Nanotechnology in Pharmaceutics
Nanotechnology is an enabling technology Computing and Data Storage • Materials and Manufacturing • Health and Medicine • ...
<ul><li>New formulations and routes for drug delivery, optimal drug usage </li></ul><ul><li>More durable, rejection-resist...
<ul><li>Dissolution kinetics may be the rate limiting step in the absorption process for many drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Decr...
<ul><li>To overcome toxicity issues, solid lipid nanospheres as carrier systems have been reported*. </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
<ul><li>- Not more that 15 nm in size, Mol. Wt very high </li></ul><ul><li>- Very dense surface surrounding a relatively h...
<ul><li>Dendrimers consist of series of chemical shells built on a small core molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Surface may consi...
<ul><li>Desired features of effective drug delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted delivery, controlled release (either timed ...
<ul><li>Number of different drugs can be encapsulated in dendrimers and injected into the body for delivery </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Potential applications: </li></ul><ul><li>Lab-on-a-chip applications </li></ul><ul><li>Early cancer detection </li...
<ul><li>Nanopore in membrane (~2nm diameter) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA in buffer </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage clamp </li></ul><ul...
Medtronic <ul><li>WHY: Effective Clinical Technique </li></ul><ul><li>DBS has been clinically effective in the treatment o...
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Nanotechnology in pharmaceutics

Nanotechnology in pharmaceutics
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      Technology      Business      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanotechnology in pharmaceutics

  • 1. Nanotechnology in Pharmaceutics
  • 2. Nanotechnology is an enabling technology Computing and Data Storage • Materials and Manufacturing • Health and Medicine • Energy • Environment • Transportation • National Security • Space exploration
  • 3. <ul><li>New formulations and routes for drug delivery, optimal drug usage </li></ul><ul><li>More durable, rejection-resistant artificial tissues and organs, implantable electrodes </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors for early detection and prevention </li></ul>Nanotube-based biosensor for cancer diagnostics
  • 4. <ul><li>Dissolution kinetics may be the rate limiting step in the absorption process for many drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing the particle size increases surface area and the dissolution kinetics. </li></ul><ul><li>Liposomes are normally used as carrier for hydrophilic drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical difficulties: physical instability, low activity, drug leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative: water-soluble polymer based nanoparticles. These are more site-specific and exhibit better controlled-release characteristics. </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>To overcome toxicity issues, solid lipid nanospheres as carrier systems have been reported*. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a lipid that is solidified and stabilized by a surfactant. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: physical stability </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: low drug loading (25%) </li></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>- Not more that 15 nm in size, Mol. Wt very high </li></ul><ul><li>- Very dense surface surrounding a relatively hollow core (vs. the linear structure in traditional polymers) </li></ul>Tree-like polymers, branching out from a central core and subdividing into hierarchical branching units Courtesy of: http://www.uea.ac.uk/cap/wmcc/anc.htm
  • 7. <ul><li>Dendrimers consist of series of chemical shells built on a small core molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Surface may consist of acids or amines  means to attach functional groups  control/modify properties </li></ul><ul><li>Each shell is called a generation (G0, G1, G2….) </li></ul><ul><li>Branch density increases with each generation </li></ul><ul><li>Contains cavities and channels  can be used to trap guest molecules for various applications. </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Desired features of effective drug delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted delivery, controlled release (either timed or in response to an external signal) </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable characteristics of dendrimers </li></ul><ul><li>- Uniform size </li></ul><ul><li>- Water Solubility </li></ul><ul><li>- Modifiable surface functionality </li></ul><ul><li>-Availability of internal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>- Control of molecular weight </li></ul><ul><li>- Control of the surface and internal structure </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Number of different drugs can be encapsulated in dendrimers and injected into the body for delivery </li></ul><ul><li>- Incorporating sensors would allow release of drugs where needed </li></ul><ul><li>Gene Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>- Current problem is getting enough genes into enough cells to make a difference. </li></ul><ul><li>- Using viruses for this triggers immune reactions. Dendrimers provide an alternative without triggering immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Antimicrobial and Antiviral Agents </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Potential applications: </li></ul><ul><li>Lab-on-a-chip applications </li></ul><ul><li>Early cancer detection </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious disease detection </li></ul>30 dies on a 4” Si wafer 200  m 300  m
  • 11. <ul><li>Nanopore in membrane (~2nm diameter) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA in buffer </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage clamp </li></ul><ul><li>Measure current </li></ul>
  • 12. Medtronic <ul><li>WHY: Effective Clinical Technique </li></ul><ul><li>DBS has been clinically effective in the treatment of movement disorder </li></ul><ul><li>HOW: Four Interrelated Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Paradox of similar effects to lesioning of target structure is explained by the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depolarization Blockage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synaptic Inhibition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synaptic Depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulation Induced Modulation of Pathways </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PROBLEMS: Indiscriminate Activation </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation indiscriminately affects all tissue around the electrode (size: 1.27mm diameter with four 1.5mm contacts) </li></ul><ul><li>Crude method without feedback </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Targeted Activation to specific location down to sub mm scale </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain feedback information – such as neurotransmitter levels </li></ul>