Nanosensors: Basics,
Design and
Applications
Presented by
Taif A. Faisal
• SENSOR DEFINITION
• NANOSENSOR DEFINITION
• HUMAN SENSE
• TYPES OF NANOSENSORS
I. OPTICAL NANOSENSORS
II. BIO-NANOSENSOR...
WHAT ARE SENSORS?
THEY ARE DEVICES THAT CAN
DETECT AND SENSE CERTAIN
SIGNALS , THE SIGNAL COULD BE
BIOMEDICAL, OPTICAL,
EL...
WHAT ARE NANOSENSORS?
THEY ARE TINY SENSORS IN THE SIZE
OF A FEW NANOMETERS ABOUT 10
TO 100 NANOMETER
THEY CAN DETECT THE ...
• ANY BIOLOGICAL OR
CHEMICAL SENSORY
POINTS USED TO
CONVEY
INFORMATION
Human senses
NanoSensor
s
Optical
Nanosensor
s
Ambient
Light
Nanosensor
s
Proximity
Nanosensor
s
Biological
Nanosensor
s
Antibody/A
nti...
PROXIMITY SENSORS ARE DESIGNED FOR
USE IN DETECTING THE PRESENCE OF AN
OBJECT OR MOTION DETECTION IN
VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL, ...
 Ambient light sensors provide precise light
detection for a wide range of ambient
brightness and are commonly used in LC...
Bio-Nanosensor
biosensors
• Biosensor: analytical device for measurement of a specific analyte
• biological material + physicochemical tr...
“A biosensor is an analytical device incorporating a biological or biologically derived sensing element either intimately
...
• CHEMICAL SENSORS USUALLY CONTAIN
TWO BASIC COMPONENTS CONNECTED IN
SERIES: A CHEMICAL (MOLECULAR)
RECOGNITION (RECEPTOR)...
CNT force sensor
Nanoindentor:The force range is up
to 500 μN and 1 mN for the two main
designs, with a force resolution o...
Applications of Nanosensors
PROBE ENCAPSULATED BY BIOLOGICALLY
LOCALIZED EMBEDDING.
 PEBBLES ARE NANO-SCALE SENSING DEVICES
WHICH ENCAPSULATE AN ANA...
PEPPLE
Schematic
representation of
a PEBBLE
sensor, containing
various active
ingredients within
the boundaries of
a bioco...
 Liposomal
delivery
 Gene gun
 Phagocytosis
 Picoinjection
DELIVERY SYSTEMS
A. Direct
Measurement
PEBBLEs
* Sense ions and
small molecules
* used for sensing
H+, Ca2+,
Mg2+,Zn2+ and
glucose.
* some ...
B. ION CORRELATION PEBBLES
• CONSISTS OF A SILENT IONOPHORES
AND A CHROMOIONOPHORE BOUND
TOGETHER
• SILENT-HIGH AFFINITY T...
 Excitation is by argon
laser 514.5 nm and a
measurement is by a
fluorescent microscope
and a photomultiplier
tube
Measur...
• PEBBLE PROTECTS THE CELL FROM THE DYE , PROTECTS
INDICATOR DYES FROM CELLULAR INTERFERENCE , MULTIPLE
DYES, IONOPHORES, ...
 A polymer Nanosensor
developed by Chinese
scientists responds to both
metal ions and
temperature.
Twin-action Nanosensor...
A FULL-COLOUR OPTICAL NANOSENSOR BASED
ON A PORPHYRIN-CONTAINING ABC TRIBLOCK
COPOLYMER WAS MADE WHICH OVERCOMES
THESE PR...
THE NANOSENSORS UNDERGO A REMARKABLE COLOUR
TRANSITION IN THE RANGE 35-61°C. THE UNEXPECTED
LONG RANGE THERMOCHROMIC CHAR...
Multimodal Nanosensor
Schematic of
multimodal
sensing
platform. TE:
Transverse
electric mode
detector. TM:
Transverse
magn...
 It’s a Compact, multimodal nanosensor capable of detecting
multiple characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation or ...
 Three new classes of sensors:
antiresonant, reflecting, optical
fiber-based refractometric and
optofluidic devices was d...
THE PLATFORM WAS EXTENDED TO
DESIGN COMPACT BIOSENSOR THAT
COMBINES HIGH DETECTION
SENSITIVITY OF ANTIRESONANT
OPTICAL WA...
 The second approach is a design for a compact
vertically-emitting sensor array based on
submicron multi-ring photonic ba...
 THE THIRD ENABLING TECHNOLOGY IS
PHOTONIC METAMATERIALS (MMS), WHICH
ARE ARTIFICIAL NANOSTRUCTURES THAT
OFFER NEARLY UNL...
Nanosensors basics, design and applications
Nanosensors basics, design and applications
of 32

Nanosensors basics, design and applications

view of the importance of nano-sensors in the development of technology
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanosensors basics, design and applications

  • 1. Nanosensors: Basics, Design and Applications Presented by Taif A. Faisal
  • 2. • SENSOR DEFINITION • NANOSENSOR DEFINITION • HUMAN SENSE • TYPES OF NANOSENSORS I. OPTICAL NANOSENSORS II. BIO-NANOSENSORS III. CHEMICAL NANOSENSORS IV. PHYSICAL NANOSENSORS • APPLICATIONS OF NANOSENSORS I. PEPPLE II. TWIN-ACTION NANOSENSOR III. MULTIMODAL NANOSENSOR Outline
  • 3. WHAT ARE SENSORS? THEY ARE DEVICES THAT CAN DETECT AND SENSE CERTAIN SIGNALS , THE SIGNAL COULD BE BIOMEDICAL, OPTICAL, ELECTRONICAL, ELECTRICAL, PHYSICAL OR MECHANICAL SIGNALS A sensor is a transducer that converts a measurement (a quantity or parameter) into a signal that carries information. Introduction
  • 4. WHAT ARE NANOSENSORS? THEY ARE TINY SENSORS IN THE SIZE OF A FEW NANOMETERS ABOUT 10 TO 100 NANOMETER THEY CAN DETECT THE PRESENCE OF NANOMATERIAL OR MOLECULES IN THAT SIZE AND EVEN SMALLER! Temperature Nanosensor Nanosensor size
  • 5. • ANY BIOLOGICAL OR CHEMICAL SENSORY POINTS USED TO CONVEY INFORMATION Human senses
  • 6. NanoSensor s Optical Nanosensor s Ambient Light Nanosensor s Proximity Nanosensor s Biological Nanosensor s Antibody/A ntigen Interaction DNA Interaction Enzymatic Interaction Chemical Nanosensor s Chemical Compositio n Molecular Concentrati on Physical Nanosensor s Pressure Force Mass Displaceme nt Types of Nanosensors
  • 7. PROXIMITY SENSORS ARE DESIGNED FOR USE IN DETECTING THE PRESENCE OF AN OBJECT OR MOTION DETECTION IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL, MOBILE, ELECTRONIC APPLIANCES AND RETAIL AUTOMATIONS. EXAMPLES OF PROXIMITY SENSOR USAGE INCLUDE THE DETECTION OF AN OUT- OF-PAPER CONDITION IN A PRINTER OR A MOBILE PHONE SCREEN THAT DIMS TO SAVE BATTERY LIFE WHEN PLACED NEAR A FACE. Optical Sensors- Proximity Sensors
  • 8.  Ambient light sensors provide precise light detection for a wide range of ambient brightness and are commonly used in LCD backlight control in mobile phones, LCD TV/panel, and notebook applications.  One way to convert the optical signal is by using electro-optical sensors - electronic detectors that convert light, or a change in light, into an electronic signal. Light has many components that can be sensed, such as the wavelength, the intensity, the polarization and the phase. The interaction of light with matter can be quantified by measuring absorbance, reflectance, luminescence and more. ptical Sensors- Ambient Light Sensor
  • 9. Bio-Nanosensor
  • 10. biosensors • Biosensor: analytical device for measurement of a specific analyte • biological material + physicochemical transducer(electrochemical, optical, thermometric, piezoelectric,magnetic or micromechanical) • Nanomaterials and nanosensors increase sensitivity and detection level to pico-, femto-, atto- and even zepto- scales (10^-12-10^-21) – this facilitates helps in early disease detection. • Biomarkers, molecules with a function indicating physiologic or pathologic state, interact with specific receptors fixed onto the surface of a biosensor transducer.
  • 11. “A biosensor is an analytical device incorporating a biological or biologically derived sensing element either intimately associated with or integrated within a physicochemical transducer. The usual aim is to produce a digital electronic signal which is proportional to the concentration of a specific analyte or group of analytes”
  • 12. • CHEMICAL SENSORS USUALLY CONTAIN TWO BASIC COMPONENTS CONNECTED IN SERIES: A CHEMICAL (MOLECULAR) RECOGNITION (RECEPTOR) AND A PHYSICOCHEMICAL TRANSDUCER. IN THE MAJORITY OF CHEMICAL SENSORS, THE RECEPTOR INTERACTS WITH THE ANALYTE MOLECULES. AS A RESULT, THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ARE ALTERED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE APPENDING TRANSDUCER CAN GAIN AN ELECTRICAL SIGNAL. IN SOME Illustration of chemiresistors with receptors, the binding of bio-molecule with net electrical charges changes the channel conductance. Chemical Nanosensors
  • 13. CNT force sensor Nanoindentor:The force range is up to 500 μN and 1 mN for the two main designs, with a force resolution of to 0.3 μN. Physical Nanosensors  The physical nanosensor sense the environmental physical change such as  Force  Acceleration  Flow rate  Mass  Volume  Density  pressure
  • 14. Applications of Nanosensors
  • 15. PROBE ENCAPSULATED BY BIOLOGICALLY LOCALIZED EMBEDDING.  PEBBLES ARE NANO-SCALE SENSING DEVICES WHICH ENCAPSULATE AN ANALYTE-SPECIFIC DYE AND A REFERENCE DYE INSIDE A BIOLOGICALLY INERT MATRIX  THESE HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED FOR SEVERAL ANALYTE, INCLUDING CALCIUM, POTASSIUM. ETC PEPPLE
  • 16. PEPPLE Schematic representation of a PEBBLE sensor, containing various active ingredients within the boundaries of a biocompatible polymeric matrix
  • 17.  Liposomal delivery  Gene gun  Phagocytosis  Picoinjection DELIVERY SYSTEMS
  • 18. A. Direct Measurement PEBBLEs * Sense ions and small molecules * used for sensing H+, Ca2+, Mg2+,Zn2+ and glucose. * some analyte lack WORKING PRINCIPLE
  • 19. B. ION CORRELATION PEBBLES • CONSISTS OF A SILENT IONOPHORES AND A CHROMOIONOPHORE BOUND TOGETHER • SILENT-HIGH AFFINITY TOWARDS THE ION OF INTEREST • CHROMO-FLUORESCENT BEHAVIOUR • DUE TO A CHANGE IN PH OF THE CHROMOPHORE AS A RESULT OF THE CHANGE IN THE H+ CONCENTRATION, THE FLUORESCENT BEHAVIOUR OF THE CHROMOPHORE IS EXPRESSED
  • 20.  Excitation is by argon laser 514.5 nm and a measurement is by a fluorescent microscope and a photomultiplier tube Measurements
  • 21. • PEBBLE PROTECTS THE CELL FROM THE DYE , PROTECTS INDICATOR DYES FROM CELLULAR INTERFERENCE , MULTIPLE DYES, IONOPHORES, AND OTHER COMPONENTS CAN BE COMBINED TO CREATE COMPLEX SENSING SCHEMES , MINIMAL PHYSICAL PERTURBATION OF THE CELL • SMALL SENSOR SIZE ENABLES RAPID MEASUREMENT • DIAGNOSIS AND MONITORING OF DISEASES. • STUDY EARLY-EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT • USEFUL FOR QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS IN INTRACELLULAR ENVIRONMENT. Advantages and Applications
  • 22.  A polymer Nanosensor developed by Chinese scientists responds to both metal ions and temperature. Twin-action Nanosensor  The copolymer solution can be used with a variety of metal ions which each give a different colour and allows to create a nanoarray which is capable of simultaneously conveying nine colour signals.
  • 23. A FULL-COLOUR OPTICAL NANOSENSOR BASED ON A PORPHYRIN-CONTAINING ABC TRIBLOCK COPOLYMER WAS MADE WHICH OVERCOMES THESE PROBLEMS AND RESPONDS TO BOTH METAL ION AND TEMPERATURE. THIS ALLOWS ITS USE AS BOTH AN ION DETECTOR AND AN ULTRA-SENSITIVE THERMOMETER -dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate Porphine Material structure Structure
  • 24. THE NANOSENSORS UNDERGO A REMARKABLE COLOUR TRANSITION IN THE RANGE 35-61°C. THE UNEXPECTED LONG RANGE THERMOCHROMIC CHARACTER OF THESE NANOSENSORS COULD ALLOW THEIR USE IN ULTRA- SENSITIVE THERMOMETRIC ARRAYS.  OPTICAL NANOSENSORS HAVE A WIDE RANGE OF APPLICATIONS INCLUDING DNA SEQUENCE DETECTION, THERMOMETERS, DISPLAY DEVICES AND BAR CODES Applications
  • 25. Multimodal Nanosensor Schematic of multimodal sensing platform. TE: Transverse electric mode detector. TM: Transverse magnetic mode detector. ΔΦ: Phase shift (delay or advancement).
  • 26.  It’s a Compact, multimodal nanosensor capable of detecting multiple characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation or optical materials, such as intensity, phase, wavelength, polarization, or refractive index  The unique transmission properties of micro- and nanostructured materials, including photonic bandgap structures and optical metamaterials, combined with mature fiber-optics technology was employed to design ultra-compact, multifunctional sensor arrays.
  • 27.  Three new classes of sensors: antiresonant, reflecting, optical fiber-based refractometric and optofluidic devices was developed Which had multi-color, highly directional photonic-bandgap- based sensor arrays; and polarization-sensitive devices based on fiber-coupled magnetic metamaterial structures
  • 28. THE PLATFORM WAS EXTENDED TO DESIGN COMPACT BIOSENSOR THAT COMBINES HIGH DETECTION SENSITIVITY OF ANTIRESONANT OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE WITH OPTOFLUIDIC FUNCTIONALITY. IT ENABLES COMPACT AND RAPID PROCESSING OF SMALL BIOFLUID SAMPLES
  • 29.  The second approach is a design for a compact vertically-emitting sensor array based on submicron multi-ring photonic bandgap structures (Figure c).  focused ion-beam etching was used, which enables precise dimensional control in the submicron range, to pattern these bull's-eye structures inside a dye-doped xerogel (a type of porous material).  We designed the structures to confine light at the fluorescence wavelength in the transverse direction using the photonic bandgap effect.  In this way, when excited by a pump light source, the structure emits light in a cone that points perpendicular to the sensor surface.
  • 30.  THE THIRD ENABLING TECHNOLOGY IS PHOTONIC METAMATERIALS (MMS), WHICH ARE ARTIFICIAL NANOSTRUCTURES THAT OFFER NEARLY UNLIMITED OPPORTUNITIES TO DESIGN MATERIALS WITH NOVEL PROPERTIES, SUCH AS POSITIVE, NEGATIVE, AND EVEN ZERO INDICES OF REFRACTION.  RECENTLY, WE HAVE DESIGNED AND DEMONSTRATED A FIBER-COUPLED MAGNETIC MM ON THE TRANSVERSE CROSS-SECTION OF A SINGLE-MODE OPTICAL FIBER (SEE FIGURE D).  In this way, it combines the advantages of fiber and MM technologies. Such fiber-MM integration provides new solutions for simultaneous measurements of several important parameters such as intensity, polarization, and spectral characteristics, which can lead to novel photonic-on-a-chip systems for multimodal sensing.

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