INTRODUCTION.
DEFINATION OF BEER.
INGREDIENTS.
PROCESSING OF BEER .
QUALITY ASSURANCE.
BOTTLING.
BYPRODUCTS.
 History abounds in colorful unity that led to the
formation of McDowell & company. In the late
nineteenth century, Angus...
 The genesis of UB takes back to 1857 wherein the
company made a modest beginning with five
breweries in south India. The...
 In the year if India’s independence 1947 the UB
was brought by late Mr. Vittal Mallaya who took
up the responsibilities ...
 Sales of UB sprit division exceeds 60 Million during the
fiscal year 2005-07 making the group the 3rd largest
manufactur...
The word Beer comes from the Latin word “bibere” meaning “to
drink”. It is an undistilled alcoholic drink.
 Beer is the w...
 Water
 Malted barley
 Adjuncts ( broken rice)
 Sugar
 Yeast
 Hopes
 Enzymes
 Water is the predominant brewing raw material with
most beers composed of 90-95% water.
 The importance of water used i...
Malted barley is the main raw material used in the brewing
of beer. Malt provides the sugar that will be fermented
into al...
 Six-row barley has higher enzyme content for converting
starch into fermentable sugars, more protein, less starch,
and a...
 Two –row barely has lower enzyme content, less protein,
more starch, and a thinner husk than six row barley.
 The highe...
Barely is the main cereal used for the production of
brewer’s malt. However, many unmalted cereals are used
as brewing adj...
The benefits claimed for solid adjuncts usage are:
 Reduced starch extracts cost.
 Improved beer stability and shelf-lif...
 Sugar can be grown naturally as in the case of sugar cane or
beet.
 Sugar is highly fermentable and is usually added to...
 Yeast is the unicellular microorganism that is responsible
for fermentation and production of beer.
 Yeast metabolises ...
 Hops are the female flowers of Humulus lupulus.
 Hops, other herbs and spices were probably first added to
finished bee...
Enzymes are usually added for following reasons:
 For better conversion of complex carbohydrate to simpler
once to avail ...
Filtration
Fermentation
Wartboiling
Mashing
Milling
Malting
Barley is spread out on the floor of a malthouse during a traditional
malting process.
The malting process starts with dr...
The grain at this point is called "green malt".
The green malt is then kiln-dried to the desired colour and
specificatio...
STEEPING
STEEPING
GERMINATION
KILNING
(The seed is soaked in
water start it growing)
(The barley grows under
controlled co...
Processing of milling:
ASPERATOR(dust particles)
CLASSIFIER (foreign materials)
MAGNETIC SEPERATOR(metals)
BUCKET ELEVATOR...
 The objective of milling is to break up malt to such an
extent that the greatest yield of extract is produced in
the sho...
 A hammer mill may be used if the mash is to be separated
in a mash filter.
 A hammer mill produces a very fine grind.
...
Mashing is the process where the crushed malt or grist
is mixed with water under specified conditions so that
enzymatic ac...
 When the mash temp reaches 70 ± 2°C collect the
sample from the mash tun to find whether
Saccharification is completed o...
CONDITION LOW OPTIMUM HIGH
TEMPERATURE Low temperatures donot
effect the enzymes
much,but starch must be
gelatinised
first...
 Ceramix To deactivate the enzyme
activity.
 Ultra flow To smoothen the movement of
produce.
 Thermamyl For gleatinizat...
 When conversion is complete, the mash will consist of
a sugar solution called wort and the husks of the
malted barley.
...
 The objectives of effective wort separation are the
removal of unwanted material while at the same time
extracting all t...
When the wort has been separated from the malt husk, it is
boiled. There are several important reasons for doing this:-
 ...
 To denature and coagulate some of the protein derived
from the malt.
 To develop wort colour and flavour through the ac...
At the end of the boil, the wort will be bright but there
will be large particles floating in it. These particles
contain:...
 Tannin material from the malt husk and from the
hops.
 Lipids or fatty material that will destroy the beer’s
head stabi...
It is necessary to remove this ‘trub’ to protect the beer’s
quality. There are four main ways of doing this
depending on t...
The wort coming from the kettle will be at 100°C, after
clarification.Wort is cooled to 12oC before yeast pitching
is done...
The yeast is pitched in the wort during transfer of wort
from plate heat exchanger to fermenter, which is
carried out in p...
Selection will be based on laboratory analysis like Solids,
Viability and Microbiological status (free of infection) and
f...
Brew length in HL X 0.0259 X Required pitching cell count in millions X 104
YeastSolids%XViability%
= HL of Yeast for pitc...
 The aerated wort is cooled to approximately 10 to
110c and then placed in a pre sanitised closed
fermentation tank conta...
 Approximately three quarters to one pound of yeast
are added for each barrel of wort.
 Within 24 hrs after pitching, fo...
 By approximately 40-60 hours after pitching, the
surface foam layer becomes very thick and can
measure up to almost 12 i...
 This will enhance the activity of enzymes involved in
fermentation that convert all the reducible sugars to
alcohol and ...
 Yeast is collected in storage tanks maintained at
temperature 4.5oC, which can further be used for next
batch of ferment...
 From Fermentor beer is sent to Pre Buffer Tank. In Pre
buffer tank the beer is stored in order to reduce the
flow pressu...
 Now the beer is send to Post Buffer Tank. From there it
is send to Corboblender.
 The function of Corboblender is that ...
 Then the beer is passed CONTROLLING VALVE to
reduce pressure.
 Now it is send to BIGHT BEER TANK (BBT). For the
storage...
 WATER ANALYSIS.
 WORT ANALYSIS.
 SUGAR ANALYSIS.
 BROKEN RICE.
 MALT ANALYSIS.
 SIEVE ANALYSIS.
 PACKAGING MATERIA...
WATER ANALYSIS:
 CHLORIDE IN WATER.
 HARDNESS OF WATER.
 ALKALINITY.
 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS.
 FREE CHLORINE.
 PH.
...
CHLORINE IN WATER:
Procedure:
 Take 100 ml. water sample in 250 ml. capacity
conical flask then add 1 ml. of potassium ch...
HARDNESS OF WATER:
Reagents: NH4OH, NH4Cl, Buffer, 16.85 grams of NH4Cl,
142.5 ml. of NH4OH make the total volume to 250 m...
ALKALINITY:
It is caused by calcium carbonate (caco3). More
alkalinity will lead to formation scales in the
boilers.
 Tak...
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS:
It gives the amount of dissolved and suspended material
present in the water sample.
 Take 100ml ...
FREE CHLORINE:
This gives that are free to react with other
component.
 Take 50ml water.
 Add 5ml of chloride reagent.
...
PH:
 The ph is determining using ph meter.
 Take some sample of water in the beaker and
record ph using ph meter.
Specif...
Appearance: the appearance water should be clear,
colour less, sparking and free from any
suspended solid.
Odour: the odou...
WORT ANALYSIS:
 SPECIFIC GRAVITY
 COLOUR.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY:
Procedure:
 The sample was collected and cooled to around 150C so that
the temperature of sample does n...
COLOUR:
Procedure:
 The sample was degassed and filtered, and the
filtrate was taken.
 Absorbance of filtrate was noted ...
SUGAR ANALYSIS:
 APPERANCE.
 MOISTER CONTENT.
 COLOUR OF 10% SOLUTION.
 PH OF 10% SOLUTION.
APPERANCE:
Sugar is observed against white back ground. Any colour
matter present will indicate that sugar is not clear.
M...
COLOUR OF 10% SOLUTION:
 Weigh 50g of sample and mix it will with warm
water then make it to 500ml at 20c.
 Filter it to...
BROKEN RICE:
 APPEARANCE.
 MOISTURE CONTENT.
 KETTLE TEST.
APPERANCE:
The rice used should of whitish yellow in colour and
free from dust, sand particles.
MOISTER CONTENT:
 High mo...
KETTLE TEST:
 This test is performed to determine the odour.
 Take a clean conical flask.
 Fill its half volume with wa...
MALT ANALYSIS:
 APPEARANCE.
 MOISTER CONTENT.
 KETTLE TEST.
 TOTAL CORN WEIGHT.
APPERANCE:
Malt should be of golden brown colour without any
black spots.
MOISTER CONTENT:
 High moister will lead to bac...
KETTLE TEST:
 This test is performed to determine the odour.
 Take a clean conical flask.
 Fill its half volume with wa...
TOTAL CORN WEIGHT:
 The test is performed to find out the amount of waste and
foreign matter present in malt sample.
 Ta...
SIEVE ANALYSIS:
Procedure:
 This test is performed to know whether all the grains are of
similar size.
 Take 100g of sam...
PACKAGING MATERIALS:
 CARTONS.
 WEIGHT OF CARTONS.
 BURSTING STRENGTH.
 LENGTH, WIDTH, HEIGHT.
 FLUTES.
 COBB VALUE....
Cartons:
The qualities of cartons are important in the store age and
transport of beer. The bottom end of the croton espec...
Length, width, height:
This is recorded by using the measuring scale. 300,
230, 296cm are specification respectively
Flute...
Cobb value:
 Cut the piece of carton sufficed enough to fit in
equipment and take its weight.
 Fill the equipment with w...
GSM:
Take 10*10 cut area of craft and soak in water for 10-
15mins. Then individual layers are serrated and
dried in oven ...
MOISTER:
 It is recorded by using of HYDROMETER.
Increase in moister will lead to the soften of
cartons.
 The moister sh...
LABEL ANALYSIS:
 WEIGHT.
 GSM.
 COBB VALVE.
 GRAIN DIRECTION.
WEIGHT:
Weight is determined by weighing machine.
SPECIFICATION: front-0.5305
Back-0.3499
Neck-0.1492
GSM:
It is similar t...
COBB VALVE:
 Take initial weight; dip the label in water facing up
said for 45sec. Then place it on filter paper to
remov...
GRAIN DIRECTION:
Labels are dipped in water facing upside down for
few seconds and folding patens are absovered
along the ...
CROWNS ANALYSIS:
 SKIRT DIAMETER.
 INTERNAL DIAMETER.
 WEIGHT OF CROWN.
 WEIGHT OF LINER.
 LAQUER TEST.
SKIRT DIAMETER: its recorded using vernier scale.
SPECIFICATION: 31.58MM.
INTERNAL DIAMETER: it’s recorded using vernier
s...
WEIGHT OF LINER:
The liner is removed and its weight is noted.
SPECIFICATION: 0.232 grams.
LAQUER TEST:
 It is done to ch...
BEER ANALYSIS:
 IRON-TESTING.
 CALCIUM TESTING.
 DISSOLVED O2 IN BEER BOTTLE / CAN.
 DIACETYLE IN BEER.
 ALCHOL IN BE...
IRON TESTING:
Reagents:
2.5% Ascorbic acid (fresh), 0.3% Orthophenanthralone (colour
reagent).
Procedure:
 25 ml. of samp...
CALCIUM TESTING:
Reagents:
NaOH solution 5N, Calcien solution flurometric (Reagent
grade), dissolve 1 gr. In 50 ml distill...
 Use a blank background for titration.
 At the end of the yellow green fluorescence is
replaced by an orange brown colou...
DISSOLVED O2 IN BEER BOTTLE / CAN:
Principle:
To decrease or increase shelf life of beer bottle O2 plays a
key role. Highe...
Air Content:
 Till the Hoffman instrument with 40-50 ml caustic.
Place the chilled bottle under the piercing needle
and p...
DIACETYLE IN BEER:
Reagents:
 8.5 % dehydrogenate PO4
 8 % hydroxyl ammonium hydrochloride
Apparatus:
• Distillation uni...
Procedure:
 Take 3.5 ml 8.5 % disodium hydrogen PO4 in 100 ml round flask.
 Add 1000 ml. under gassed beer sample in 100...
 Raise temp after 15 mm up to 1100 c (temp. should
not be exceed over 1100 c) and allow to evaporate
contents up to 4-5 m...
ALCHOL IN BEER:
Apparatus:
Distilled unit volumetric flask 100 ml.
Procedure:
 Take 100 ml decarbonised beer at 200 c.
 ...
 Use 100 ml. volumetric to receive distillate .
 Surrounded the receive with ice or ice water.
 Distilled about 96-97 m...
Calculation:
Specific gravity = weight of Sp. Gravity bottle with
alcohol – weight of empty specific gravity
bottle/weight...
SO2 IN BEER:
Reagents:
0.025 N iodine, starch indicator, conc. HCl
Apparatus:
Distillation apparatus.
Round bottom flask 1...
Procedure:
 Take 10 ml. of conc. HCl in round bottom flask add 250 ml.of
un – gassed beer in round bottom flask
 Arrange...
FOAM STABILITY IN BEER:
Procedure:
 The beer bottle temperature should be 5-70 c pour the beer in
a clean dry glass from ...
APPARENT EXTRACT:
Apparatus:
• Analytical balance.
• Thermometer
• Pycnometer
• Water bath
Procedure:
Determine the specif...
Calculation:
Specific gravity of decarbonated beer = W1-W2
W3-W2
Where,
W1 = Weight of pycnometer with dealcoholized
beer....
REAL EXTRACT:
Apparatus:
• Volumetric flask 100 ml
• Analytical balance
• Thermometer
• Pycnometer
Procedure:
 Transfer t...
 Determine the specific gravity at 20°C/20°C and read gram of
extract per 100g of solution, corresponding to the specific...
Now, determine the value of real extract in grams of extract
in 100 grams of dealcoholized beer (oP), from this
specific g...
COLOUR:
Apparatus:
• Spectrophotometer
• Membrane filter holder
• Membrane filters of pore size 0.45 microns
Procedure:
 ...
 Measure the absorbance at 430nm, against
distilled water as blank.
Calculation:
Colour = A430 x 25
Where,
A430 = Absorba...
BEER BITTERNESS:
Apparatus:.
• UV Spectrophotometer
• Centrifuge
• Rotary shaker, amplitude 2-3 cm
• Glass beads
• Pipette...
Reagents:
 Iso-octane(2,2,4 trimethyl pentane): the absorbance of
this solution must be 0.01 when measured at 275nm in a
...
 Shake the tube for 15 minute at 20°C at 130rpm, on a
rotary shaker and then centrifuge at 3000rpm for 3 min.
 Measure t...
HAZE IN BEER:
Apparatus:
 Haffmans Laboratory Haze meter-VOS Rota 90
 Volumetric flasks-100ml, 200ml
 250ml dark bottle...
 Mix the hydrazine sulphate solution and
hexamethylene solution in a 250ml dark bottle
and let the mixer stand for 48 hou...
HEAD-SPACE AIR CONTENT:
Apparatus:
Haffmans Inpack CO2 & Air Meter/Zahm & Nagel Air Meter
Procedure:
 Take 30% caustic ly...
 After piercing, open the needle valve slowly a bit
and let the head space gas bubble through the
caustic lye in the meas...
TOTAL AIR CONTENT:
Apparatus:
Haffmans Inpack CO2 & Air Meter/Zahm & Nagel Air Meter.
Procedure:
 Take 30% caustic lye in...
 After piercing, open the needle valve slowly a bit and let the
head space gas bubble through the caustic lye in the
meas...
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) CONTENT:
Apparatus:
Haffmans Inpack CO2 & Air Meter/Zahm & Nagel CO2 Meter
Procedure:
 Adjust the in...
BOTTLE WASHING.
SIGHTER STATION 1.
EBI.
BOTTLE FILLING.
BOTTLE CROWNING.
SIGHTER STATION 2.
TUNNEL PASTEURIZATION.
...
BOTLLE WASHER:
Empty bottles are unloaded from trucks and the bottles
having perfect shape without any crakes or damage a...
 Now the bottles are sent to washer where they are washed
with hot water of 80oC and caustic.
 The washer is provided wi...
The bottles washed with caustic are germ free and all
kind of dirt is removed along with labels and foils.
After treatin...
SIGHTER STATION 1:
 Sighters are the people who ensure the proper washing of
bottles.
 There are 4 sighter stations afte...
E.B.I :
E.B.I. is an electronic device created for detection bottles
left from observation of sighters.
It detects only ...
FILLER AND CROWNER:
Filler is the important part of packaging.
The bottles must be filled with accurate amount and
press...
The bottles are filled with carbon-di-oxide and sucked
out twice.
Now the bottle is filled with beer at the temperature ...
A fobbing Jetter passes a rapid vapour of hot water and
removes surface oxygen over beer in the bottle, before
crowning.
...
SIGHTER STATION 2:
At this sighter station sighters check bottles of following
types and remove them from line:
Empty bot...
Other brand embossed bottles.
Bottles with plastic sachet or any foreign matter in beer.
Uncrowned bottles .
Bottles w...
PASTEURIZER:
R1H R2H R3H P1 P2 P3 P4 R3C R2C R1C
30.1 36.0 48.3 62.0 62.0 61.9 61.8 45.8 33.4 24.3
BOTT
LES
IN
BOTT
LES
OU...
The high temperature minimizes the possibility of
survival of any kind of microbial contaminants in it.
Tunnel pasteuriz...
Beer bottles are passed through different zones of
pasteurizer in the sequential manner.
The temperature starts from 320...
SIGHTER STATION 3:
Sighters perform the same work as they do in sighter
station -2 to ensure quality of the product bottle...
The case is packed with 12 bottles in it.
Wooden or plastic pallets are arranged by palletizer such
that each pallet tak...
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king fisher ppt

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
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  • 1. INTRODUCTION. DEFINATION OF BEER. INGREDIENTS. PROCESSING OF BEER . QUALITY ASSURANCE. BOTTLING. BYPRODUCTS.
  • 2.  History abounds in colorful unity that led to the formation of McDowell & company. In the late nineteenth century, Angus McDowell set out from the scenic northern land of Gaelic Britannica. The purpose was to make available the product of the industrial revolution of thousands of expatriate Britons serving the empire in various parts of globe. It was this sprit to adventure that launches McDowell and Co. in India.
  • 3.  The genesis of UB takes back to 1857 wherein the company made a modest beginning with five breweries in south India. The oldest among them was the castle brewery which started operation in the year 1957.  In 1915 a Scotsman named Thomas Leishman combined the five breweries to form the UB. He was then selected as the first director of the company since then it has come a long way with the turnover of around 4600million
  • 4.  In the year if India’s independence 1947 the UB was brought by late Mr. Vittal Mallaya who took up the responsibilities of a director and then becomes the company’s chairman in 1948.  Mr.Vittal Mallaya then acquired kissan products and formed a long term relationship with Hoechst AG Germany to promote what is now known as Aventis pharma. In the field of sprits the UB was also the first company to manufacture “Indian made foreign liquor (IMFl)”.
  • 5.  Sales of UB sprit division exceeds 60 Million during the fiscal year 2005-07 making the group the 3rd largest manufacturer of sprits products in world in addition this division is one of only three in the world to 7 milliner brands & at least 5 brands rated by Drinks international UK to be amongst ten fastest growing brands in the world in their respective categories.  The market share of spirit division in India is currently 60% & export to the Middle East Africa & Asian countries The UB group today controls 60% of the total manufacturing of capacity for Beer in India. The flagship brand kingfisher is now sold over 50 countries worldwide.
  • 6. The word Beer comes from the Latin word “bibere” meaning “to drink”. It is an undistilled alcoholic drink.  Beer is the world’s oldest and most popular alcoholic beverage. It is produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starch based material-the most common being malted barley ; however, wheat, corn and rice are also widely used, usually in conjunction with barley.The starch source is steeped in water. Enzyme in malt break down the starch molecules, producing a sugary liquid known as wort, which is then flavoured with hops, which acts as natural preservative. Other ingredients such as herbs or fruit may be added. Yeast is then used to cause fermentation, which produce an alcohol and other by-products from anaerobic respiration of the yeast as it consumes the sugars. The process of beer production is called brewing.
  • 7.  Water  Malted barley  Adjuncts ( broken rice)  Sugar  Yeast  Hopes  Enzymes
  • 8.  Water is the predominant brewing raw material with most beers composed of 90-95% water.  The importance of water used in the brewing industry is traditionally so significant.  It is easy to ignore the fact that water has its own unique taste.  Being a good solvent, water also provides the macro and micro elements that favour fermentation activities carried out by yeast to a significant extent.
  • 9. Malted barley is the main raw material used in the brewing of beer. Malt provides the sugar that will be fermented into alcohol in the brewing process. Barley is a cereal traditionally grown in mild maritime climates and for centuries it has been used in the production of beer. Commonly two species of barley are used for Brewing:  Hordeum vulgare – 6 rowed barley  Hordeum distichon -2 rowed barley
  • 10.  Six-row barley has higher enzyme content for converting starch into fermentable sugars, more protein, less starch, and a thicker husk then two row barley.  The higher level of enzymes makes six row barley desirable for conversion of adjunct starches during mashing.  The husk of the malt is high in polyphenols (tannins) that contribute not only to haze but also imparts an astringent taste.
  • 11.  Two –row barely has lower enzyme content, less protein, more starch, and a thinner husk than six row barley.  The higher starch content of the two row barley is the principal contributor to extract.  Over the past thirty years there has been a global move towards growing and malting two rowed barleys due to their greater yield per hectare.
  • 12. Barely is the main cereal used for the production of brewer’s malt. However, many unmalted cereals are used as brewing adjuncts. Adjuncts are regarded, by the uniformed, as a cheap substitute for malt. The brewing adjuncts contribute mainly carbohydrates to the wort; their value to the brewer is also related to the flavour and other quality properties which they contribute to the finished beer.
  • 13. The benefits claimed for solid adjuncts usage are:  Reduced starch extracts cost.  Improved beer stability and shelf-life especially when maize and rice adjuncts are used, improved retention properties, especially when barleys or wheat adjuncts are used.  To change the character of the beer by altering its colour and flavour.  To improve the quality of the beer for example, its fermentability or its haze potential.  To reduce production costs.
  • 14.  Sugar can be grown naturally as in the case of sugar cane or beet.  Sugar is highly fermentable and is usually added to the boiling vessel.  It supplies the necessary carbohydrate source that stimulates fermentative pathways in yeast for production of alcohol.  Sucrose can also be added to the beer after fermentation as ‘primings’ to provide sugar to encourage conditioning or increase sweetness.  It is used to supplement the malt where malt processing plant (storage, mills, mash tuns etc.) is a limiting factor.
  • 15.  Yeast is the unicellular microorganism that is responsible for fermentation and production of beer.  Yeast metabolises the sugars extracted from grains, which produces alcohol and carbon dioxide, and thereby converts wort into beer.  In addition to fermenting the beer, yeast influences the character and flavour.
  • 16.  Hops are the female flowers of Humulus lupulus.  Hops, other herbs and spices were probably first added to finished beer to produce special flavours and cover up “off- flavours” imparted by microbial contaminants during the earlier days of brewing.  Hops are still added to beer during production.  Hops are historically recognised to conform the bitterness and flavour to the beer.  Hops are also recognised to improve beer stability (in terms of clarity), head stability, anti-microbial activity and light stability.
  • 17. Enzymes are usually added for following reasons:  For better conversion of complex carbohydrate to simpler once to avail ready source of reducible sugars for assimilation by yeast.  Also some enzymes facilitates breakdown of complex proteo glycol to simpler amino acids and sugars which can be easily assimilated by yeast.  Some enzymes help in better protein coagulation facilitating haze reduction in beer.
  • 18. Filtration Fermentation Wartboiling Mashing Milling Malting
  • 19. Barley is spread out on the floor of a malthouse during a traditional malting process. The malting process starts with drying the grains to a moisture content below 14%, and then storing for around six weeks to overcome seed dormancy.  When ready, the grain is immersed or steeped in water two or three times over two or three days to allow the grain to absorb moisture and to start to sprout. When the grain has a moisture content of around 46%, it is transferred to the malting or germination floor, where it is constantly turned over for around five days while it is air-dried.
  • 20. The grain at this point is called "green malt". The green malt is then kiln-dried to the desired colour and specification. Malts range in colour from very pale through crystal and amber to chocolate or black malts.
  • 21. STEEPING STEEPING GERMINATION KILNING (The seed is soaked in water start it growing) (The barley grows under controlled conditions and the “changes” occur inside the seed) (The malt is dried out and colour and flavor are developed.)
  • 22. Processing of milling: ASPERATOR(dust particles) CLASSIFIER (foreign materials) MAGNETIC SEPERATOR(metals) BUCKET ELEVATORS DESTONER(stone particles)
  • 23.  The objective of milling is to break up malt to such an extent that the greatest yield of extract is produced in the shortest time in the mash filter.  Separation systems it is desirable to keep malt husk as intact as possible, to help for maintain an open filter bed that favours wort separation.  Milling systems may use roller milling, impact milling with disc- or hammer-mills, and wet milling.
  • 24.  A hammer mill may be used if the mash is to be separated in a mash filter.  A hammer mill produces a very fine grind.  Hammer mills differ in detail, but the principles of operation are the same.  The malt must be scrupulously cleaned to remove stones, pieces of metal and `heavy objects'.  The chamber may be mounted vertically or horizontally and strongly ventilated.  The milling chamber contains a spinning rotor on which are mounted freely swinging pieces of metal, the beaters or `hammers', which travel at about 100 m/s.  The rotor spins at 1500rpm.
  • 25. Mashing is the process where the crushed malt or grist is mixed with water under specified conditions so that enzymatic action can take place to convert the starch into fermentable sugars and in certain cases break down of proteins into more soluble forms also occur.  The temperature of water used for mashing initially should be at 45oc.  The process of degradation of starch into sugars is called Saccharification. To know the degree of Saccharification IODIEN TEST is done.
  • 26.  When the mash temp reaches 70 ± 2°C collect the sample from the mash tun to find whether Saccharification is completed or not.  The temperature maintenance was crucial as it activates the starch degrading enzymes in the malt.  To the sample add iodine solution.  If the colour of the solution changes to blue, it indicates incomplete Saccharification.  On the other hand, if the colour of that iodine solution is not changed, it indicates starch degradation is complete.
  • 27. CONDITION LOW OPTIMUM HIGH TEMPERATURE Low temperatures donot effect the enzymes much,but starch must be gelatinised first.Gelatinisation temp for malt starch is 65°C. 65°C. High temperatures inactivate enzymes including amylases.The action of amylases is stopped at over temperatures 70°C. PH Acidic conditions kill the enzymes.Enzyme action is stopped at PHs 5.0 5.4 High PHs slow enzyme action,but it does continues at PHs of7.0 and above. WATER Enzymes are more sensitive to heat in a thin mash.There is a lower concentration of enzyme and starch in a thin mash. Between 2.5and3.5 liters of water/kilogram of dry grist. Enzymes are less sensitive to heat in a thick mash.There is a higher concentration of enzyme starch in thick mash. TIME Enzymes take time to attack the starch.Conversion will be incomplete in 30 minutes. Conversion will be virtually complete after 30 minutes.A longer time will not increase the
  • 28.  Ceramix To deactivate the enzyme activity.  Ultra flow To smoothen the movement of produce.  Thermamyl For gleatinizationtion.  Gypsum to maintain the PH.  Calcium chloride To maintain the calcium level.  Lactic acid To maintain the PH.
  • 29.  When conversion is complete, the mash will consist of a sugar solution called wort and the husks of the malted barley.  The purpose of wort separation is to remove these husks and any other particles which are not wanted in the wort.  The husks and other particles contain tannin which is bitter and will make the beer unstable after packaging.  They also contain fatty substances like lipids which will reduce head stability and will also make the beer go stale.
  • 30.  The objectives of effective wort separation are the removal of unwanted material while at the same time extracting all the available wort. There are many systems to separate the wort from the mash, the most common being:-  The mash tun.  The lauter tun.  The mash filter.
  • 31. When the wort has been separated from the malt husk, it is boiled. There are several important reasons for doing this:-  To sterilise the wort. Malted barley is contaminated with moulds, and bacteria mainly on its surface. These contaminants are extracted into the wort and need to be destroyed.  To stabilise the wort. The enzymes that converted the starch into sugar and the protein into amino acid will continue to work.  To dissolve the Bittering resins from the hops and to stabilise them.
  • 32.  To denature and coagulate some of the protein derived from the malt.  To develop wort colour and flavour through the action of heat on sugars and amino acids.  The chemical reaction between sugars and amino acids is known as the Maillard Reaction.  Finally, and most importantly, to increase the strength or concentration of the wort. Wort concentration is a factor in ensuring that the chemical changes described above actually occur.  It is also important in the production of strong beers whose original gravity is higher than that of the wort coming from the wort separation system.
  • 33. At the end of the boil, the wort will be bright but there will be large particles floating in it. These particles contain:-  Coagulated protein or ‘break’, which if allowed to remain, would cause haze problems in the finished beer.  Tannin is very astringent and would pass this character on to the beer.  It will also combine with protein to cause haze problems.
  • 34.  Tannin material from the malt husk and from the hops.  Lipids or fatty material that will destroy the beer’s head stability and will also make the beer taste stale as it gets older.  Spent hops or debris from hop pellets.
  • 35. It is necessary to remove this ‘trub’ to protect the beer’s quality. There are four main ways of doing this depending on the type of hops used and the requirement for absolute wort clarity:-  Filtration through the spent hops (Hop Back)  Use of a Hop Separator  Sedimentation in a Whirlpool.
  • 36. The wort coming from the kettle will be at 100°C, after clarification.Wort is cooled to 12oC before yeast pitching is done. Originally wort was cooled in shallow open vessels or vertical open coolers, but now the plate heat exchanger is used exclusively for wort cooling. This is because:-  Plate heat exchangers are very efficient and can cool the wort down in a short time.  Nearly all the heat from the wort can be recovered to generate a hot water supply for brewing and other production uses.  They are enclosed and are easy to clean in line. Therefore they keep the wort sterile.
  • 37. The yeast is pitched in the wort during transfer of wort from plate heat exchanger to fermenter, which is carried out in pitching room. Pitching yeast must have the following characteristics:-  The right strain for the beer to be fermented.  Free from contamination by bacteria and other yeasts.  Healthy and viable.  Cropped from a healthy and consistent fermentation itself. Yeasts selected from a slow or sticking fermentation are likely to repeat the problem.
  • 38. Selection will be based on laboratory analysis like Solids, Viability and Microbiological status (free of infection) and fermentation records like Gravity drop, Storage temperature and duration of Yeast. CHEMICAL USED IN PITCHING:  Orthophosphoric acid- for acid wash of yeast at a pH between 2.1 to 2.3. This will inhibit bacterial contamination during fermentation.  Zinc Sulphate- For supply of micro element Zinc for yeast enzymatic activities.  Biofoam- To generate foam and increase the surface area for better fermentation.
  • 39. Brew length in HL X 0.0259 X Required pitching cell count in millions X 104 YeastSolids%XViability% = HL of Yeast for pitching For eg: For pitching yeast which has 95% viability and 60% Solids into a 400 HL fermentor, the above formula can be applied as follows: 400 X 0.0259 X 18 X 104 = 3.27 HL of Yeast 60x95
  • 40.  The aerated wort is cooled to approximately 10 to 110c and then placed in a pre sanitised closed fermentation tank containing cooling coils.  The cold sterile wort is collected through PHE at 10- 120 C, during which aeration is done for 30-40min.  Although an open tank can be used, the closed tank is preferred to prevent contamination as well the evolved carbon dioxide can be collected for later carbonation of the product.
  • 41.  Approximately three quarters to one pound of yeast are added for each barrel of wort.  Within 24 hrs after pitching, foam begins to appear on the surface of the medium, first along the wall of the tank and then gradually across the surface.  The carbon dioxide evolution then increases so that the yeast cells become suspended in the medium.  Initially the temperature of the fermentor post pitching is maintained at 12oC to facilitate yeast growth.
  • 42.  By approximately 40-60 hours after pitching, the surface foam layer becomes very thick and can measure up to almost 12 inches in depth.  During this time that the most rapid yeast – cell multiplications occur, and considerable heat, which is associated with this high metabolic activity, is evolved.  This heat evolution causes a temperature rise to approximately 12-15 oc, the peak temperature for this fermentation.
  • 43.  This will enhance the activity of enzymes involved in fermentation that convert all the reducible sugars to alcohol and Co2.  By approximately the fifth day of fermentation, there is no longer enough carbon dioxide evolution to support the heavy foam and, therefore, the foam begins to collapse.  The yeast settle to the bottom, and the medium is further cooled to below 5oC to fasten settling.
  • 44.  Yeast is collected in storage tanks maintained at temperature 4.5oC, which can further be used for next batch of fermentation.  Post separation of yeast from fermentor the temperature of the medium is further cooled to around -1oC.  This facilitates the precipitation of suspended solids, there by clarification of the beer to promote clarification lager chemicals like Shine aid, KMS, Flocaid are added and beer is left for 5-7days.  This process is called Maturation/Aging.
  • 45.  From Fermentor beer is sent to Pre Buffer Tank. In Pre buffer tank the beer is stored in order to reduce the flow pressure.  From this the beer is send to FILTROX1 it is composed of steel candles. These candles are deposited with Hyflo Food Grade Powder (Diatomite). This powder will help in removal of yeast, other suspended particles and dust in the beer.  Now the beer is send to FILTROX2. It is composed of several candles they will remove the dust and suspended particles.
  • 46.  Now the beer is send to Post Buffer Tank. From there it is send to Corboblender.  The function of Corboblender is that is addition of carbon dioxide and also to control the foam in the beer.  The Corboblender is attached with an equipment called ANTENPAAR helps in on line monitoring of critical parameters like Co2, Gravity, Alcohol content, which work with the principal of Henry’s law.
  • 47.  Then the beer is passed CONTROLLING VALVE to reduce pressure.  Now it is send to BIGHT BEER TANK (BBT). For the storage, through PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER to maintain the temp at -1 0 C. from BBT the beer passed through TRAP FILTER. During filtration the chemical added to beer are:  Shine aid: to remove chill haze from the beer  KMS: antioxidant agent to reduce D.O.  Biform P: for the easy separation of particle from beer.
  • 48.  WATER ANALYSIS.  WORT ANALYSIS.  SUGAR ANALYSIS.  BROKEN RICE.  MALT ANALYSIS.  SIEVE ANALYSIS.  PACKAGING MATERIALS.  LABEL ANALYSIS.  CROWNS ANALYSIS.  BEER ANALYSIS.
  • 49. WATER ANALYSIS:  CHLORIDE IN WATER.  HARDNESS OF WATER.  ALKALINITY.  TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS.  FREE CHLORINE.  PH.  APPEARANCE.  ODOUR.  TASTE.
  • 50. CHLORINE IN WATER: Procedure:  Take 100 ml. water sample in 250 ml. capacity conical flask then add 1 ml. of potassium chromate (5% solution).  Then full the burette with 0.1 AgNO3 solution and titrate, the end point is yellow to brick red. Calculation: Burette reading X35.45XN1000 =ppm 100
  • 51. HARDNESS OF WATER: Reagents: NH4OH, NH4Cl, Buffer, 16.85 grams of NH4Cl, 142.5 ml. of NH4OH make the total volume to 250 ml. in volumetric flask using distilled water.0.02N EDTA. Procedure:  Take 50 ml. of water sample in 250 ml. capacity flask.  Add 1 ml of ammonia buffer and 10 drops E.B.T indicator.  Then titrate it against 0.02N EDTA, then the end point is pink to blue. Calculation: Burette reading X 20 = Hardness of water in ppm.
  • 52. ALKALINITY: It is caused by calcium carbonate (caco3). More alkalinity will lead to formation scales in the boilers.  Take 100ml sample.  Add 3 to 4 drops of methyl orange.  Titrate against 0.1N HCL. Calculation: Titer value X 50.
  • 53. TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS: It gives the amount of dissolved and suspended material present in the water sample.  Take 100ml of water sample  Filter through wattman filter paper No-542  Keep it for drying in an oven. Initially 98 c for evaporation to prevent boiling and splattering  Dry at 103-105c for 1-2 hour  Cool in desiccators.  Note the final weight. Calculation: Tds (mg/l) = (b-a) X1000/ volume of sample.
  • 54. FREE CHLORINE: This gives that are free to react with other component.  Take 50ml water.  Add 5ml of chloride reagent.  Observe the colour the specification.
  • 55. PH:  The ph is determining using ph meter.  Take some sample of water in the beaker and record ph using ph meter. Specifications:  lower limit 6.0  Upper limit 8.0  Target 7.0
  • 56. Appearance: the appearance water should be clear, colour less, sparking and free from any suspended solid. Odour: the odour should be reported as colour less and abnormal or anything abnormal Taste: taste of water should be normal it should not give any unnecessary taste that might have been incorporated into it.
  • 57. WORT ANALYSIS:  SPECIFIC GRAVITY  COLOUR.
  • 58. SPECIFIC GRAVITY: Procedure:  The sample was collected and cooled to around 150C so that the temperature of sample does not go beyond 200C at the time of weighing  The pycnometer was filled with sample, and its outside was dried by rubbing with a clean cloth  As the temperature of the sample reached 200C weight of the pycnometer with sample was noted. Calculation: Specific gravity (g/cc)= (Weight of pycnometer with extract – Weight of empty pycnometer) (Weight of pycnometer with water – Weight of empty pycnometer)
  • 59. COLOUR: Procedure:  The sample was degassed and filtered, and the filtrate was taken.  Absorbance of filtrate was noted at 430 nm in spectrophotometer, using water as blank. Calculation: Colour in EBC units = Absorbance at 430 nm x 25.
  • 60. SUGAR ANALYSIS:  APPERANCE.  MOISTER CONTENT.  COLOUR OF 10% SOLUTION.  PH OF 10% SOLUTION.
  • 61. APPERANCE: Sugar is observed against white back ground. Any colour matter present will indicate that sugar is not clear. MOISTER CONTENT:  High moister will lead to the formation of lumps and also increase its weight.  Take 5grams of sample in moister estimation. Allow it to stand for a while until the moister content is displayed on the screen.  Moister should not exceed 1%.
  • 62. COLOUR OF 10% SOLUTION:  Weigh 50g of sample and mix it will with warm water then make it to 500ml at 20c.  Filter it to make it free from turbidity.  Centrifuge the extract at 5000rpm for 5mins.  Take the reading at 430nanometer. PH OF 10% SOLUTION: Take 10% solution in a beaker. Note the ph using ph meter.
  • 63. BROKEN RICE:  APPEARANCE.  MOISTURE CONTENT.  KETTLE TEST.
  • 64. APPERANCE: The rice used should of whitish yellow in colour and free from dust, sand particles. MOISTER CONTENT:  High moister will lead to bacterial growth. And also increase its weight.  Take 5grams of sample in moister estimatator. Allow it to stand for a while until the moister content is displayed on the screen.  SPECIFICATION: should be less than 15%.
  • 65. KETTLE TEST:  This test is performed to determine the odour.  Take a clean conical flask.  Fill its half volume with water and allow it to boil on heater.  Add little quantity of broken rice to it. Cover the mouth of flask with foil.  Now slowly note the odour by smelling it.
  • 66. MALT ANALYSIS:  APPEARANCE.  MOISTER CONTENT.  KETTLE TEST.  TOTAL CORN WEIGHT.
  • 67. APPERANCE: Malt should be of golden brown colour without any black spots. MOISTER CONTENT:  High moister will lead to bacterial growth. And also increase its weight.  Take 5grams of sample in moister estimatator. Allow it to stand for a while until the moister content is displayed on the screen. SPECIFICATION: should be less than 5%.
  • 68. KETTLE TEST:  This test is performed to determine the odour.  Take a clean conical flask.  Fill its half volume with water and allow it to boil on heater.  Add little quantity of broken rice to it. Cover the mouth of flask with foil.  Now slowly note the odour by smelling it.
  • 69. TOTAL CORN WEIGHT:  The test is performed to find out the amount of waste and foreign matter present in malt sample.  Take 40g of sample.  Remove all the half corns and foreign matters then subtract the removed weight from initial weight. Count the number of corns in each lot.  Total corn weight = W*1000(100-M)/N*100.  Where, W=weight of malt taken (40)  N= number of corns.  M= moister of malt. SPECIFICATION: Total corn weight should be 38-40 grams.
  • 70. SIEVE ANALYSIS: Procedure:  This test is performed to know whether all the grains are of similar size.  Take 100g of sample and put it in sieve top then set the apparatus on motion. For 5 mints.  Open the apparatus and collect the grains at different sieves, note their weights.  %of malt in each fraction = weight of malt*100/weight of sample. SPECIFICATION: 2.8and2.5mm sieve – 90-95%. 2.2mm sieve - 0-4%. Less than 2.2mm - 0-1%.
  • 71. PACKAGING MATERIALS:  CARTONS.  WEIGHT OF CARTONS.  BURSTING STRENGTH.  LENGTH, WIDTH, HEIGHT.  FLUTES.  COBB VALUE.  GSM.  MOISTER.
  • 72. Cartons: The qualities of cartons are important in the store age and transport of beer. The bottom end of the croton especially should be of good quality. Cartons can fit for 12 bottles. Weight of cartons: The weight of the cartons is recorded by the weighing machine and express in grams. The weight should not go beyond 250 grams. Bursting strength: It can be defined as the amount of stress the carton is able to with stand. It is an important parameter of cartons analysis. It is recorded by use sing pisto meter. The bursting strength should not be less than 6.
  • 73. Length, width, height: This is recorded by using the measuring scale. 300, 230, 296cm are specification respectively Flutes: Good number of flutes will provide better coshing effect to the bottle around 54 flutes should be present for 300cm of cartons. Pins: The cartons should be provided with 9 pins.
  • 74. Cobb value:  Cut the piece of carton sufficed enough to fit in equipment and take its weight.  Fill the equipment with water and leave it with carton for 30 mints.  Then removed the cartons and dry it and take weight.  Cobb value = initial weight – final weight*100.  This test perform to find out to which extended the carton can observe external moister Specification: 96.91.
  • 75. GSM: Take 10*10 cut area of craft and soak in water for 10- 15mins. Then individual layers are serrated and dried in oven then its weight is taken (g/m2). Specification: outer layer-4.3 Corrugated layer-1.966 Inner layer-2.
  • 76. MOISTER:  It is recorded by using of HYDROMETER. Increase in moister will lead to the soften of cartons.  The moister should not exceed 8%.
  • 77. LABEL ANALYSIS:  WEIGHT.  GSM.  COBB VALVE.  GRAIN DIRECTION.
  • 78. WEIGHT: Weight is determined by weighing machine. SPECIFICATION: front-0.5305 Back-0.3499 Neck-0.1492 GSM: It is similar to carton but we should take 5*5 cut. SPECIFICATION: front-76.8 Back-79.16 Neck-81.25
  • 79. COBB VALVE:  Take initial weight; dip the label in water facing up said for 45sec. Then place it on filter paper to remove excess water then take weight.  To get cob valve multiply difference of average weight of three by 100. SPECIFICATION: front-12.63 Back-16.21 Neck-3.77.
  • 80. GRAIN DIRECTION: Labels are dipped in water facing upside down for few seconds and folding patens are absovered along the vertical axis. SPECIFICATION: front- horizontal direction Back label-horizontal direction.
  • 81. CROWNS ANALYSIS:  SKIRT DIAMETER.  INTERNAL DIAMETER.  WEIGHT OF CROWN.  WEIGHT OF LINER.  LAQUER TEST.
  • 82. SKIRT DIAMETER: its recorded using vernier scale. SPECIFICATION: 31.58MM. INTERNAL DIAMETER: it’s recorded using vernier scale. SPECIFICATION: 26.48MM. WEIGHT OF CROWN: it’s recorded using weighing equipment. SPECIFICATION: WEIGHT OF 2.23184grams.
  • 83. WEIGHT OF LINER: The liner is removed and its weight is noted. SPECIFICATION: 0.232 grams. LAQUER TEST:  It is done to check improper lacquering which may cause rusting of crown.  The crown is kept for 10mins in acidified cuso4.5h2o solution.  Place the crown on white paper and observe for presence of any black or brown spots.
  • 84. BEER ANALYSIS:  IRON-TESTING.  CALCIUM TESTING.  DISSOLVED O2 IN BEER BOTTLE / CAN.  DIACETYLE IN BEER.  ALCHOL IN BEER.  SO2 IN BEER.  FOAM STABILITY IN BEER.
  • 85. IRON TESTING: Reagents: 2.5% Ascorbic acid (fresh), 0.3% Orthophenanthralone (colour reagent). Procedure:  25 ml. of sample in (degasses in 3 separate test tubes)  Shake well  Add 2 ml, Orthophenanthrolene to samples and 2 ml D.W. in blank solution.  Mix well and keep it for ½ hour.  Take absorbance at 505 nm and read iron from standard graph.
  • 86. CALCIUM TESTING: Reagents: NaOH solution 5N, Calcien solution flurometric (Reagent grade), dissolve 1 gr. In 50 ml distill water to which 0.56 ml of sodium hydroxide (5N) has been added. EDTA solution – 1.8612, EDTA dissolve in 500 ml distill water 0.01 M. Take 50 ml of 0.01M and dilute to 100 ml with distill water – 0.005M. Procedure:  20 ml beer + 10 ml distil water + 3 ml 5N NaOH + 0.5 ml Calcien indicator.  Titrate against 0.005M EDTA solution till green fluorescence fades.
  • 87.  Use a blank background for titration.  At the end of the yellow green fluorescence is replaced by an orange brown colour. Calculation: T.R X 0.2004 X 1000 = ppm. 20
  • 88. DISSOLVED O2 IN BEER BOTTLE / CAN: Principle: To decrease or increase shelf life of beer bottle O2 plays a key role. Higher D.O. level in beer less is the shelf life of beer. Hence it is necessary to keep an eye on D.O. level in bottle. Procedure:  Take pasteurized or UN pasteurized beer bottle (Freshly filled).  Cool it to 15-200 C .  Shake for few seconds.  See the D.O. with the help of D.O. meter.
  • 89. Air Content:  Till the Hoffman instrument with 40-50 ml caustic. Place the chilled bottle under the piercing needle and pierce it.  Release the pressure developed shake the bottle with the instrument note the head space in ml.  Release the pressure and note down the total in ml. Calculation: TA in ml X 100 = TA % v/v 650
  • 90. DIACETYLE IN BEER: Reagents:  8.5 % dehydrogenate PO4  8 % hydroxyl ammonium hydrochloride Apparatus: • Distillation unit marked test tube. • Pipette. • Oil bath.
  • 91. Procedure:  Take 3.5 ml 8.5 % disodium hydrogen PO4 in 100 ml round flask.  Add 1000 ml. under gassed beer sample in 1000 ml round bottom flask .  Start distillation with tip of delivery tube dipping into 2 ml of distilled water.  Collect 18-19 ml. adjust the volume to 20 ml with distilled water  Distribute 20 ml. in tow test tube 10 ml. each marked as blank and sample .  Add 1 ml of 8 % hydroxyl ammonium HCl in test tubes marked as sample.  Keep both t.t in oil bath at 800 c for 15 min.
  • 92.  Raise temp after 15 mm up to 1100 c (temp. should not be exceed over 1100 c) and allow to evaporate contents up to 4-5 ml.  Cool test tubes.  Add 1 ml. of 8 % hydroxyl amm. HCl in test tubes marked as blank.  Adjust volume up to 10 ml. by distilled water.  Observe the absorbance at 230mm by using blank on spectrophotometer.  Calculate on standard graph.
  • 93. ALCHOL IN BEER: Apparatus: Distilled unit volumetric flask 100 ml. Procedure:  Take 100 ml decarbonised beer at 200 c.  Using a 100 ml, volumetric flask pur the beer into 1000 ml. distilled flask  Rinse the volumetric flask 2-3 times with distilled water not more than 50 ml.  Add the rinse water to distilled flask.
  • 94.  Use 100 ml. volumetric to receive distillate .  Surrounded the receive with ice or ice water.  Distilled about 96-97 ml. at a uniform rate i.e. 30-60 minutes.  Adjust the distillate up to 100 ml mark with distilled water and mix well.  Determine the Sp. Gravity at 200 c.
  • 95. Calculation: Specific gravity = weight of Sp. Gravity bottle with alcohol – weight of empty specific gravity bottle/weight of water.
  • 96. SO2 IN BEER: Reagents: 0.025 N iodine, starch indicator, conc. HCl Apparatus: Distillation apparatus. Round bottom flask 100 ml. Pipette. Burette. Beaker.
  • 97. Procedure:  Take 10 ml. of conc. HCl in round bottom flask add 250 ml.of un – gassed beer in round bottom flask  Arrange distillation apparatus  Dip at receiver in beaker contains 15 ml. of distilled water  Start distillation, add few drops of starch in beaker  Take 0.025 N iodine in bottle and iodine in beaker as blue colour disappears.  Add iodine till colour persists for 1 min. Calculation: SO2 in beer = Burette X 12.8ppm 4
  • 98. FOAM STABILITY IN BEER: Procedure:  The beer bottle temperature should be 5-70 c pour the beer in a clean dry glass from a height so that it generates a foam of about 1½ to 2 inch.  Place the glass with beer on the travelling microscopic platform.  Adjust the eye piece of tm. so that the foam is in view and at the same again in view.  Immediately stop the stop – watch.  Note down the time in seconds i.e. foam stability. Calculations: CO2 % w/v/ X 0.197/s g X 1010 = CO2 gm/litre.
  • 99. APPARENT EXTRACT: Apparatus: • Analytical balance. • Thermometer • Pycnometer • Water bath Procedure: Determine the specific gravity of decarbonated beer at 20°C/20°C and read g of extract per 100g of solution from the standard table.
  • 100. Calculation: Specific gravity of decarbonated beer = W1-W2 W3-W2 Where, W1 = Weight of pycnometer with dealcoholized beer. W2 = Weight of empty pycnometer. W3 = Weight of pycnometer with water.
  • 101. REAL EXTRACT: Apparatus: • Volumetric flask 100 ml • Analytical balance • Thermometer • Pycnometer Procedure:  Transfer the residue from the distillation flask quantitatively after the alcohol distillation to a 100ml volumetric flask with the aid of hot water, cool and make up the volume at 20°C.
  • 102.  Determine the specific gravity at 20°C/20°C and read gram of extract per 100g of solution, corresponding to the specific gravity of dealcoholized beer extract solution. Calculation: Sp.gr. of dealcoholized beer = W1-W2 W3-W2 Where, W1 = Weight of pycnometer with dealcoholized beer. W2 = Weight of empty pycnometer W3 = Weight of pycnometer with water.
  • 103. Now, determine the value of real extract in grams of extract in 100 grams of dealcoholized beer (oP), from this specific gravity value at corresponding temperature by using the standard table. Real extract, % by wt. in the beer (E) = G x specific gravity of dealcoholized beer Specific gravity of beer Where, G = g extract in 100g solution for dealcoholized beer.
  • 104. COLOUR: Apparatus: • Spectrophotometer • Membrane filter holder • Membrane filters of pore size 0.45 microns Procedure:  Take about 35 ml of degassed beer into centrifuge tube.  Centrifuge for 5 minutes at 5000 rpm or filter the sample through a membrane filter.
  • 105.  Measure the absorbance at 430nm, against distilled water as blank. Calculation: Colour = A430 x 25 Where, A430 = Absorbance at 430 nm in 1 cm cell.
  • 106. BEER BITTERNESS: Apparatus:. • UV Spectrophotometer • Centrifuge • Rotary shaker, amplitude 2-3 cm • Glass beads • Pipettes 0.5 ml, 10 ml, and 20 ml • Centrifuge tubes with screw thread necks and plastic caps
  • 107. Reagents:  Iso-octane(2,2,4 trimethyl pentane): the absorbance of this solution must be 0.01 when measured at 275nm in a 1cm cuvette against a reference of distilled water  Hydrochloric Acid (HCl): 6M Procedure:  Pipette exactly 10ml of decarbonated beer in a 35 ml centrifuge tube. Add 0.5ml of hydrochloric acid (HCl) followed by 20ml of iso-octane. Place 2 or 3 glass beads (to prevent spattering) in the tube and close it tightly with a cap
  • 108.  Shake the tube for 15 minute at 20°C at 130rpm, on a rotary shaker and then centrifuge at 3000rpm for 3 min.  Measure the absorbance of iso-octane layer in 10 mm cuvette at 275 nm using pure iso-octane as blank Calculation: Bitterness units (BU) = A275 x 50 Where, A275 = Absorbance at 275 nm measured against a reference of pure iso-octane.
  • 109. HAZE IN BEER: Apparatus:  Haffmans Laboratory Haze meter-VOS Rota 90  Volumetric flasks-100ml, 200ml  250ml dark bottle for storage of the formazinstock suspension of 1000EBC Procedure:  Dissolve 1g of hydrazine sulphate in distilled water and dilute up to 100ml in a 100ml volumetric flask  Dissolve 10g of Hexamethylenetetramine in distilled water and dilute up to 100ml in a 100ml volumetric flask
  • 110.  Mix the hydrazine sulphate solution and hexamethylene solution in a 250ml dark bottle and let the mixer stand for 48 hours at 25ºC, a white polymer suspension will develop in the solution during this period.  Keep prepared formazin stock suspension in dark bottle at room temperature (eventually at lower temperatures but not below 0°C .
  • 111. HEAD-SPACE AIR CONTENT: Apparatus: Haffmans Inpack CO2 & Air Meter/Zahm & Nagel Air Meter Procedure:  Take 30% caustic lye in the measuring burette (with the help of leveling vessel in case of Haffmans inpack Air meter. This vessel should be at higher position, about 8cm than measuring burette. There should not be any air in between the stopper of Haffmans Inpack Air Meter/Zahm & Nagel Air Meter.  Adjust the instrument at right height of the bottle or can.  Pierce the bottle. While piercing see to it that the needle valve is closed.
  • 112.  After piercing, open the needle valve slowly a bit and let the head space gas bubble through the caustic lye in the measuring burette.  Bottle or can when liquid out of bottle or can enters the hose of the IAM.  In case of Haffmans inpack Air meter, move the leveling vessel so that the liquid levels from the leveling vessel and the measuring burette are on the same height.  Read the level of lower meniscus.
  • 113. TOTAL AIR CONTENT: Apparatus: Haffmans Inpack CO2 & Air Meter/Zahm & Nagel Air Meter. Procedure:  Take 30% caustic lye in the measuring burette (with the help of leveling vessel in case of Haffmans inpack Air meter. This vessel should be at higher position, about 8cm than measuring burette. There should not be any air in between the stopper of Haffmans Inpack Air Meter/Zahm & Nagel Air Meter  Adjust the instrument at right height of the bottle or can  Pierce the bottle. While piercing see to it that the needle valve is closed
  • 114.  After piercing, open the needle valve slowly a bit and let the head space gas bubble through the caustic lye in the measuring burette.  Close the needle valve immediately when no more gas escapes from the bottle or can when liquid out of bottle or can enters the hose of the Inpack Air Meter.  Shake the instrument along with the pierced bottle or can again and open the needle valve slowly. Repeat this until no gas escapes from the bottle or can...  In case of Haffmans inpack Air meter, move the leveling vessel so that the liquid levels from the leveling vessel and the measuring burette are on the same height.  Read the level of lower meniscus.
  • 115. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) CONTENT: Apparatus: Haffmans Inpack CO2 & Air Meter/Zahm & Nagel CO2 Meter Procedure:  Adjust the instrument at right height of the bottle or can  Pierce the bottle. While piercing see to it that the needle valve is closed  Read the value on the gauge.  Shake the instrument with pierced bottle or can until the gauge does not increase any more.  Open the needle valve slowly. Wait till the pressure reduces.  Remove the bottle and measure the liquid temperature.
  • 116. BOTTLE WASHING. SIGHTER STATION 1. EBI. BOTTLE FILLING. BOTTLE CROWNING. SIGHTER STATION 2. TUNNEL PASTEURIZATION. SIGHTER STATION 3. BOTTLE LABELLING. CASE PACKING.
  • 117. BOTLLE WASHER: Empty bottles are unloaded from trucks and the bottles having perfect shape without any crakes or damage are only used. The bottles are separated manually according to the brand they belong to. These bottles are then pre-rinsed with normal water to remove any dust or mud particles from bottles for prolong life of caustic.
  • 118.  Now the bottles are sent to washer where they are washed with hot water of 80oC and caustic.  The washer is provided with jetters that flush the bottles from inside as well as from outside. There are 3 caustic zones in washer: 1st zone- in this zone the caustic level is maintained at 2.5%. 2nd zone- in this zone the caustic level is maintained at 2.1%. 3rd zone- in this zone the caustic level is maintained at 1.8%.
  • 119. The bottles washed with caustic are germ free and all kind of dirt is removed along with labels and foils. After treating with caustic, bottles are subjected to wash with soft water to remove caustic traces. The capacity of washer is 36000bottles/hr and 47 bottles/line can be washed in it.
  • 120. SIGHTER STATION 1:  Sighters are the people who ensure the proper washing of bottles.  There are 4 sighter stations after washer. The sighters observe the bottle coming out of the washing and remove the bottle having: Any damage or crack. Any foreign matter. Any dirt. Presence of caustic. The observation is done with back ground as white screen for better vision of bottle.
  • 121. E.B.I : E.B.I. is an electronic device created for detection bottles left from observation of sighters. It detects only empty bottles and removes the bottles having any dirt, caustic or foreign material remaining in it from line an sends them back to the washer. E.B.I. is provided with a camera at bottom which takes the photograph of each bottle and gives the number of bottles passed through it.  Defective bottles observed in camera are isolated from line and sent to bottle washer or scrap based on the type of defect in them.
  • 122. FILLER AND CROWNER: Filler is the important part of packaging. The bottles must be filled with accurate amount and pressure of beer and carbon-di-oxide. Carbon-di-oxide is the best preservative for beverages. The filler has double evacuation system. Jetter implies the pressure of -800bar on bottles to suck out all air from bottle. It this process some bottles may burst because of being old or losing their strength.
  • 123. The bottles are filled with carbon-di-oxide and sucked out twice. Now the bottle is filled with beer at the temperature of 00C. Again carbon-di-oxide is passed in bottle at high pressure that helps to throw out other unwanted gases from beer filled bottle. 108 bottles are filled in each single rotation of filler.
  • 124. A fobbing Jetter passes a rapid vapour of hot water and removes surface oxygen over beer in the bottle, before crowning. The bottles are now crowned in crowner which can crown 18 bottles per rotation. Thus, it runs 6 times faster than filler.
  • 125. SIGHTER STATION 2: At this sighter station sighters check bottles of following types and remove them from line: Empty bottle . Low fill. High fill . Chipped bottle. Bottle with dirt. Bottle with suspended particles in beer.
  • 126. Other brand embossed bottles. Bottles with plastic sachet or any foreign matter in beer. Uncrowned bottles . Bottles with label carry over. Bottles with external damage at shoulder or base. Bottles with defective crowns (leakage). Bottles filled with water or any chemical liquids.
  • 127. PASTEURIZER: R1H R2H R3H P1 P2 P3 P4 R3C R2C R1C 30.1 36.0 48.3 62.0 62.0 61.9 61.8 45.8 33.4 24.3 BOTT LES IN BOTT LES OUT  Pasteurization is the process of removing microbial contamination from the food product by giving a short span of treatment of rising temperature of the product up to certain level at which its taste or flavour are not altered.
  • 128. The high temperature minimizes the possibility of survival of any kind of microbial contaminants in it. Tunnel pasteurizer is used for pasteurization of beer. In this, temperature of 620C is maintained by passing steam in controlled manner. A typical tunnel pasteurizer has different zones in it as shown below.
  • 129. Beer bottles are passed through different zones of pasteurizer in the sequential manner. The temperature starts from 320C in R1H, increases to 360C in R2H followed by 480C in R3H then to Pasteurization at 620C in P1, P2, P3, and P4. Now it again decreased in R3C to 460C, to 330C in R2C and to 240C in R1C. This whole process takes place in 56 minutes.
  • 130. SIGHTER STATION 3: Sighters perform the same work as they do in sighter station -2 to ensure quality of the product bottles. CASE PACKER AND PALLETIZER: Case packing is done with the help of packing machineries which take the bottles from line by creating vacuum between bottle and holder and put into case.
  • 131. The case is packed with 12 bottles in it. Wooden or plastic pallets are arranged by palletizer such that each pallet takes up 75 cases. The pallets are then shifted to warehouse by fork lift machine for dispatch after quality approval.

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