los- ing even the little food he had. The brahmin of 4.12 is 36
  • 32. introduction similarly poor, and he kills his only helper, the mon- goose, by mistake. Brahmins are depicted as credulous and lacking reflection before action, but these are traits commonly portrayed and criticized in others too. In 4.9, the brahmin who agrees to see a dog in his goat does so perhaps because he is too afraid of being pol- luted by the impure dog. Nevertheless, the frame story of Book 3 lauds brahmins as the best kind of envoys. cat Cats and other felines are usually cunning and hypo- critical. In stories 1.1 and 1.3, both the cat and the tiger claim to have practiced severe religious observances, and thus gain others’ trust. However, the cat is used and then abandoned by a superior feline, the lion, in 2.3, for here their hierarchical relation is emphasized. Even the lion is outwitted by a hare in 2.8, for in this story the possibility that the weak could overcome the strong is exemplified. cowherd Cowherds appear to be easily tricked simple- tons. The cowherd in 2.5 intends to cut off his wife’s nose (but cuts off a procuress’s instead) to punish her for her infidelity, but this punishment is not consid- ered severe or brutal as the end of the story shows: he gets away with it, while his wife is exiled. 2.6 also has a cowherd whose wife cheats on him, but this time she is clever enough to find a way out. In 4.1 cowherds eat the foolish tortoise, which does not seem to be a particularly noble act. crane Two kinds of crane figure in the stories: the crane or heron (baka in Sanskrit, Ardea nivea according to Monier-Williams);andthes¯arasacrane,whosename 37
  • 33. friendly advice indicates that it also lives near lakes (Ardea sibirica according to Monier-Williams). The latter is some- times identified with the swan (ham. sa). The two cranes are often confused, but they seem to be clearly differ- entiated in ‘Friendly Advice.’ The baka crane is cunning and hypocritical, so much so that in Sanskrit its name is a synonym for “rogue, hyp- ocrite, deceitful person.” In the frame story of Book 3, it is a crane called Long-Bill who provokes war, most probably intentionally, as the sheldrake minister con- cludes. In the frame stories of Books 3 and 4, cranes act as spies or secret agents. In 4.6, the crane manages to deceive the fish in a lake, but fares less successfully with a crab. Nevertheless, the cranes act without fore- sight in 4.6, and their fledglings are devoured. The s¯arasa crane is just the opposite in nature. It is noble and heroic, sacrificing its own life for the swan king at the end of Book 3. The bird king of Sri Lanka in Book 4, Great-Strength, is also a s¯arasa crane, allied with the swan king. He helps the swan king by invading his enemy at the right moment. crow Both crows in Book 1, Sharp Wit in 1.2 and Fast- Flying in the frame story, are friendly, wise and helpful. In 2.7, the crow couple are also clever enough to have their enemy, a snake, killed. However, in Books 3 and 4 crows are among the most ill-willed characters. 3.4 and 3.5 tell stories about why the crow is one’s worst possible company, and in the frame story it is the crow Cloud-Color with his companions who betrays the swan king and burns down his fort. 38
  • 34. introduction deer The deer is mostly seen as the innocent and na¨ıve victim of other animals, of the jackal for instance in 1.2. Otherwise, it is presented as helpful, for at the end of the frame story of Book 1, in which the tortoise needs to be saved, the deer also cooperates in his rescue. demon Variouscategoriesofdemons(suchastheogretype r¯aks.asa in 2.4 or the vampire type vet¯ala in 2.5) are ob- viously depicted as evil. But the two daitya demons, Sunda and Upas´unda, enemies of the gods, are not just evil, but also stupid and greedy in 4.8. dog The dog is considered impure in India (see also the fright of a brahmin at the prospect of carrying one in 4.9). One figures only in 2.2, in which he is portrayed as a rather lazy and disloyal servant of his master. elephants Elephants are notoriously na¨ıve. This seems to be a trait of royal animals, for lions can also be rather credulous (like Tawny, for instance, in the frame story of book 2). In 1.8, an elephant is made to believe by a jackal that the animals wish him to be their king. In 2.12, another elephant is easily convinced that the moon is the lord of hares. fish Similarly to deer, fish are seen as na¨ıve and credulous victims, as in 4.6, in which they do not realize that the crane is deceiving them. In 4.2, three fishes, Come- What-May, Overcautious, and Quick-Wit, represent three different attitudes to imminent danger. frog Just as the deer and fish, frogs are easily tricked vic- tims and prey in 4.11. gander, goose The two ganders in 4.1, Broad and Nar- row, represent prudence and foresight in contrast with 39
  • 35. friendly advice the foolish tortoise. However, the good-willed goose in 3.4 gets himself killed because of the misdeed of a crow. It must be remarked here that the word for goose in Sanskrit, ham. sa, is often translated as and confused with the swan. In fact, in some contexts this bird ap- pears to be mythical rather than real, and in such cases it is more appropriate to translate it as swan. hare Hares are obviously weak and vulnerable, but they also show how the small and the weak can conquer the strong and powerful through wit. In 2.8, a hare called Dart-Mouth outwits a lion, while in 2.12 another one called Victor tricks an elephant. jackal Jackals are ill-willed and try to be clever, but are justly punished in many cases. In 1.6, a jackal called Long-Howl kills himself because of his greed, and in 3.7 the blue jackal, who aspires to be king by deceiv- ing others and by rejecting his own folk, also receives due punishment. In 1.2, another one named Weak Wit tries to obtain the flesh of a na¨ıve deer, but is killed by a hunter thanks to the intervention of the deer’s friend, the crow. In 1.8, however, the jackal manages to trick a greedy elephant; and the two ministers of the frame story of Book 2, jackals called D´amanaka and K´arataka, also succeed in manipulating their lion king. king According to the frame story, these fables were re- lated at the command of a king. However, there is only one story, 3.8, in which a human king appears as a hero. He is portrayed as an honest and just ruler, 40
  • 36. introduction ready to sacrifice himself for the sake of his loyal ser- vant. In other stories, the king or local ruler of a region is mentioned only briefly in the beginning. The frame stories of Books 3 and 4 present bird kings, for which see peacock and swan. See also lion. lion Lions can be clever, like cats and tigers, as in 2.3, but it is their royal nature that dominates them, for they are commonly considered the kings of the jungle. Therefore, they often demonstrate various royal qual- ities and weaknesses, as does Tawny in the frame story of Book 2, who is good-willed but too dependent on his ministers. In 4.10 also, the lion is an honest ruler who wants to keep his promise and refuses to harm the camel, but his dishonest friends find a way to kill him. Story 2.8 shows that in spite of being strong, the lion’s stupidity can cause his death. See also king and cat. merchant Merchants are portrayed as rich—with names such as Favored-By-The-Sea and Prosperous—but too busy to take care of their wives, who cheat on them frequently, as in 1.5 and 4.3. Merchants never seem to have enough money, as the frame story of Book 2 and 2.5 show. The young merchant of 1.7, who ends up himself offering his wife to the prince, also acts in the hope of profiting from the affair. minister Two opposing portrayals of ministers can be found in the frame stories of Books 2–4. The jackal ministers of the lion king in Book 2 are cunning and can influence their master at will. They are rather mean intriguers. However, in Books 3 and 4, the vulture and 41
  • 37. friendly advice the sheldrake ministers are both wise and of good in- tention, the only problem is that their masters do not always take their advice. mongoose The mongoose is depicted as true and loyal in 4.12. However, in 4.4, the mongooses ruthlessly de- vour the small cranes. monkey Monkeys are said to have a fickle nature, and they play with whatever they find, as stories 2.1 and 2.4 show (with a wedge and a bell). They lack foresight, there- fore they shiver without shelter during the monsoon in 3.1. In this story they also represent the stupid who cannot be instructed, for instead of heeding good ad- vice, they take vengeance on their advisers. mouse The mouse Golden in the frame story of Book 1 is an honest, wise and good friend of other animals. He relates his own story in 1.4, in which it turns out that he was originally a hoarder, and his story illustrates the futility of hoarding. A mouse also figures in 4.5, but only to show that the weak should not be given too much power because they will not make good use of it. ogre See demon. peacock The only peacock in the collection is King Col- orful in the frame stories of Books 3 and 4. He is portrayed as vain and rather conceited. He gets into trouble because he does not listen to the advice given by his minister, the vulture. pigeon Pigeons (in the frame story of Book 1) are easily de- ceivedandtrapped,similartodeer,fishetc.Theirchief, Speckled-Neck, is a cautious leader, but one whose 42
  • 38. introduction words are not always heeded. prince The wayward princes of the frame story are not de- scribed in detail, but they appreciate heroic behavior, as their remark at the end of Book 3 shows. The prince of 3.8, Best-Hero, is a model warrior. Others can be more or less fortunate in life, as the stories of Cloud- Banner (2.5) and Top-Force (1.7) demonstrate. In both cases, they covet someone unattainable: a vidy¯adhara maiden and the wife of another man respectively. This may illustrate their limitless ambitions. See also war- rior. procuress Procuresses are usually clever and manage to profit from others’ ignorance or faults. Such is the case with the procuress in 2.4 and the one mentioned at the end of 1.5. In 1.7, a procuress helps a prince to meet his beloved, wife of a merchant, by using a clever scheme. However, 2.5 shows us a procuress or go-between who has her nose cut off by mistake, and another one, a madam, who is punished for confiscating a merchant’s gems. sheldrake In the frame story of Books 3 and 4, the shel- drake Know-All is the wisest minister, who is not only intelligent but also wants the well-being of his master. snake The snake is clever and hypocritical in 4.11, its na- ture similar to that of cats. But perhaps this is not their original trait, for in the story the snake needs to be clever only to compensate for his lost strength, as his name Weak-Venom suggests. Elsewhere, as in 2.7, the snake (a cobra) simply devours its prey, and the crows have to devise a clever stratagem to get rid of it. 43
  • 39. friendly advice swan The royal swan in the frame stories of Books 3 and 4 embodies kingly qualities. But although he is gener- ally wise, he is too good-willed to see that the crow is a traitor. The swan is usually considered a noble and wise animal, which has the supernatural power to sep- arate milk from water after they have been blended. It also symbolizes the Soul, and is the animal vehicle of Brahma, the god of creation and orthodoxy. That is probably the reason why the royal swan in the story bears the name of Brahma, Born-Of-Gold, for in one mythological account, Brahma is born from a golden egg. For the confusion between swan and goose, see gander. tiger Tigers are cunning and hypocritical, see cat. tortoise Similarly to the deer, fish and frogs, tortoises are easy prey, for they act foolishly, especially when they panic. Shell-Neck in 4.1 tries to escape from death with the help of two ganders, but when provoked he opens his mouth and loses his life. At the end of Book 1, Slow-Mo also gets caught because of his reckless ac- tion, before being saved by his friends. vidy¯adhara Vidy¯adharas are semi-divine beings of am- bivalent nature. But in the story of 2.5, the vidy¯adhara maidens simply represent inhabitants of a paradise- like world, which seems to have its own, special rules. vulture In the frame stories of Books 3 and 4 the minister of the peacock king, Far-Sighted, is portrayed as wise and cautious, as his name indicates. The good eyesight of vultures is thus symbolically used here to indicate their foresight. However, the old vulture in 1.3 had 44
  • 40. introduction lost his sight (which may be interpreted metaphori- cally again) and was tricked by the cunning cat. warrior Warriors are portrayed as honest and persever- ing. The warrior Best-Hero in 3.8 is ready even to sacrifice his only son for the sake of his king. He is also an exemplary person in other respects, for he spends part of his salary on helping the poor and part of it on donations to the gods and brahmins. Another warrior called Head-Jewel (in 3.9) performs severe observances to obtain riches, and is duly rewarded by Shiva. wheelwright The cuckolded wheelwright appearing in 3.6 is true to his name: Dull-Wit. But rather than be- ing a characterization of wheelwrights, the story may just provide another example of how simpletons are cheated. For a similar character, see cowherd. wife Wives are almost invariably bent on cheating on their husbands, and they are usually clever enough to get away with it, even when two lovers arrive at a time, as happens in 2.6. Six stories out of the eleven dealing with human beings present unfaithful wives. Of the six cuckolded husbands, three are merchants (showing that money cannot buy faithfulness), two are cowherds and one is a wheelwright. Of the six unfaith- ful wives, four initiate these relations themselves, one needs some persuasion from a go-between and only one attempts to be faithful, but in vain (in story 1.7). See also cowherd, merchant, wheelwright. 45
  • 41. friendly advice Bibliography editions used or cited Hitopade´sa: The Sanskrit text with a grammatical analysis alphabetically arranged by F. Johnson. 2nd ed. Hertford: Stephen Austin; London: W.H. Allen, 1864. Hitopade´sa by N¯ar¯ayan. a Edited by Peter Peterson. Bombay Sanskrit Series 33. Bombay: Government Central Book Depot, 1887. The Hitopade´sa of N¯ar¯ayan. a Pandit Edited with Explanatory English NotesbyN¯ar¯ayan. aB¯alakr.s.n. aGodaboleandK¯a´s¯ın¯athP¯an. - d. ura˙ngParab.3rdrevisededition,Bombay:NirnaySagarPress, 1890. The Hitopade´sa of N¯ar¯ayan. a Edited with a Sanskrit commentary and notes in English by M.R. Kale. 5th ed. Bombay, 1924. Reprint Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1998. Hitopade´sa of N¯ar¯ayan. pan. d. it Edited by K¯a´s¯ın¯ath P¯an. d. ura˙ng Parab, re-editedbyN¯ar¯ayan. R¯am ¯Ac¯arya“K¯avyat¯ırtha.”Bombay:Nir- nay Sagar Press. 15th ed. 1955. Hitopadesa, id est Institutio salutaris, Textum codd. mss. collatis re- censuerunt interpretationem Latinam et annotationes criticas adiecerunt A.G. a Schlegel [A.W. von Schlegel] et C. Lassen. Bonnae ad Rhenum, 1829–31. some sources and parallels of the hitopade´sa K¯amandak¯ıya 1. K¯amandak¯ıyan¯ıtis¯ara ed. R¯ajendral¯ala Mitra. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1884. (= Mitra) 2. The N¯ıtis¯ara of K¯amandak¯ı ed. Raja Rajendra Lala Mitra revised with English translation Sisir Kumar Mitra. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society, 1982. 3. N¯ıtis¯ara of K¯amandaka with the commentary Jayamangala of Sanka- rarya ed. T. Gan. apati S¯astr¯ı. Trivandrum: Travancore Gov- ernment Press, 1912. 46
  • 42. introduction Garud. apur¯an. a 1. ed. J¯ıv¯ananda Vidy¯as¯agara. Calcutta: Sarasvat¯ıyantra, 1890. 2. ed. Ramshankar Bhattacharya. Varanasi: Chowkhamba San- skrit Series Office, 1964. (Kashi Sanskrit Series 165). N¯ag¯ananda of Hars.a 1. ed. J¯ıv¯ananda Vidy¯as¯agara. Calcutta: Ganesa Press, 1873. 2. with comm. N¯ag¯anandavimar´sin¯ı by Sivar¯ama. Ed. T. Gan. apati S¯astr¯ı. Trivandrum: Government Press, 1917. 3. ed. with translation and notes R.D. Karmarkar (3rd ed.) Poona: Aryabhushan Press, 1953. Pa˜ncatantra ed. D.D. Kosambi. Bombay: Nirnay Sagar Press, 1959. (10th ed.) Par¯a´sarasmr.ti. The Par¯a´sara Dharma Sam. hit¯a or Par¯a´sarasmr.ti with the commentary of S¯ayana M¯adhav¯ac¯arya ed. Pandit V¯amana ´S¯as- tri Islampurkar. 3 vols. Bombay: Government Central Depot, 1893–1911. Prabodhacandrodaya of Kr.s.n.ami´sra 1. Bombay ed.: Prabodhacandrodayam ed. Laks.man. a ´Sarma Pan. a´s¯ı- kara, rev. by V¯asudeva ´Sarma. Bombay: Nirnay Sagar Press, 1935. 2. Calcutta ed.: Prabodhacandrodayan¯at.akam ed. J¯ıv¯ananda Vidy¯a- s¯agara Bhat.t. ¯ac¯arya. Calcutta: K¯avyaprak¯a´sayantra, 1874. 3. Trivandrum ed.: The Prabodhacandrodaya of Kr.s.n. ami´srayati with the commentary of ´Sr¯ıgovind¯amr.tabhagav¯an Ed. K. S¯amba´siva ´S¯astr¯ı. Trivandrum: Government Press, 1936. Bhartr.hari: N¯ıti´sataka 1. ´Satakatrayam crit. ed. D.D. Kosambi. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1946. 2. Bhartruhari’s Neeti Sataka, Sringara Sataka and Vairagya Sataka with Sanskrit commentary of Shri Ramachandra Buddhendra, English notes, translation and introduction by Shre A.V. Gopa- lachariar. Madras: V. Ramaswamy Sastrulu and sons, 1954. 47
  • 43. friendly advice 3. The N¯ıti´sataka, ´Sr. ˙ng¯ara´sataka and Vair¯agya´sataka of Bhartr.hari ed. Purohit Gopi Nath. Bombay: Shri Venkateshvar Press, 1896. 4. The N¯ıti´sataka and Vair¯agya´sataka of Bhartr.hari with extracts from two Sanskrit commentaries Ed. with notes K.T. Telang. Bom- bay: Government Central Book Depot, 1885. Manusmr.ti with Medh¯atithi’s commentary ed. Ganganatha Jha. 2nd ed. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1999. Mah¯abh¯arata. Critical edition. Ed. V.S. Sukthankar (1927–43), S.K. Belvalkar (from 1943) et al. Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Re- search Institute, 1927–59. Mah¯abh¯arata edited and carefully collated with the best manuscripts in the library of the Sanscrita College of Calcutta by Nimachand Siro- mani and Nanda Gopala pandits. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press, 1836. Mah¯asubh¯as.itasam. graha Vol. 1. ed. L. Sternbach. Hoshiarpur: Vish- veshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, 1974. Mr.cchakat.ik¯a 1. Mr.cchakat.ik¯a of ´S¯udraka with two commentaries, the Suvarn. ¯alam. - karan. a of Lalla D¯ıkshit and a Vr.tti or Vivr.ti of Pr.thiv¯ıdhara, and various readings ed. N¯ar¯ayan. a B¯alakr.s.n. a Godabole. Bombay: Government Central Book Depot, 1896. 2. Mr.cchakat.ika ed. with translation, introduction, notes and appen- dices by R.D. Karmakar. Poona: Aryabhushan Press, 1950. R¯ajan¯ıti-ratn¯akara by Can.d.e´svara. Ed. Kashi-Prasad Jayaswal. Patna: The Bihar and Orissa Research Society, 1936 (2nd ed.). Vikramacarita. Vikrama’s Adventures or the Thirty-Two Tales of the Throne Edited and translated by Franklin Edgerton. 2 parts. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1993 (First publ. Cambridge, 1926). Ven. ¯ısam. h¯ara by Bhat.t.an¯ar¯ayan.a 1. Calcutta ed.: Ven. ¯ısam. h¯aran¯at.akam ed. ´Sr¯ı J¯ıv¯ananda Vidy¯as¯a- gara Bhat.t. ¯ac¯arya. 4th ed. Calcutta: N¯ar¯ayan.ayantra, 1893. 48
  • 44. introduction 2. Bombay ed.: Ven. ¯ısam. h¯ara with the commentary of Jagaddhara and various readings etc. Ed. K¯a´s¯ın¯ath P¯an. d. urang Parab. Rev. N¯ar¯ayan. R¯am ¯Ach¯arya. 9th ed. Bombay: Nirnay Sagar Press, 1940. ´Si´sup¯alavadha with the commentary of Mallin¯atha ed. Pandit Durga- prasad and Sivadatta. Rev. by Srinivasa Venkatram. Bom- bay: Nirnay Sagar Press, 1923. ´Sukasaptati. Der Textus ornatior der ´Sukasaptati. ed. R. Schmidt. M¨un- chen, 1901. Subh¯as.it¯avalih. by Vallabhadeva ed. P. Peterson, revised by Pt Durg¯a- pras¯ada. Bombay: Education Society, 1886. studies Aufrecht, Th. 1962. Catalogus Catalogorum. An Alphabetical Register of Sanskrit Works and Authors. Pt. 1. Wiesbaden, Franz Steiner Verlag. Filliozat, J. 1967. “L’abandon de la vie par le sage et les suicides du criminel et du h´eros dans la tradition indienne.” Arts Asiatiques, 15, 65–88. Ingalls,D.H.H.1966.“TheC¯an.akyaCollectionsandN¯ar¯ayan.a’sHito- pade´sa.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 86.1, 1–19. Keith, A.B. 1920. A History of Sanskrit Literature. Oxford: Oxford Uni- versity Press. Schmid, C. 2005. “Mah¯abalipuram: la Prosp´erit´e au double visage.” Journal Asiatique, 293.2, 459–527. Shulman, D. 1993. The Hungry God. Hindu Tales of Filicide and Devo- tion. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. Sternbach, L. 1960. The Hitopade´sa and Its Sources. New Haven, Conn.: American Oriental Society (American Oriental Series 44). Sternbach, L. 1967. “The C¯an.akya Collections and N¯ar¯ayan.a’s Hitopa- de´sa: an Additional Comment.” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 87.3, 306–8. 49
  • 45. friendly advice Sternbach, L. 1974. The K¯avya Portions in the Kath¯a Literature. Vol II. Hitopade´sa, Vikramacarita. Delhi: Meharchand Lachhmandas. Vogel, J. Ph. 1932. “The Head-offering to the Goddess in Pallava Sculp- ture.” Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 6 (1930–32), 539–43. Notes 1 On Nar´ayana as a poet, see Ingalls 1966: 18. 2 The arguments are rehearsed in Ingalls (1966). The suggested period of composition is based on the dating and relationship of various recensions of the aphorisms attributed to Chan´akya, which have parallels in the Hitopade´sa. However, according to Sternbach (1967), who edited these recensions, “to come to any conclusion as to the dating of the Hitopade´sa or any other work by utilizing the different versions of any collection of maxims and sayings and by utilizing statistical compilations of this material seems to be very risky, doubtful and liable to criticism.” 3 Sternbach 1974: 4–5, Ingalls 1966: 9–10. It seems that Ingalls’s arguments are motivated more by his wish to make Nar´ayana a poet during the Pala dynasty in Eastern Bengal than by the weight of the evidence. 4 See Aufrecht 1962: 766. Note also Ingalls’s remark (1966) that judging from Nar´ayana’s selection of Pa˜ncatantra material, he could have been a southerner. 5 Sternbach (1974: 4–5) mentions verses 1.78 and 4.28 of John- son’s edition and an additional verse found only in Schlegel’s edition. The first, identical with Kale’s 1.77, is not in the oldest 50
  • 46. introduction manuscript according to Peterson’s edition. The second verse, our 4.116 [29], comes from Kam´andaki’s N¯ıtis¯ara (9.44), not from theR¯am¯ayan. a.Nevertheless,thereisanadditionalversethatSter- nbach seems to have traced back to the Bengali recension of the R¯am¯ayan. a: Johnson’s 4.21, i.e. our 4.97 [22]. But this verse can also be found in an almost identical version in the critical edition of the Mah¯abh¯arata (5.37.15). Other citations from the epics shed no greater light on the problem. Prologue 19 (0.23 [19]), found in all versions of the Hitopade´sa, is missing in the critical edition of the Mah¯abh¯arata, but is present in the Bengali and the Telugu re- censions, the Vulgate, the Deva·n´agari composite recension, and one Kashmiri manuscript. As Sternbach (1960: 2–4, 1967 and 1974: 13–4) has shown, citations identifiable in various recensions of the Pa˜ncatantra and of Chan´akya’s aphorisms unfortunately do not help in establishing the date and origin of the Hitopade´sa. 6 This has already been pointed out by Ingalls (1966: 9). Another motif, that of offering a head or heads to a goddess (as described in Hitopade´sa 3.9), is well known in South India from ancient Tamil literature and from icons of the warrior goddess (Kor ¯ r ¯ avai), which often depict her devotees about to decapitate themselves. (For references and discussion see e.g. Vogel 1932 and Filliozat 1967. On the possible relation of this goddess with the goddess of good fortune, Lakshmi, in Pallava times, see Schmid 2005) The theme of sacrificing one’s son goes back to the Vedic myth of Shu- nah·shepa (for an analysis and further, South Indian, examples see Shulman 1993). It is of course also possible that Nar´ayana described some rites he knew of, without being a native of the place where they were practiced. Let us note that other arguments cited by Ingalls (1966) in favor of the Bengali origin are not very strong, especially the alleged Bengalism of the word divya in the sense of “ordeal.” This meaning is recorded in dictionaries and is attested in Y¯aj˜navalkyasmr.ti 2.22.95. 51
  • 47. friendly advice 7 However, the direction of borrowing cannot be established as no relative chronology has been determined among these works. See Sternbach 1974: 7 citing Keith 1920: 264. For more details and for a complete list of verse citations, see Sternbach 1960. 8 Following Sternbach 1960: 11. 9 This is Sternbach’s supposition in 1960: 14 and 1974: 25. He also envisages the possibility that Nar´ayana did not quote the Artha- ´s¯astra on purpose, though he does not say what reason Nar´ayana would have had for such an omission. 10 Of course, there are also examples for the conscious elimination of such vocatives, see e.g. 2.142 [63] citing Mah¯abh¯arata 5.39.2 (=Mah¯abh¯arata Calcutta edition 5.38.2), in which the vocative Bh¯arata is replaced with the adjective ´s¯a´svatam. 11 See e.g. Prologue 0.23 [19] = Mah¯abh¯arata 5.32.91/1056 in the Calcutta edition. 12 In the play, the verse is introduced by the words “this is what sages have taught on this subject, is it not” (n¯unam upadis.t.am ev’ ˆatra munibhih. ). 13 It is possible, of course, that the Hitopade´sa borrowed a number of stanzas not directly from various literary sources and lawbooks, but from a recension of the Pa˜ncatantra, as Sternbach (1974: 22) suggested. 14 Surprisingly, Sternbach 1974: 28 states that the stanzas of the Hitopade´sa were probably the primary sources for these works, arguing that the Hitopade´sa is an older text. But while the stories of the Hitopade´sa must indeed be very ancient, its redaction seems 52
  • 48. introduction to come from a period later than that of the court poets cited, and this is especially true in the case of the verses. 15 Sternbach 1960: 70. 16 See Sternbach 1974: 28. 17 An interesting feature of Peterson’s edition and the Nepalese manuscript it is based on is that a number of their variants agree with those found in the Southern recension of ‘King V´ıkrama’s Adventures,’ see e.g. vv. 1.68, 1.128, 2.37 and 3.29. 18 E.g. yacchamam for yacchalam in 3.198 [61], proposing a rather forced interpretation. 19 For instance, printing yudhyate and sidhyati instead of yuddhyate and siddhyati. 20 Such was the case of the citations from Kam´andaki’s N¯ıtis¯ara, which were quite faithfully reproduced by Peterson following his old Nepalese manuscript, but which appear in a somewhat corrupt form in Kale’s edition. It could be argued that such distortions are not corruptions but characteristics of the Hitopa- de´sa itself. However, as the old Nepalese manuscript shows, the readings were originally correct and meaningful, which is why I have emended Kale’s text rather heavily sometimes in these passages. 21 References in this section are to book and story rather than book and stanza/paragraph. 22 The aim of this section being the elucidation of animal symbol- ism, I have refrained from discussing precise zoological identifi- cations. 53
  • 49. Invocation
  • 50. Siddhih. s¯adhye sat¯am astu0.1 pras¯ad¯at tasya Dh¯urjat.eh., J¯ahnav¯ıAphenaAlekh” ˆeva yanAm¯urdhni ´sa´sinah. kal¯a. [1] ´sruto Hitopade´so ’yam. p¯at.avam. sam. skr.t’Aˆoktis.u, v¯ac¯am. sarvatra vaicitryam. , n¯ıtiAvidy¯am. dad¯ati ca. [2] aAjar”AˆaAmaraAvat pr¯aj˜no vidy¯am artham. ca cintayet; gr.h¯ıta iva ke´ses.u mr.tyun¯a dharmam ¯acaret. [3] sarvaAdravyes.u vidy” ˆaiva dravyam ¯ahur anAuttamam aAh¯aryatv¯ad, anAarghyatv¯ad, aAks.ayatv¯ac ca sarvad¯a. [4] sam. yojayati vidy” ˆaiva0.5 n¯ıcaBg” ˆapi naram. sarit samudram iva durAdhars.am. nr.pam. ; bh¯agyam atah. param. [5] vidy¯a dad¯ati vinayam. , vinay¯ad y¯ati p¯atrat¯am, p¯atratv¯ad dhanam ¯apnoti, dhan¯ad dharmam. , tatah. sukham. [6] vidy¯a ´sastrasya ´s¯astrasya dve vidye pratipattaye; ¯ady¯a h¯asy¯aya vr.ddhatve, dvit¯ıy” ¯adriyate sad¯a. [7] 56
  • 51. May good people succeed in their enterprises by 0.1 the grace of Lord Shiva, whose matted locks bear a digit of the moon—a streak of foam, as it were, in the Ganges, which is swirling about in his hair.* If one takes heed of this Friendly Advice, it will bestow proficiency in refined discourses,* a variety of expres- sions in every field of learning and the knowledge of right conduct. A wise man should think about knowledge and money as if he were immune to old age and death; but he shouldperformhisdutiesasifDeathhadalreadyseized him by the hair. Knowledge is considered superior to everything else, for it can never be taken away, bought or destroyed. As a river, even if it flows in the lowlands, 0.5 can bring one to an inaccessible sea, so knowledge— but only knowledge—even in a person of low status, can bring one into the presence of an unapproachable king and afterwards, bring good fortune. Knowledge bestows modesty, from which one becomes worthy. Being worthy, one obtains riches, from riches, pious acts, and then one reaches happiness. Control of the battlefield and mastery of the fields of learning both lead to fame; but while the former makes for ridicule in old age, the latter is always respected. 57
  • 52. friendly advice yan nave bh¯ajane lagnah. sam. sk¯aro n’ ˆanyath¯a bhavet, kath¯aAchalena b¯al¯an¯am. n¯ıtis tad iha kathyate. [8] mitraAl¯abhah., suhr.dAbhedo, vigrahah., sam. dhir eva ca Pa˜ncatantr¯at tath” ˆanyasm¯ad granth¯ad ¯akr.s.ya likhyate. [9] 58
  • 53. invocation An impression made on a freshly molded clay pot does not change afterwards, and such is the case with young people; therefore good governance is taught to them here in the guise of tales. These chapters on how to win friends, how to break friendships, how to make war and how to make peace have been taken from the ‘Five Discourses on Worldly Wisdom’ and elsewhere.* 59
  • 54. Prologue
  • 55. asti Bh¯ag¯ırath¯ıAt¯ıre P¯at.aliputraAn¯amaAdheyam. naga-0.10 ram. tatra sarvaAsv¯amiAgun.’Aˆopetah. Sudar´sano n¯ama naraApatir ¯as¯ıt. sa bh¯uApatir ekad¯a ken’ ˆapi pat.hyam¯anam. ´slokaAdvayam. ´su´sr¯ava. «anAekaAsam. ´say’Aˆocchedi paroks.’Aˆarthasya dar´sakam sarvasya locanam. ´s¯astram. ; yasya n’ ˆasty, andha eva sah.. [10] yauvanam. , dhanaAsampattih., prabhutvam, aAvivekit¯a ek’Aˆaikam apy anAarth¯aya, kim u yatra catus.t.ayam.» [11] ity ¯akarn.y’ ¯atmanah. putr¯an. ¯am anAadhigataA´s¯astr¯an. ¯am, ni- tyam unAm¯argaAg¯amin¯am. ´s¯astr’AˆanAanus.t.h¯anen’ ˆodvignaAma- n¯ah. sa r¯aj¯a cintay¯am ¯asa: «ko ’rthah. putren.a j¯atena yo na vidv¯an na dh¯armikah.? k¯an.ena caks.us.¯a kim. v¯a? caks.uh.Ap¯ıd.” ˆaiva kevalam. [12] aj¯ataAmr.taAm¯urkh¯an. ¯am. varam ¯adyau, na c’ ˆantimah.;0.15 sakr.dAduh.khaAkar¯av ¯ady¯av, antimas tu pade pade. [13] kim. ca, 62
  • 56. On the bank of the river Ganges there is a city called 0.10 P´atali·putra. A king named Handsome once lived there, possessing all the qualities a ruler should. One day he heard someone recite the following two verses: “Learning resolves countless doubts and reveals what is beyond perception. Learning is the universal eye; without it, you are blind. Youth, wealth, power and recklessness can each lead to disaster; all the more so when the four are combined!” When the king heard these words, he became anxious about his sons, who had not received any instruction, always took the wrong path, and followed no good teaching. He then thought: “What’s the use of a son if he is neither learned nor righteous?—What’s the use of a bad eye? It only causes pain. Of an unborn, dead or stupid son, the first two would 0.15 be preferable, for they cause pain only once, but the last does so at every step. What’s more, 63
  • 57. friendly advice sa j¯ato yena j¯atena y¯ati vam. ´sah. samunnatim. parivartini sam. s¯are mr.tah. ko v¯a na j¯ayate? [14] gun.iAgan.aAgan.an’A¯arambhe na patati kat.hin¯ı suAsambhram¯ad yasya, ten’ ˆamb¯a yadi sutin¯ı, vada, vandhy¯a k¯ıdr.´s¯ı n¯ama? [15] d¯ane tapasi ´saurye ca yasya na prathitam. ya´sah. vidy¯ay¯am arthaAl¯abhe ca, m¯atur ucc¯ara eva sah.. [16] aparam. ca,0.20 varam eko gun.¯ı putro, na ca m¯urkhaA´sat¯any api. eka´s candras tamo hanti, na ca t¯ar¯aAgan.o ’pi ca. [17] pun.yaAt¯ırthe kr.tam. yena tapah. kv’ ˆapy atiAdus.Akaram, tasya putro bhaved va´syah., samr.ddho, dh¯armikah., suAdh¯ıh.. [18] arth’A¯agamo, nityam aArogit¯a ca, priy¯a ca bh¯ary¯a, priyaAv¯adin¯ı ca, va´sya´s ca putro, ’rthaAkar¯ı ca vidy¯a, s.aj j¯ıvaAlokasya sukh¯ani, r¯ajan. [19] ko dhanyo bahubhih. putraih. ku´s¯ul’A¯ap¯uran.’A¯ad.hakaih.? varam ekah. kul’A¯alamb¯ı yatra vi´sr¯uyate pit¯a. [20] 64
  • 58. prologue He whose birth brings higher status to his family has been rightly born. In this ever-revolving transmigra- tion, who is not ordinarily reborn after death? If a woman can be called a mother even when she has given birth to a son who cannot be counted among the virtuous,* then tell me, whom can you call a barren woman? One who does not distinguish himself by his generosity, asceticism, heroism, learning or wealth is nothing more than his mother’s excrement. Furthermore, 0.20 Better to have a single virtuous son than a hundred fools! One moon destroys darkness, but not even a multitude of stars can do so. A man who practices strict asceticism in a holy place will have a son who is obedient, prosperous, virtuous and wise. A large income, perpetual health, a wife who is dear and who speaks pleasantly, an obedient son and money-making know-how—these six are the sources of happiness in this world, O king. Who is fortunate to have many sons, if they are like measures of grain that fill up the store-house? It is better to have only one who maintains his family and makes his father famous. 65
  • 59. friendly advice r.n.aAkart¯a pit¯a ´satrur, m¯at¯a ca vyabhic¯arin.¯ı,0.25 bh¯ary¯a r¯upavat¯ı ´satruh., putrah. ´satrur aApan.d.itah.. [21] anAabhy¯ase vis.am. vidy¯a, aAj¯ırn.e bhojanam. vis.am, vis.am. sabh¯a daridrasya, vr.ddhasya tarun.¯ı vis.am. [22] yasya kasya pras¯uto ’pi gun.av¯an p¯ujyate narah. dhanur vam. ´saBvi´suddho ’pi nirBgun. ah. kim. karis.yati? [23] h¯a h¯a putraka, n’ ˆadh¯ıtam. , suAgat’, ˆait¯asu r¯atris.u; tena tvam. vidus.¯am. madhye pa˙nke gaur iva s¯ıdasi. [24] tat katham id¯an¯ım ete mama putr¯a gun.avantah. kriyan- t¯am? yatah., ¯ah¯araAnidr¯aAbhayaAmaithunam. ca—0.30 s¯am¯anyam etat pa´subhir nar¯an. ¯am. dharmo hi tes.¯am adhiko vi´ses.o; dharmen.a h¯ın¯ah. pa´subhih. sam¯an¯ah.. [25] dharm’AˆarthaAk¯amaAmoks.¯an. ¯am. yasy’ ˆaiko ’pi na vidyate, aj¯aAgalaAstanasy’ ˆeva tasya janma nirAarthakam. [26] 66
  • 60. prologue A father who incurs debts is an enemy, as is an adul- 0.25 terous mother; a beautiful wife is an enemy, and so is an unlettered son. Knowledge is poison if it is not maintained by assidu- ous study,* food is poison in the case of indigestion, a large gathering is poison for a poor man, and a young wife is poison for an old husband. A man of merit, even if he is not of noble descent, is honored. What is the use of a bow without its string, even if it is made of pure bamboo? : What can a man without merits do, even if he is of pure warrior de- scent?* Alas, my child, you have led an easy life, not studying all these nights; so now, when you are in the company of learned people, you will be stuck like a cow in mud. Now how could I transform my sons into men of merit? For, Eating, sleeping, feeling afraid and copulating—these 0.30 things men have in common with animals. But man distinguishes himself by doing his duties; those who neglect them are like beasts. The birth of a person who does not succeed even in one of the four life-aims—to fulfill one’s duties, obtain riches, satisfy one’s desires or attain final release—is as useless as a nipple on a nanny-goat’s neck. 67
  • 61. friendly advice yac c’ ˆocyate— ¯ayuh., karma ca, vittam. ca, vidy¯a, nidhanam eva ca— pa˜nc’ ˆait¯any api sr.jyante garbhaAsthasy’ ˆaiva dehinah.. [27] kim. ca, ava´syam. Abh¯avino bh¯av¯a0.35 bhavanti mahat¯am api: nagnatvam. N¯ılaAkan.t.hasya, mah”AˆahiA´sayanam. Hareh.. [28] api ca, yad aAbh¯avi na tad bh¯avi, bh¯avi cen na tad anyath¯a. iti cint¯aAvis.aAghno ’yam agadah. kim. na p¯ıyate? [29] etat k¯ary’AˆaAks.am¯an. ¯am. kes.¯am. cid ¯alasyaAvacanam. na daivam api sam. cintya tyajed udyogam ¯atmanah.; anAudyogena tail¯ani tilebhyo n’ ¯aptum arhati. [30] anyac ca,0.40 udyoginam. purus.aAsim. ham upaiti Laks.m¯ır; «daivena deyam» iti k¯apurus.¯a vadanti. daivam. nihatya kuru paurus.am ¯atmaA´sakty¯a; yatne kr.te yadi na sidhyati, ko ’tra dos.ah.? [31] 68
  • 62. prologue And it is also said: One’s life-span, deeds, wealth, knowledge and the mo- ment when one dies—these five are already deter- mined for a mortal when he is in his mother’s womb. Moreover, What is destined to take place does take place, even 0.35 for the great: Shiva, the blue-necked god, cannot help but be naked, and Vishnu has to lie on an enormous snake. Furthermore, What is not to happen will never happen, and what has to happen will not be otherwise. Why don’t you use this as an antidote against the poison of worry? Some people, unable to act, say such words to justify their idleness. However, One should not give up one’s efforts, even when ac- knowledging the role of fate; without effort, one can- not obtain oil from sesame seeds. And there is another verse on this: 0.40 Fortune gravitates towards eminent men who work hard; only cowards say it depends on fate. Forget about fate and be a man—use your strength! Then, if you don’t succeed in spite of your efforts, what is there to blame? 69
  • 63. friendly advice yath¯a hy ekena cakren.a na rathasya gatir bhavet, evam. purus.aAk¯aren.a vin¯a daivam. na sidhyati. [32] tath¯a ca, p¯urvaAjanmaAkr.tam. karma tad «daivam» iti kathyate. tasm¯at purus.aAk¯aren.a yatnam. kury¯ad aAtandritah.. [33] yath¯a mr.tApin.d.atah. kart¯a kurute yad yad icchati,0.45 evam ¯atmaAkr.tam. karma m¯anavah. pratipadyate. [34] k¯akat¯al¯ıyavat pr¯aptam. dr.s.t.v” ˆapi nidhim agratah. na svayam. daivam ¯adatte: purus.’Aˆartham apeks.ate. [35] udyamena hi sidhyanti k¯ary¯an.i, na manoArathaih.: na hi suptasya sim. hasya pravi´santi mukhe mr.g¯ah.. [36] m¯at¯aApitr.Akr.t’Aˆabhy¯aso gun.it¯am eti b¯alakah., na garbhaAcyutiAm¯atren.a putro bhavati pan.d.itah.. [37] m¯at¯a ´satruh. pit¯a vair¯ı yena b¯alo na p¯at.hitah.. na ´sobhate sabh¯aAmadhye ham. saAmadhye bako yath¯a. [38] r¯upaAyauvanaAsampann¯a vi´s¯alaAkulaAsambhav¯ah.0.50 vidy¯aAh¯ın¯ana´sobhante—nirAgandh¯aivakim. ´suk¯ah..[39] 70
  • 64. prologue Just as a cart cannot move forward on one wheel, so fate itself cannot be fulfilled without human effort. And in the same way, “Fate” is the karma one accumulated in a previous life. That’s why one should exert oneself in manly activity, tirelessly. Just as a potter fashions whatever he likes out of a lump 0.45 of clay, the karma a man encounters is what he created for himself. Even if you unexpectedly come across treasure in front of you, fate itself does not pick it up; that needs human effort. Desired outcomes are achieved through effort alone, not through mere wishes; for gazelles don’t rush into the mouth of a sleeping lion. A child becomes accomplished if his parents educate him. A son does not become learned just by dropping from the womb. A mother and a father who do not educate their son are his enemies, for he won’t shine in public—he will be like a crane among swans! Men who are handsome, young and well-born will 0.50 not excel without knowledge—they are like k´ınshuka flowers, which have no scent. 71
  • 65. friendly advice m¯urkho ’pi ´sobhate t¯avat sabh¯ay¯am. vastraAves.t.itah.— t¯avac ca ´sobhate m¯urkho y¯avat kim. cin na bh¯as.ate.» [40] etaccintayitv¯a,sar¯aj¯apan.d.itaAsabh¯am. k¯aritav¯an.r¯aj” ˆov¯a- ca: «bho bhoh. pan.d.it¯ah., ´sr¯uyat¯am. asti ka´s cid evamAbh¯uto vidv¯an yo mama putr¯an. ¯am. nityam unAm¯argaAg¯amin¯am anA adhigataA´s¯astr¯an. ¯am id¯an¯ım. n¯ıtiA´s¯astr’Aˆopade´sena punarAjan- ma k¯arayitum. samarthah.? yatah., k¯acah. k¯a˜ncanaAsam. sarg¯ad dhatte m¯arakat¯ım. dyutim; tath¯a satAsam. nidh¯anena m¯urkho y¯ati prav¯ın.at¯am. [41] uktam. ca, h¯ıyate hi matis, t¯ata, h¯ınaih. saha sam¯agam¯at,0.55 samai´s ca samat¯am eti, vi´sis.t.ai´s ca vi´sis.t.at¯am.» [42] atr’ ˆantare Vis.n.u´sarmaAn¯am¯a mah¯aApan.d.itah. sakalaAn¯ıtiA ´s¯astraAtattvaAj˜no Br.haspatir iv’ ˆabrav¯ıt: «deva, mah¯aAkulaAsa- mbh¯ut¯a ete r¯ajaAputr¯ah.. tan may¯a n¯ıtim. gr¯ahayitum. ´sakya- nte. yatah., n’ ˆaAdravye nihit¯a k¯a cit kriy¯a phalavat¯ı bhavet; na vy¯ap¯araA´saten’ ˆapi ´sukavat p¯at.hyate bakah.. [43] 72
  • 66. prologue Even an idiot can appear distinguished in an assembly if he wears the appropriate clothes, but he will remain so only as long as he does not say a word.” Prompted by these thoughts, the king summoned an as- sembly of learned men. He then asked: “O learned scholars, listen, is there a wise man among you who could teach my ignorant and perpetually wayward sons the science of po- litical ethics and thus give them a new birth, as it were? For, When a piece of glass is set in gold, it takes on an emerald luster; in the same way, if a fool remains in the company of the wise, he will become clever. And it is also said: Dear friend, one’s intelligence diminishes in the com- 0.55 pany of inferior intellects, it remains the same if one is with equals and improves in the company of superior minds.” Thereupon a great scholar called Vishnu·sharman, who knew all the learned works on statecraft very well and was likeBrihas·pati*himself,spoke:“YourMajesty,theseprinces come from a distinguished family, so they could be taught good governance, and I am ready to instruct them. For, No action can bear fruit if it is performed on an in- appropriate object; a crane cannot be taught to speak like a parrot, even after a hundred exercises. 73
  • 67. friendly advice anyac ca, asmim. s tu nirAgun.am. gotre n’ ˆapatyam upaj¯ayate; ¯akare padmar¯ag¯an. ¯am. janma k¯acaAman.eh. kutah.? [44] ato ’ham. s.an.Am¯as’Aˆabhyantare tava putr¯an n¯ıtiA´s¯astr’Aˆabhi-0.60 j˜n¯an karis.y¯ami.» r¯aj¯a saAvinayam. punar uv¯aca: «k¯ıt.o ’pi suAmanah.Asa˙ng¯ad ¯arohati sat¯am. ´sirah.. a´sm” ˆapiy¯atidevatvam. mahadbhih. suApratis.t.hitah..[45] anyac ca, yath” ˆOdayaAgirer dravyam. sam. nikars.en.a d¯ıpyate tath¯a satAsam. nidh¯anena h¯ınaAvarn.o ’pi d¯ıpyate [46] gun. ¯a gun.aAj˜nes.u gun. ¯a bhavanti, te nirAgun.am. pr¯apya bhavanti dos.¯ah.. ¯asv¯adyaAtoy¯ah. prabhavanti nadyah., samudram ¯as¯adya bhavanty aApey¯ah.. [47] tad etes.¯am asmatAputr¯an. ¯am. n¯ıtiA´s¯astr’Aˆopade´s¯aya bhavan-0.65 tah. pram¯an.am.» ity uktv¯a tasya Vis.n.u´sarman.o bahuAm¯anaA purah.Asaram putr¯an samarpitav¯an. 74
  • 68. prologue What is more, In this family, no child could be born without merits; how could a mine of rubies produce a shard of glass? Therefore I shall transform your sons into experts on 0.60 statecraft within six months.” The king replied politely: “Even an insect can climb up good people’s heads by sticking to the flowers they wear. Even a stone can become a god if it is consecrated by the great. Furthermore, Just as objects on the Eastern Mountain shine because of their proximity to the rising sun, so too can a person of low rank shine if he is close to good folk. Good qualities remain good qualities in those who appreciate them, but become faults in a person of no merit. River water tastes good at its source, but when it reaches the ocean it becomes undrinkable. Therefore I give you a free hand in teaching my sons 0.65 the science of politics.” And with these words he paid his respect to Vishnu·sharman and entrusted to him his sons. 75
  • 69. Book 1 On How To Win Friends
  • 70. atha pr¯as¯adaApr.s.t.he sukh’Aˆopavis.t.¯an¯am. r¯ajaAputr¯an. ¯am.1.1 purast¯at prast¯avaAkramen.a sa pan.d.ito ’brav¯ıt— «k¯avyaA´s¯astraAvinodena k¯alo gacchati dh¯ımat¯am, vyasanena ca m¯urkh¯an. ¯am. , nidray¯a, kalahena v¯a. [1] tad bhavat¯am. vinod¯aya k¯akaAk¯urm’A¯ad¯ın¯am. vicitr¯am. ka- th¯am. kathay¯ami.» r¯ajaAputrair uktam, «¯arya, kathyat¯am.» Vis.n.u´sarm” ˆov¯aca: «´sr.n.uta. samprati MitraAl¯abhah. prast¯uyate yasy’ ˆayam ¯adyah. ´slokah.— aAs¯adhan¯a, vittaAh¯ın¯a, buddhimantah., suhr.ttam¯ah.—1.5 s¯adhayanty ¯a´su k¯ary¯an.i k¯akaAk¯urmaAmr.g’A¯akhavah..» [2] r¯ajaAputr¯a ¯ucuh., «katham etat?» Vis.n.u´sarm¯a kathayati— «asti God¯avar¯ıAt¯ıre vi´s¯alah. ´s¯almal¯ıAtaruh.. tatra n¯an¯aAdigAde- ´s¯ad ¯agatya r¯atrau paks.in.o nivasanti. atha kad¯a cid avasan- n¯ay¯am. r¯atr¯av Ast’AˆacalaAc¯ud.”Aˆavalambini bhagavati kamudi- n¯ıAn¯ayake candramasi LaghupatanakaAn¯am¯a v¯ayasah. prabu- ddhah. kr.t’Aˆantam iva dvit¯ıyam ¯ay¯antam. vy¯adham apa´syat. tam avaloky’ ˆacintayat: ‹adya pr¯atar ev’ ˆanAis.t.aAdar´sanam. j¯a- tam. na j¯ane kim anAabhimatam. dar´sayis.yati.› 78
  • 71. While the princes were sitting comfortably on a ter- 1.1 race of the palace, the learned scholar said the fol- lowing by way of an introduction. “The wise spend their time diverting themselves with poetry and learned treatises, while fools succumb to vice, sleep or quarrels. So to amuse you, I shall relate the wonderful story of the crow, the tortoise and their friends.” The princes asked him to do so, and Vishnu·sharman began: “Listen, I shall start with the book on how to win friends, of which the first verse is: They had neither means nor wealth, but they were 1.5 intelligent and the best of friends—and they quickly obtained their ends. Such is the story of the crow, the tortoise, the deer and the mouse.” The princes asked him to explain the story, and Vishnu· sharman did so. “Once upon a time there was a huge silk-cotton tree on the bank of the river God´avari. Birds came from every quarter to roost there at night. Once at the end of the night when the moon god, lord of the night-lotuses, was reclining upon the peak of the Western Mountain, a crow called Fast- Flying awoke to see a fowler approach like a second god of death. Watching him, the crow thought: ‘Today already at dawn I see an ill omen! I wonder what unwanted thing this portends.’ 79
  • 72. friendly advice ity uktv¯a tadAanusaran.aAkramen.a vy¯akula´s calitah.. yatah., ´sokaAsth¯anaAsahasr¯an.i bhayaAsth¯anaA´sat¯ani ca divase divase m¯ud.ham ¯avi´santi, na pan.d.itam. [3] anyac ca. vis.ayin. ¯am idam ava´syam. kartavyam,1.10 utth¯ay’ ˆotth¯aya boddhavyam. : ‹mahad bhayam upasthitam. maran.aAvy¯adhiA´sok¯an¯am. kim adya nipatis.yati?› [4] atha tena vy¯adhena tan.d.ulaAkan. ¯an vik¯ırya j¯alam. vist¯ır- n.am. sa ca pracchanno bh¯utv¯a sthitah.. tasminn eva k¯ale Ci- tragr¯ıvaAn¯am¯a kapotaAr¯ajah. saApariv¯aro viyati visarpam. s t¯am. s tan.d.ulaAkan. ¯an avalokay¯am ¯asa. tatah. kapotaAr¯ajas tan.d.ulaA kan.aAlubdh¯an kapot¯an praty ¯aha: ‹kuto ’tra nirAjane vane tan.d.ulaAkan. ¯an¯am. sambhavah.? tan nir¯upyat¯am. t¯avat. bha- dram idam. na pa´sy¯ami. pr¯ayen.’ ˆanena tan.d.ulaAkan.aAlobhen’ ˆasm¯abhir api tath¯a bhavitavyam. . . ka˙nkan.asya tu lobhena magnah. pa˙nke suAdusAtare vr.ddhaAvy¯aghren.a sampr¯aptah. pathikah. sa mr.to yath¯a.› [5] kapot¯a ¯ucuh., ‹katham etat?› so ’brav¯ıt— 80
  • 73. on how to win friends Deeply anxious, he left and followed the fowler. For, Day after day, fools are overtaken by thousands of reasons to be upset and hundreds of reasons to be afraid—unlike the wise. What’s more, men of the world would surely do the 1.10 following: As they get up every day, they would think: ‘Something awful is about to happen. What will befall us today? Death, disease or sorrow?’ The fowler scattered some grains of rice, spread out his net, hid himself away, and waited. At that very moment the king of pigeons, called Speckled-Neck, was cruising in the sky with his retinue and saw the grains. The pigeons were eager to pick up the grains, but their ruler warned them: ‘How can there possibly be grains of rice in an uninhabited forest? Let’s look around. This doesn’t look so promising to me. Since we are so attracted to rice grains, we may end up in the same way. . . as the traveler who coveted a bracelet, sank in an im- passable mire, got caught by an old tiger, and died.’ The pigeons asked him to tell the story, and so he began: 81
  • 74. friendly advice 1 ‹aham ekad¯a Daks.in.’Aˆaran.ye carann apa´syam: eko vr.ddhaA1.15 vy¯aghrah. sn¯atah. ku´saAhastah. sarasAt¯ırebr¯ute:«bhobhoh. p¯an- th¯a, idam. suvarn.aAka˙nkan.am. gr.hyat¯am.» tato lobh’A¯akr.s.t.ena kena cit p¯anthen’ ¯alocitam: «bh¯agyen’ ˆaitat sambhavati. kim. tv asminn ¯atmaAsam. dehe pravr.ttir na vidhey¯a. yatah., anAis.t.¯ad is.t.aAl¯abhe ’pi na gatir j¯ayate ´subh¯a. yatr’ ¯aste vis.aAsam. sargo ’mr.tam. tad api mr.tyave. [6] kim. tu sarvatr’ ˆarth’Aˆarjane pravr.ttih. sam. deha eva. tath¯a c’ ˆoktam— na sam. ´sayam anA¯aruhya naro bhadr¯an.i pa´syati. sam. ´sayam. punar ¯aruhya yadi j¯ıvati, pa´syati. [7] tan nir¯upay¯ami t¯avat.» prak¯a´sam. br¯ute, «kutra tava ka˙n- kan.am?» vy¯aghro hastam. pras¯arya dar´sayati.1.20 p¯antho ’vadat: «katham. m¯ar’A¯atmake tvayi vi´sv¯asah.?» 82
  • 75. the old tiger and the traveler 1 ‘Once, when I was soaring over the Southern Forest, I saw 1.15 an old tiger by the shore of a lake. He had already taken a ritual bath, and holding holy kusha grass in his paw,* he kept saying: “O travelers, please take this golden bracelet!” Then a traveler, impelled by greed, reflected: “What good luck that this should happen to me. But if there is any personal risk, I shouldn’t move. For Although it is possible to get something desirable from an undesirable source, no good can come of it. Even the nectar of immortality is deadly when it has touched poison. However, if one wants to obtain wealth, there is always some risk. It is also said: A man will not prosper if he takes no risks. But if he does take a risk, and survives, he will prosper. So let me investigate the matter.” Then he said aloud: “Where is your bracelet?” The tiger held out his paw and showed it to him. 1.20 The traveler then asked: “How can I trust you? You are a predator!” 83
  • 76. friendly advice vy¯aghra uv¯aca: «´sr.n.u, re p¯antha, pr¯ag eva yauvanaAda- ´s¯ay¯am atiAdurAvr.tta ¯asam. anekaAgoAm¯anus.¯an. ¯am. vadh¯an me putr¯a mr.t¯a d¯ar¯a´s ca. vam. ´saAh¯ına´s c’ ˆaham. tatah. kena cid dh¯armiken.’ ˆaham ¯adis.t.ah.: ‹d¯anaAdharm’A¯adikam. caratu bha- v¯an.› tadAupade´s¯ad id¯an¯ım aham. sn¯anaA´s¯ılo d¯at¯a vr.ddho ga- litaAnakhaAdanto na katham. vi´sv¯asaAbh¯umih.? yatah., ijy”AˆadhyayanaAd¯an¯ani, tapah., satyam. , dhr.tih., ks.am¯a, aAlobha—iti m¯argo ’yam. dharmasy’ ˆas.t.aAvidhah. smr.tah.. [8] tatra p¯urva´s caturAvargo dambh’Aˆartham api sevyate, uttaras tu caturAvargo mah”A¯atmany eva tis.t.hati. [9] mama c’ ˆait¯av¯a˜l lobhaAviraho, yena svaAhastaAstham api1.25 suvarn.aAka˙nkan.am. yasmai kasmai cid d¯atum icch¯ami. ta- th” ˆapi, ‹vy¯aghro m¯anus.am. kh¯adat’› ˆıti lok’Aˆapav¯ado durAni- v¯arah.. yatah., gat’Aˆanugatiko lokah.; kut.t.an¯ım upade´sin¯ım pram¯an.ayati no dharme, yath¯a goAghnam api dviAjam. [10] may¯a ca dharmaA´s¯astr¯an.y adh¯ıt¯ani. ´sr.n.u— 84
  • 77. the old tiger and the traveler Thetigerreplied:“Listen,Otraveler,Ibehavedverybadly long ago, when I was young, and because I killed many cows and men, my sons and wife died. Now I have no descen- dents. Then a pious man suggested that I should practice charity, fulfill my religious duties, and so on. Following his advice, I now take ritual baths and make donations. I am old, and have no claws or fangs—why wouldn’t I be trust- worthy? For, Ritual offerings, the study of the Vedas, alms-giving, asceticism, truthfulness, patience, forgiveness and lack of greed—this is known as the eightfold path of righ- teousness. Of these eight, the first four can be prac- ticed as a matter of hypocrisy, but the latter four can be found only in great souls. I am so devoid of greed that I want to give away this 1.25 golden bracelet to anyone at all, even though it’s in my very hand. Nevertheless, it’s hard to dispel the pejorative commonplace that tigers eat humans. For, People simply follow the herd, and they would never listen to what a procuress might teach them about religious matters: but they would obey a brahmin, even if he had killed a cow. And I have studied treatises on religious duties. Listen: 85
  • 78. friendly advice maruAsthaly¯am. yath¯a vr.s.t.ih., ks.udh”A¯arte bhojanam. , tath¯a daridre d¯ıyate d¯anam. saAphalam. , P¯an.d.uAnandana. [11] pr¯an. ¯a yath” ¯atmano ’bh¯ıs.t.¯a, bh¯ut¯an¯am api te tath¯a. ¯atm’Aˆaupamyena bh¯utes.u day¯am. kurvanti s¯adhavah.. [12] aparam. ca,1.30 praty¯akhy¯ane ca, d¯ane ca, sukhaAduh.khe, priy’Aˆapriye, ¯atm’Aˆaupamyena purus.ah. pram¯an.am adhigacchati. [13] anyac ca, m¯atr.vat paraAd¯ares.u, paraAdravyes.u los.t.avat, ¯atmavat sarvaAbh¯utes.u yah. pa´syati, sa pan.d.itah.. [14] tvam. c’ ˆat¯ıva durAgatas, tena tat tubhyam. d¯atum. saAyatno ’ham. tath¯a c’ ˆoktam— daridr¯an bhara, Kaunteya,1.35 m¯a prayacch’ ¯e´svare dhanam. vy¯adhitasy’ ˆaus.adham. pathyam. , n¯ıArujasya kim aus.adhair? [15] anyac ca, d¯atavyam iti yad d¯anam. d¯ıyate ’nAupak¯arin.e, de´se, k¯ale ca, p¯atre ca, tad d¯anam. s¯attvikam. viduh.. [16] 86
  • 79. the old tiger and the traveler Like rain in a desert land, like food for the famished, a gift given to a poor man is given fruitfully, O son of Pandu.* Just as you treasure your life, so do other living creatures treasure theirs. Good folk take pity on living beings, judging everyone the same as themselves. Further, 1.30 Whether refusing something or donating something, whether in times of pleasure or pain, whether some- thing is liked or not, a man knows the measure of his actions by imagining himself in the other’s place. And there’s more, It’s a wise man who regards the wife of another man as his own mother, the wealth of others as a clod of earth, and all creatures as himself. You’re in a bad way, which is why I’m trying to give this bracelet to you. And it is also said: Be generous to the poor, O son of Kunti,* you don’t 1.35 need to give money to kings. Medicine is beneficial for the sick. But what use is it to a healthy person? Furthermore, A gift ought to be given in a generous spirit to someone unable to repay it, at the right place and time, and to a man of merit—that is the best kind of charity. 87
  • 80. friendly advice tad atra sarasi sn¯atv¯a suvarn.aAka˙nkan.am. gr.h¯an.a.» tato y¯avad asau tadAvacah. prat¯ıto lobh¯at sarah. sn¯atum. pravi´sati. t¯avan mah¯aApa˙nke nimagnah. pal¯ayitum aAks.amah.. pa˙nke patitam. dr.s.t.v¯a vy¯aghro ’vadat: «ahaha, mah¯aApa˙nke patito ’si. atas tv¯am aham utth¯apay¯ami.» ity uktv¯a ´sanaih. ´sanair upagamya tena vy¯aghren.a dhr.tah.1.40 sa p¯antho ’cintayat: «na dharmaA´s¯astram. pat.hat’ ˆıti k¯aran.am. , na c’ ˆapi ved’Aˆadhyayanam. durA¯atmanah.— svaAbh¯ava ev’ ˆatra tath” ˆatiricyate, yath¯a prakr.ty¯a madhuram. gav¯am. payah.. [17] kim. ca, aAva´s’AˆendriyaAcitt¯an¯am. hastiAsn¯anam iva kriy¯a; durbhag”A¯abharan.aApr¯ayo j˜n¯anam. bh¯arah. kriy¯am. vin¯a. [18] tan may¯a bhadram. na kr.tam. yad atra m¯ar’A¯atmake vi´sv¯a- sah. kr.tah.. tath¯a hy uktam— nad¯ın¯am. , ´sastraAp¯an.¯ın¯am. , nakhin¯am. , ´sr.˙ngin. ¯am. tath¯a1.45 vi´sv¯aso n’ ˆaiva kartavyah. str¯ıs.u r¯ajaAkules.u ca. [19] aparam. ca, sarvasya hi par¯ıks.yante svaAbh¯av¯a, n’ ˆetare gun. ¯ah.. at¯ıtya hi gun. ¯an sarv¯an svaAbh¯avo m¯urdhni vartate. [20] 88
  • 81. the old tiger and the traveler So bathe in this lake and take this golden bracelet.” The traveler accepted the tiger at his word and, motivated by greed, entered the lake to bathe. But as soon as he did so, he sank in the mud and was unable to escape. When the tiger saw him stuck in the mud, he exclaimed: “Alas, you have fallen into the deep mire! I shall pull you out.” As the tiger slowly approached the traveler and seized 1.40 him, the man reflected: “It is not because he has read treatises on religious duty or because he has studied the Vedas that he behaves like this—it is the wicked creature’s own nature that prevails here, just as cow’s milk is naturally sweet. Moreover, The actions of people with uncontrolled minds and senses are as useless as bathing an elephant. But knowl- edge without action is just a burden, like jewelry on an ugly woman.* So I did not do well to trust this murderer. For it is also said: One should never trust rivers, men holding weapons, 1.45 beasts with claws or horns, women, and royal families. And there is another saying, People’s true natures should be considered, not their other qualities. For one’s true nature is uppermost, prevailing over all those qualities. 89
  • 82. friendly advice anyac ca, sa hi gaganaAvih¯ar¯ı kalmas.aBdhvam. saBk¯ar¯ı da´saA´sataAkaraAdh¯ar¯ı jyotis.¯am. madhyaAc¯ar¯ı vidhur api vidhiAyog¯ad grasyate R¯ahun.” ˆasau. likhitam api lal¯at.e projjhitum. kah. samarthah.?» [21] iti cintayann ev’ ˆasau vy¯aghren.a vy¯ap¯aditah. kh¯adita´s ca.1.50 ato ’ham. brav¯ımi: «ka˙nkan.asya tu lobhen’ ˆety» ¯adi. T atah. sarvath” ˆaAvic¯aritam. karma na kartavyam. yatah. suAj¯ırn.am annam. , suAvicaks.an.ah. sutah., suA´s¯asit¯a str¯ı, nr.Apatih. suAsevitah., suAcintya c’ ˆoktam. , suAvic¯arya yat kr.tam, suAd¯ırghaAk¯ale ’pi na y¯ati vikriy¯am.› [22] tadAvacanam. ´srutv¯a ka´s cit kapotah. saAdarpam ¯aha: ‹¯ah., kim evam ucyate! vr.ddh¯an¯am. vacanam. gr¯ahyam ¯apatAk¯ale hy upasthite;1.55 sarvatr’ ˆaivam. vic¯aren.a bhojane ’py aApravartanam. [23] yatah., 90
  • 83. on how to win friends And it is also said, The thousand-rayed moon plays in the sky, destroys his own stain : destroys all sins and drifts between the stars—but even he is subject to his fate and must be devoured by Rahu.* Who can wipe off what is written on his forehead?”* As he was musing in this way, he was killed and eaten by 1.50 the tiger. That’s why I said: “. . . as the traveler who coveted a bracelet, sank in an impassable mire, got caught by an old tiger, and died.” T So under no circumstances should one act thoughtlessly. For, Well-digested food, a well-educated son, a well- controlled wife, a well-served king, speaking after thinkingandactingafterreflecting—thesethingsnever cause harm, not even in the long run.’* Hearing these words, one pigeon spoke up arrogantly: ‘What a lesson! If disaster were near, we would listen to the words of 1.55 our elders. But if we were to think so carefully in all cases, we wouldn’t even get round to eating! For, 91
  • 84. friendly advice ´sa˙nk¯abhih. sarvam ¯akr¯antamannam. p¯anam. cabh¯uAtale. pravr.ttih. kutrakartavy¯a?j¯ıvitavyam. katham. nuv¯a?[24] ¯ırs.y¯ı, ghr.n.¯ı tv, aAsam. tus.t.ah., krodhano, nityaA´sa˙nkitah., paraAbh¯agy’Aˆopaj¯ıv¯ı ca—s.ad. ete duh.khaAbh¯aginah..› [25] etac chrutv¯a sarve kapot¯as tatr’ ˆopavis.t.¯ah.. yatah., suAmah¯anty api ´s¯astr¯an.i1.60 dh¯arayanto bahuA´srut¯ah. chett¯arah. sam. ´say¯an¯am. ca kli´syante lobhaAmohit¯ah.. [26] anyac ca, lobh¯at krodhah. prabhavati, lobh¯at k¯amah. praj¯ayate; lobh¯an moha´s ca n¯a´sa´s ca: lobhah. p¯apasya k¯aran.am. [27] anyac ca, aAsambhavam. hemaAmr.gasya janma— tath” ˆapi R¯amo lulubhe mr.g¯aya. pr¯ayah. sam¯apannaAvipattiAk¯ale dhiyo ’pi pum. s¯am. malin¯a bhavanti. [28] anAantaram. sarve j¯alena baddh¯a babh¯uvuh.. tato yasya va-1.65 can¯at tatr’ ˆavalambit¯as tam. sarve tirasAkurvanti. yatah., 92
  • 85. on how to win friends Everythingonthesurfaceoftheearthisbesetbydoubt, includingeatinganddrinking.Howthenarewetolead normal lives? How can we survive? He who is envious, he who criticizes everything, he who is never satisfied, the angry man and the ever fearful, and he who lives off someone else’s fortune— these six have a miserable fate.’ Hearing this, all the pigeons alighted on the ground. For, Even the very learned who have studied major treatises 1.60 and are able to dispel doubts, even they suffer if they are blinded by greed. And there is another verse, Greedproducesangeranddesire;greedbringsdelusion and destruction: greed is the cause of evil. Also, A golden deer cannot exist—yet Rama coveted such a deer.* People’s judgment generally turns faulty under the threat of a great calamity. All the pigeons were immediately caught in the net, and 1.65 they all started to blame the one that had urged them to land. For, 93
  • 86. friendly advice na gan.asy’ ˆagrato gacchet, siddhe k¯arye samam. phalam. yadi k¯aryaAvipattih. sy¯an, mukharas tatra hanyate. [29] tasya tirasAk¯aram. ´srutv¯a Citragr¯ıva uv¯aca: ‹n’ ˆayam asya dos.ah.. yatah., ¯apad¯am ¯apatant¯ın¯am. hito ’py ¯ay¯ati hetut¯am; m¯atr.Aja˙ngh¯ahivatsasyastambh¯ıAbhavatibandhane.[30] anyac ca, sa bandhur yo vipann¯an¯am ¯apadAuddharan.aAks.amah.,1.70 na tu durAvihit’Aˆat¯ıtaAvast’Aˆup¯alambhaApan.d.itah.. [31] vipatAk¯ale vismaya eva k¯apurus.aAlaks.an.am. tad atra dhair- yam avalambya prat¯ık¯ara´s cintyat¯am. yatah., vipadi dhairyam, ath’ ˆabhyudaye ks.am¯a, sadasi v¯akApat.ut¯a, yudhi vikramah., ya´sasi c’ ˆabhirucir, vyasanam. ´srutau— prakr.tiAsiddham idam. hi mah”A¯atman¯am. [32] sampadi yasya na hars.o, vipadi vis.¯ado, ran.e ca dh¯ıratvam, tam. bhuvanaAtrayaAtilakam. janayati janan¯ı sutam. viralam. [33] 94