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ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 [ ARC 60203]
Project 2: Web Book (Group & Individual)
Submission Date: Week 12, 18/11/2...
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Table Contents
1.0 Introduction............................................................................................
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Masjid Negara, National Mosque Kuala
Lumpur. Malaysia
1.0 Introduction
The majestic National Mosque, or Masjid Negara, w...
4
Location
The National Mosque is located in the city centre of Kuala Lumpur, the National
Mosque is situated next to the ...
5
History
As a result of the independence of Malaya which was achieved without any
bloodshed, the National Mosque was buil...
6
The Architects
Baharuddin Kassim
The architectural concept of this mosque obviously portrays the Islamic
characteristics...
7
2.0 Site Context
Map of site context
DAYABUMI NATIONAL PLANETERIUM
ISLAMIC ART MUSUEM KTM HEADQUARTER
OLD RAILWAY STATIO...
8
The Mosque was sited in a high-density townscape site open to the public, where it
blends in with the surrounding contex...
9
Transportation
National Mosque situated nearby Pasar Seni station (KLJ) and Kuala Lumpur station (KTM).
At Pasar Seni st...
10
The spatial organisation of the Mosque also con-tributes to it functioning as
a symbolic representation of the idea of ...
11
Daya Bumi Building
The Dayabumi Complex is one of the major landmarks of Kuala Lumpur and was built
on land that was pr...
12
Today It houses government offices, a shopping arcade and has an annex that
houses the General Post Office
Old Railway ...
13
The facade of the station is completely plastered, as opposed to buildings of similar
styles that opt for exposed brick...
14
KTM headquarters
Situated at the far corner along Jalan Sultan Hishamuddin and Jalan Perdana in Kuala
Lumpur, the Malay...
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during late 13th and early 14th centuries with influence from Greek and Gothe architecture
in the 14th century.
KTMB he...
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The Islamic Arts Museum
The Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia is one of Kuala Lumpur’s most popular
attractions, and well-re...
17
National Planetarium
National Planetarium situated at the hill of Kuala Lumpur Lake Garden, surrounding
by National Mos...
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be completely commissioned.
In spite of the difficulties, the National Planetarium has been able to carry out
several s...
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3.0 Architecture Layout and plans
Plans
The early Modernist principle of ‘form follow function’, the internal space is ...
20
Elevation plan
Circulation
Configuration of the path
Linear path. The path lead to the Warriors’ tomb is linear.
Path-s...
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Passes by the “Dewan Syarahan Utama”
The relationship of the pathway and spaces is “pass by spaces”. The configuration ...
22
Two architectural elements: a circular plinth, which provides shelter but dispenses with the
need for walls and columns...
23
Built in 1965, the architectural style of Warriors’ Tomb, National Mosque, is based
on a combination of Islamic and Mod...
24
Reinforcing this interpretation, the building, comprising two levels, rests on pilote
columns. The galleries surroundin...
25
Geometrically patterned grillwork forms the walls.
2.3.2 Grid organization
A grid organization consists of forms and sp...
26
4.0 Architectural Style Analysis:
To gain a sense of place in Malaysia, one has to understand its foreign origins. In a...
27
building is a tropical model with lots of fenestration punctured by light-wells with ponds
representing the inner court...
28
Its most striking feature is the multi-fold umbrella-like roof which symbolises the
aspirations of an independent natio...
29
Islamic Architecture
In order to discuss the Islamic styles of architecture, we must first examine the
worldviews of Is...
30
3. Haya : Modesty
Modesty was illustrated in this mosque through the usage of geometrical screenings.
Besides serving a...
31
5. Iqtisad :Balance
The structural plan is designed according to golden ration, proportion and spatial
sequences. In te...
32
6. Ihtiram: Respect
Respect means propriety or adab (good manners), a positive feeling of esteem or
deference for a per...
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intricacy on wall inscriptions or ornament is used as a moving point source of natural
sunlight.
The nine gates and the...
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The mausoleum which situated at the rear of the mosque stands in a circular
reflecting pool and is connected to the mai...
35
Moroccan Architecture
Moroccan style is a new trend in decoration which takes its roots from Moorish
architecture and M...
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Mughal Architecture
The Qur'an uses the garden as an analogy for paradise and Islamcame to have a
significant influence...
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The interior of the prayer hall is decorated with patterns that depict the Islamic
culture and resembles the pattern fo...
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5.0 Construction Process
Providing a unique design for the mosque was not an easy task. Firstly, a proposal to
hold a c...
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Preparation Site
The first stage if the construction of the mosque was to provide a site. A lot of work
had to be carri...
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The main Construction
On, February 27,19633. Yang di-pertuan Agong held the stone- laying ceremony of
the national Mosq...
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The similarities with the modern building in the west
Based on the construction of the national mosque, we can see some...
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Reinforced concrete was commonly used in the modern building as it was the new
technology at that period. Wright had al...
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Concrete roof in the shape of opened umbrella is decorated
with glass mosaic in white and gold. Concrete roof requires
...
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Main Prayer Hall
The main prayer hall is constructed with
triangular glass panels and blue stained
glass windows which ...
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6.0 Architectural Elements
THE UMBRELLA ROOF
As the Masjid Negara (National Mosque) was built to represent the independ...
46
THE HERO’S MAUSOLEUM
Not far from the main umbrella roof, sits a second umbrella roof that shelters the Hero’s
Mausoleu...
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THE MINARET
Moving on, also one of the more prominent features of a mosque, would be the minarets.
Traditionally, the m...
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THE ENTRANCE
As you approach the grand entrance of the National Mosque, you will be greeted by a wide
protruding flat-p...
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THE POOL
Walking along the open corridors and walkways, you can’t help but notice the big blue pool
that is situated in...
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THE COURTYARD
At the front entrance of the main hall is the semi-enclosed courtyard that serves the
purpose of being a ...
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THE MAIN HALL
Sitting right beneath the half-opened umbrella roof, is the main prayer hall that can
accommodate up 15 t...
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Details
Although the exterior of the mosque carries many modern architecture design elements,
the three architects that...
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Conclusion
During the entire course of this assignment, our group has thoroughly researched on
the National Mosque and ...
54
References:
1. Mosque typology and mosque architecture in Malaysia. (n.d.). Retrieved November
2, 2015, from http://www...
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National Mosque Malaysia Precedent Studies

Masjid Negara Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur Table Content: 1. Introduction 2. Site Context 3. Architectural Layout and Plan 4. Architectural Style Analysis 5. Construction Process 6. Architectural Elements
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Design      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - National Mosque Malaysia Precedent Studies

  • 1. 1 ARCHITECTURE CULTURE & HISTORY 2 [ ARC 60203] Project 2: Web Book (Group & Individual) Submission Date: Week 12, 18/11/2015 National Mosque Kuala Lumpur Tan Wing Hoe (0319333) Tay Jit Ying (0319002) Too Mun Fai (0318214) Woo Shir Ley (0317732)
  • 2. 2 Table Contents 1.0 Introduction............................................................................................................................ 3 2.0 Site Context............................................................................................................................ 7 3.0 Architecture Layout and plans................................................................................................ 19 4.0 Architectural Style Analysis:................................................................................................... 26 5.0 ConstructionProcess............................................................................................................. 38 6.0 Architectural Elements.......................................................................................................... 45 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................. 53 References:................................................................................................................................ 54 Site Context Analysis Tan Wing Hoe Architectural Layout Of Building Woo Shir Ley Architecture Style Analysis Tay Jit Ying Building Construction& Introduction and Conclusion By group Architectural Elements Too Mun Fai
  • 3. 3 Masjid Negara, National Mosque Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia 1.0 Introduction The majestic National Mosque, or Masjid Negara, was built in 1965 as a symbol of Malaysia’s recent independence. It is one of South East Asia’s largest and can hold up to 15,000 people. It is situated in Kuala Lumpur’s Lake Gardens in the center of the city and surrounded by swathes of beautiful gardens near the bird and orchid parks. It was designed by a group of three architects and the eighteen-pointed star dome is said to represent the thirteen states of Malaysia and the five pillars of Islam. The main dome is covered in thousands of blue and green tiles and there are 48 smaller green domes dotting the courtyard inspired by the grand mosque in Mecca. The 240ft (74m) minaret sounds the call to prayer that can be heard across Chinatown.
  • 4. 4 Location The National Mosque is located in the city centre of Kuala Lumpur, the National Mosque is situated next to the Railway Station, Daya Bumi Building, General Post Malaysia, the Islamic Arts Museum, Kuala Lumpur Bird Park and close to the Lake Gardens.
  • 5. 5 History As a result of the independence of Malaya which was achieved without any bloodshed, the National Mosque was built as a symbol of appreciation from the leaders and people. Allahyarham YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman the First Prime Minister, proposed the construction of this mosque. This mosque has been designed by Malay, constructed by Chinese and Indian. It has become a symbol of unity and tolerance among the people because it involved people of all races at the time. The cost of construction was covered in part by donations from the public regardless of race, religion (Islamic, Christian, Buddha and Hindus), or social standing aside from the funding from the federal government. The people initially suggested naming the mosque after YTM Tunku Abdul Rahman’s name. However, he did not agree with the suggestion and gave the name to the mosque with National Mosque. Since its completion on 27 August 1965, National Mosque in Kuala Lumpur, has become a majestic symbol of Islam in Malaysia. Before the existence of the Shah Alam Mosque, National Mosque is one of the more prominent mosque in South-East Asia. The mosque was officially opened by Tuanku Syed Putra Ibni Al-Marhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail on 27 August 1965, 30 RabiulAkhir 1385 Hijrah.
  • 6. 6 The Architects Baharuddin Kassim The architectural concept of this mosque obviously portrays the Islamic characteristics and the nationality of the citizens of Malaysia. The completion and maintenance of the construction were done by a group of architects from Design and Research Division, Federal Department of Public Works. It took almost three years to build the National Mosque. Mr. Baharuddin bin Abu Kassim, the main architect and a British architect named Howard Ashley, did some research on several mosques at Pakistan, Iran, Turki, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Republic and Spain before starting to design the National Mosque.
  • 7. 7 2.0 Site Context Map of site context DAYABUMI NATIONAL PLANETERIUM ISLAMIC ART MUSUEM KTM HEADQUARTER OLD RAILWAY STATION NATIONALMOSQUE
  • 8. 8 The Mosque was sited in a high-density townscape site open to the public, where it blends in with the surrounding context, with Daya Bumi, KTM Headquarter, Kuala Lumpur Railway Station and so on. Not only that, the mosque to be easily accessible and reachable through different transportation system, which the railway just right next to the Masjid Negara. The mosque is fully utilised by public. Existing buildings surrounding the site such as the Gallowary Club, the Railway Station, the council office and the masonry construction organisation’s building were demolished to make way for the project to allow it to blends into the surrounding The choice of site appears to have been successful since the Mosque is strategically located near public community areas and facilities, and to government offices. Since it is built with no boundary walls and has multiple access points for pedestrians as well as vehicular traffic from all directions, it attracts continuous gatherings of large crowds and worshippers even during public holidays. The building has become a focal point for office workers from nearby areas to perform their religious duty, especially Friday prayers, and urban residents are involved in communal programmes such as educational, social, economic, welfare and judicial activities. Beside, an underground passage that connects the National Mosque to the old railway station that allow convenient for the worshipper in transportation due to the limitation of parking spot in the National Mosque.
  • 9. 9 Transportation National Mosque situated nearby Pasar Seni station (KLJ) and Kuala Lumpur station (KTM). At Pasar Seni station, after you get off the train and pass by the ticket counter, you will see a bridge that links the station with Kuala Lumpur station. And the bridge across Kelang river from Pasar Seni that allow public walk through the bridge until you see Kuala Lumpur KTM station, do not enter the ticket counter over there, just go straight further until you see a parking lot in front of Pos Malaysia building. You will see a door to an underground tunnel that cross the Jalan Kinabalu. The mosque is situated at the end of the tunnel. At the end of the tunnel, you will see this signage of National Mosque pointing.
  • 10. 10 The spatial organisation of the Mosque also con-tributes to it functioning as a symbolic representation of the idea of unity. The planning layout designed portrays various choices of path-ways, entry points, transverse nodes, and is defined by multiple connections of spatial segments. As a result, the flow of movement within the spaces from various entry points is not constricted and a lower level of control of movement within the segments of spaces is achieved. This kind of spatial arrangement within the building maximises circulation for the users. Thus high social interaction exists within the main spaces such as the prayer hall, open courtyards and veranda areas In addition, the building that would retain a direct relationship with the environment and would not be so overwhelming that it dominated the existing context. This was because the main function of the building was to accommodate the needs of the populace. The Mosque therefore has a ‘sense of place’ and takes into account ‘the spirit of place and time’ having been designed in proportionate scale, inside and out. The overall building form is not arranged in a hierarchical manner with an extensive base or large-scale tapered roof to cover the main prayer hall.
  • 11. 11 Daya Bumi Building The Dayabumi Complex is one of the major landmarks of Kuala Lumpur and was built on land that was previously the site of the Malayan Railway workshops and depots from the 1900s until 1981. Construction began in January 1982 and was completed in February 1984. The Dayabumi Complex is one of the first buildings to boast a Malaysian style of architecture. First building in Kuala Lumpur to blend the modern lines physically required by high- rise engineering, and Islamic motifs and arabesques. The building is criss-crossed with a latticed grillwork of Moorish Islamic origin, and, as a whole, the architectural style is a hybrid of Moorish and Byzantine artistic traditions, but with a palpably Malay character. The building was built to resemble a mosque to blends into the site surrounding. The exterior of the Dayabumi Complex allows the building to fit in well with neighbouring buildings that are also inspired by Moorish and Byzantine artistic traditions, notably the nearby Sultan Abdul Samad Building. The buildings of the Dayabumi Complex enjoy close proximity to distinctively Islamic Kuala Lumpur landmarks such as the Federal House, the Moorish-influenced old Kuala Lumpur Railway Station, and the National Mosque. The gleaming white marble structure incorporates Arabic elements into the modern high-rise architecture, helping it to blend with the surrounding Moorish and Byzantine architecture. MASJID NEGARA DAYABUMI
  • 12. 12 Today It houses government offices, a shopping arcade and has an annex that houses the General Post Office Old Railway Station Kuala Lumpur Railway Station is an almost fairytale Moorish-style building to the southeast of the National Mosque. Located along Jalan Sultan, it used to be KL’s main railway hub until 2001 when Kuala Lumpur Sentral took over much of its role. The architectural style is Neo Moorish it’s mixture of western and Mughal styles. Adopting a mixture of Eastern and Western styles. Opposite stands the Malaya Railway Administration Building. Beneath the Islamic exterior, the Kuala Lumpur Railway Station resembles a typical glass and iron Victorian-era English railway building. The function of the building serves transportation system. Dome designon the exterior Islamic dome
  • 13. 13 The facade of the station is completely plastered, as opposed to buildings of similar styles that opt for exposed brickwork, and painted in light colours (usually white or cream) throughout its service. The platforms are covered by large steel-framed shelters, which were initially shorter during the station's early operation. The roofs were originally glazed, and were partially opened to allow smoke from steam locomotives to escape; corrugated roof sheets served as replacements later in the station's life. The sides of the platforms not adjoining the main building are surrounded by walls constructed in the same style as the main building. The platforms and main building are linked to each other via two underground passageways. The design of the extended platform for the 1986 refurbishment of the station took a more modernist approach, consisting simply of large concrete pillars supporting a latticed roof and a ticket office on concrete slabs at the north end, suspended two stories above ground. White walls and arches that serve as decorations to the extension are more alike that of the Dayabumi complex than the original station. The new extension is connected to Dayabumi via an elevated walkway.
  • 14. 14 KTM headquarters Situated at the far corner along Jalan Sultan Hishamuddin and Jalan Perdana in Kuala Lumpur, the Malayan Railway Administration Office. KTMB was designed by Arthur Benison Hubback, a colonial-government architect who was at that time the Architectural Assistant to the Director of Public Works. The initial planning started in 1913 and construction began at 1914. However, due to the impact from World War I and sluggish economy, construction progress was rather sluggish and the building was only completed in November 1917 after the First World War ended. This building is located opposite the Kuala Lumpur Railway Station building, separated by Jalan Hishamuddin. Initially, this building is used as FMS Railway Head Administration Office. Later in 1946, it was known as “Malayan Railway Administration Headquarters”, and in 1985 it is fully-utilized as KTM Berhad’s head office. Building incorporated classicalelements in this building design and it features articulated Islamic architectural elements such as Moorish as well as domes on top of each building that can be found in mosques. The structural design of this building creates a notable impression of Islamic architecture. Through its structure, the history of transportation management and train administration can be unveiled. The Malayan Railway Administration Office building structure is dominated with curves and towers and it adds to the beauty of the surrounding buildings in Kuala Lumpur. This building is an example of Moorish Revival architecture which reflects highly of the Ottoman and Mughal Empire
  • 15. 15 during late 13th and early 14th centuries with influence from Greek and Gothe architecture in the 14th century. KTMB head office has influence with Moorish architecture as one of the main aesthetical criteria in conjunction with ‘Massive Building Program’ under the reign of Sir WilliamMaxwell at Selangor. Moorish architecture is a design term used to describe the articulated Islamic architecture, as Tanah Melayu is the Muslim country. The architectural style was exported to British Malaya via British engineers and architects influenced by Indo-Saracenic stylings in British India. During the design of a new town hall for Kuala Lumpur in the late 19th century, C. E. Spooner, then State Engineer of the Public Works Department, favoured a "Mahometan style" over a neoclassical one to reflect Islamic mores in the region. This hybrid stylistic architecture had a same similarity with Islamic architecture form India. ‘Indo Saracenic’ style is referring to the Moorish Architecture, as well as a combination of the Gothic Architecture and Roman Architecture. These combinations become a complement to the design of the KTMB’s Head Office. By doing this they kept elements of British and European architecture, while adding Indian characteristics. The British tried to encapsulate South Asia's past within their own buildings and so represent Britain’s Raj as legitimate, while at the same time constructing a modern network of railways, colleges, and law courts.
  • 16. 16 The Islamic Arts Museum The Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia is one of Kuala Lumpur’s most popular attractions, and well-regarded as Southeast Asia’s largest museum of Islamic arts. Housing extensive collections of Islamic decorative arts from all over the world. This building architectural styles are Islamic Architecture. In the sense that, religious places will have more Arabic calligraphy drawn on the columns and other places on the structure. The Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia was officially opened on 12 December 1998. The museum is located in the heart of Kuala Lumpur’s tourist belt amidst the lush greenery of Perdana Botanical Gardens and within walking distance to the National Mosque, Bird Park and National Planetarium.
  • 17. 17 National Planetarium National Planetarium situated at the hill of Kuala Lumpur Lake Garden, surrounding by National Mosque, National Museum and KL Bird Park, National Planetarium is the place where the journey to space begin. Combination of the Islamic architecture and astronomy, makes the National Planetarium resembles a mosque, but combined with a futuristic look. The year 1994 heralded a new era in space science and technology for Malaysia with the official opening of the National Planetarium. The event not only focused the nation's attention on the overall design and architecture and unique facilities of the Planetarium but also brought to light the government's serious commitment to the development of space science and technology. Taking three years to build, the National Planetarium complex houses a tilted dome theatre at its very heart. The unique design of the theatre posed a great challenge to the project architects, engineers and building contractors. The exacting requirements of the planetarium and the large-format film projectors posed even more formidable challenges. Many difficulties had to be overcome and it took two years for all equipment and exhibits to
  • 18. 18 be completely commissioned. In spite of the difficulties, the National Planetarium has been able to carry out several successful educational projects with public schools and the public. Now the National Planetarium plays a crucial role in promoting space science to society at large and leading Malaysia towards the development of space science. It has an interesting Islamic architecture that resembles that of a mosque, complete with a dome and accompanying minaret.
  • 19. 19 3.0 Architecture Layout and plans Plans The early Modernist principle of ‘form follow function’, the internal space is organized along the principal function of a mosque. Site plan Floor plan
  • 20. 20 Elevation plan Circulation Configuration of the path Linear path. The path lead to the Warriors’ tomb is linear. Path-space relationship
  • 21. 21 Passes by the “Dewan Syarahan Utama” The relationship of the pathway and spaces is “pass by spaces”. The configuration of the path from entrance to Warriors’ tomb is flexible. However the location of the space establishes that path, which is the Warriors’ tomb. The path-space relationship is used to approach and enter functionally or symbolically important spaces. Organization Analysis Geometry The Makam Pahlawan, or Warriors’ tomb, was built in 1965 within the complex of the National Mosque as a mausoleum for heads of state in Malaysia. It is one of the earliest post-Independence Modernist landmarks in Kuala Lumpur. Mausoleums: National Mosque, Warriors’ tomb
  • 22. 22 Two architectural elements: a circular plinth, which provides shelter but dispenses with the need for walls and columns. Mausoleums are large, open, pavilion-like structures designed to create a well- defined space to shelter the tombs within rather than as elaborate edifices. Other than that, security for the tombs is provided as well, and for visitor and well-wishers who come to offer prayers is protected by the shelter. The triangular openings between the folds, which are large enough to allow a breeze to flow through the structure, also allow an uninterrupted view of the outside. A feeling of being ‘in the inside of an outside space’ is thus cleverly achieved.
  • 23. 23 Built in 1965, the architectural style of Warriors’ Tomb, National Mosque, is based on a combination of Islamic and Modernist design principles. It is built or reinforced concrete with Italian marble finishing. The whiteness of the concrete roof and the colour, texture and coolness of the marble further enhance the quality of space and light in the interior of the mausoleum. Western and Modernist influences on mosques The most significant event in the history of early Modernism in Malaysian architecture was the construction of the National Mosque, in Kuala Lumpur in 1965. In its design this exceptional building was the first to depart from the struct symmetry of earlier mosque, resulting in a ‘free plan’ skin to that advocated by Le Corbusier (1887-1965 ), the renowned French architect. The prayer hall
  • 24. 24 Reinforcing this interpretation, the building, comprising two levels, rests on pilote columns. The galleries surrounding in the main prayer hall are treated like wide-open verandas. The first floor, where the main prayer hall is situated, is devoted exclusively to the performance of prayers and rituals. The lower floor houses the public facilities, such as the administration office for the collection of ‘zakat’(tithes), a clinic, and classroom for religious instruction. Probably the most radical departure from mosque traditions, however, is the ‘umbrella’ roof. It is a creative construction solution (a 360 degree folded plate structure ) and an ingenious combination of the two main traditions in Malaysia mosque architecture: the dome inspired by imported Middle Eastern and Mogul architecture and the roof inspired by the pyramidal forms of more indigenous origin. Because of the success of the design of National Mosque, and coinciding with an international trend, structural expressionism( the attachment of symbolic meanings to the structure of a building ) became the predominant inspiration for early post-independence mosques in Malaysia.
  • 25. 25 Geometrically patterned grillwork forms the walls. 2.3.2 Grid organization A grid organization consists of forms and spaces whose positions in space and relationships with one another are regulated by a three-dimensional grid pattern or field. The pillars is perpendicular sets of parallel lines that establish a regular pattern of points at their intersections. The organizing power of a grid result from the regularity and continuity of its pattern that pervades the elements its organizes. a stable set of reference points and lines in space with which the spaces of a grid organization, although dissimilar in size, form or function can share a common relationship.
  • 26. 26 4.0 Architectural Style Analysis: To gain a sense of place in Malaysia, one has to understand its foreign origins. In a country that is situated in the geographic heart of Southeast Asia and is surrounded by historic sea passageways, Islamcame from outsiders. Spreading throughout the Malay Peninsula from the trading port of Malacca, where Muslim merchants from India and the Middle East bartered in pottery, spices and textiles, mosques and madrasas sprang up in communities settled by Javanese, Arabs and Pakistanis. And each of these groups, along with their ethnic cultures and languages, brought their own brand of architectural style. Masjid Negara expresses the idea of Islamas a religion that is dynamic and progressive of the times rather than one that is static and dogmatic. In terms of architectural ethnicity, the whole architectural expression of the National Mosque in Kuala Lumpur does not suggest any foreign influence but is suited accordingly within our socio- cultural context. Besides, it also presents the idea of spirit of times well. As it is built in the modern era of reinforced concrete construction, its wide span of beams, use of hyper roofs and the huge folded plate roof covering the prayer hall express the spirit of the structural material and does not even try to imitate the traditional masonry construction of the past with built in arches, domes and small fenestration. The term modernistic expressionismcan be used to describe the National Mosque as it uses abstract metaphor approach such as the frames of the whole buildings mimic as a huge wakaf-like shelter or known as generous serambi-verandah structure. The building express horizontality and serves well as the vocabulary of humility in Islam. The fact that the
  • 27. 27 building is a tropical model with lots of fenestration punctured by light-wells with ponds representing the inner courts add to the idea of moderation. It also presents well the image of Islamas a religion of their own people by rejecting the use of symmetry and strict hierarchical composition of massing. It is also a simplified version of malay house in its raised of prayer hall and serambi with light courts and air wells to provide ample day lighting and passive cooling to the building. Masjid Negara is the combination of a modernistic reinterpretation of traditional Malay Architecture with a folded plate ‘dome’ with a metaphor of a royal umbrella signifying the importance of the building as a national monument. The mosque itself is also a type of modernist architecture inspired by traditional Islamic themes and motifs. This uniquely designed mosque embodies a contemporary expression of traditional Islamic art, calligraphy and ornamentation. It rejects historic revivalismin any form, rejects ornamentation in any form, that celebrates abstraction in forms and that celebrate the structural expression in architecture. It is by far the best example of a building imbued with the technological and spiritual qualities of an architecture with a true Malaysian identity. The Masjid Negara holds a unique and inspiring position as the Mosque that does not have any inferiority complex about which place and culture does Islam seemto be best represented. Its honest effort at interpreting a progressive identity whilst answering the call for a building of humble cost and not of astronomical extravagance, the mosque displays a tropical composition to be proud of.
  • 28. 28 Its most striking feature is the multi-fold umbrella-like roof which symbolises the aspirations of an independent nation and symbolizes under the protection of Allah. The architect, Datuk Baharuddin was inspired by how royalty would always be escorted with an umbrella when stepping outside. As the building will be built with concrete, he couldn’t design a round umbrella and needed more straight lines elements which made him further thought of the Payung Kertas — a folded umbrella with straight lines. The umbrella-shaped dome, with 18 points representing the 13 states of Malaysia and the five pillars of Islam. The central roof appears to be first glance a partially unfolded umbrella. From within, in the main prayer hall, the roof’s unique design gives one the impression of standing beneath a gigantic open umbrella. It is built of concrete and has a few small domes built of blue mosaic. In the interior, the concrete roof in the shape of opened umbrella is decorated with glass mosaic and white gold. In the middle of the roof there is an aluminium panel engraved with verses from the Quran - as a replica of the Blue Mosque dome in Istanbul, Turkey. The mosque had undergone major renovations in 1987, replacing the colour of the concrete dome from pink to a more striking green-and-blue. It also shows modern styles which emphasise the advancement in building technology and engineering. Standing prominently against the skyline is the sleek and stylish 73m high minaret. A minaret is a tower where someone would announce the call-to-prayer, or adthan, during the five daily prayers. The building itself also includes a hall, a mausoleum, a library, offices and an open courtyard. The Grand Hall is surrounded by deep verandas and they provide a praying area and can easily accommodate up to 5000 people. Main PrayerHall Roof National Mosque Blue Mosque Dome,Istanbul,Turkey
  • 29. 29 Islamic Architecture In order to discuss the Islamic styles of architecture, we must first examine the worldviews of Islam. In Islam, Allah is the Supreme Being and is indivisible and has no equals. He is the lawgiver for the whole world ncluding human, animals and other creatures as well. According to the Qu’ran, when a person dies, the individual waits for the judgement day. If he/she has lived his life according to Allah’s will, then they are permitted to enter paradise. Seven Unifying Principles of Islamic Architecture 1. Tawhid:Unity and Uniquity ofAllah Main Prayer Hall The prayer hall is the space where the Muslims congregate to perform their prayers facing the "Qiblah" which is the direction of 'KA'BAH' in Mecca. This is a common direction during the prayers as it signifies that Islamis the religion of Unity : One God, One Final Prophet Muhammad. This prayer hall can accomodate up to 3000 prayers at one time with a floor area of 23,409 square feet. Entrance Through 9 glasses of doors, prayers are able to access to the prayer hall from 3 different direction and unite them into one space. 2. Dikr : Remembrance Masjid Negara is covered with repeated geometric form ornaments that includes nature or Quranic inscriptions surrounding the building. Thus, it acts as a remembrance of Allah and a process of being reminisced.
  • 30. 30 3. Haya : Modesty Modesty was illustrated in this mosque through the usage of geometrical screenings. Besides serving as a private screening, it also serves as an aesthetic feature as well as an environmental feature. 4. Ikhlas: Sincerity Ikhlas was demonstrated as a sign of sincerity through an outward physical actions of the body for example prayers and also inward actions of the heart where it is achieved by removing doubts from thoughts. Sincerity is expressed through the inner heart that involves deep contemplative of spiritual nature of man. There is always a focal point, a direction in which all things lead to. The lines of pattern that run across the floor face the direction of Ka’ba.
  • 31. 31 5. Iqtisad :Balance The structural plan is designed according to golden ration, proportion and spatial sequences. In terms of the form of this building, it is quite simple and modest besides almost symmetrical to each site of the plan as well as the elevation. The structural plan is in sequence shaped, hypostyle mosque where flat roof is supported by columns throughout the entire building. Symmetrical Plan and Front Elevations Arab-plan/hypostyle mosque - Mosque rectangular in plan with an enclose courtyard and covered prayer hall Hypostyle mosque where columns and flat roof can be seen.
  • 32. 32 6. Ihtiram: Respect Respect means propriety or adab (good manners), a positive feeling of esteem or deference for a person or other entity, and also specific actions and conduct representative of that esteem. In Islam, respect is translated in ihtiram in a sense of showing respect or behaving in a good manner towards God, Allah; to fellow mankind and to oneself. To translate those meaning in architecture, symbolism, harmony and the purity of geometric shapes of the Ka'bah which are found in scared architecture throughout the Islamic World has been used. In the National Mosque, geometric shapes of screen walls are used in almost every walls of the building. In the main prayer hall which is similar to Dome of the rock, Islamic art is found decorating the walls and window screen of the mosque. Animal Arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms of plants and animals symbolising the infinite, uncentralized, nature of the creation of Allah. 7. Ilm : Knowledge Inscriptions where calligraphy is written or carved in a sacred language in Arabic to illustrates knowledge in Islamic Architecture. The Arabic callagraphy is to celebrate the aesthetic of islamic scripts across the Islamic world through a visible form by revealing ilm' and wisdom words of Quran. In islam, knowledge is also known as the light of truth. Islamic architecture has manipulated the light source as an expression through illuminating effects of sun rays and moon light. To adds individuality and a sensory experience of architectural spaces as it is driven of the quality of light and shadow that determines an individual's perception,
  • 33. 33 intricacy on wall inscriptions or ornament is used as a moving point source of natural sunlight. The nine gates and the lattice gallery bring sunlight into the prayer hall as well as the decorative lights, the lights hidden in the aluminium rosette at the roof and 16 chandeliers which are a gift from kings, governors and ex-National President of Singapore. Several written verses from the Quran are placed across the all above the interior part of the door of the prayer hall. The writing measures 2ft high and woven with gold and blue shiny mosaic.
  • 34. 34 The mausoleum which situated at the rear of the mosque stands in a circular reflecting pool and is connected to the main building by a covered foot-bridge. It is circular in shape and is covered by a pleated shell concrete dome similar in shape to that of the Grand Hall but with only seven folds, one of which covers a reserve for the national hero’s tomb. Today, the National Mosque continues to stand sleek and stylish with the modern design that embodies a contemporary expression of traditional Islamic art calligraphy and Malay architecture symbolism. Since its completion on 27th August 1965, the National Mosque has become a majestic symbol for Islamin Malaysia. Moorish Architecture Moorish architecture is a variation of Islamic architecture. There are many motifs, or repeated patterns, in Moorish architecture. Below are the similarities between the elements in National Mosque and Moorish Architecture elements. 1. Mihrab with geometric and design of plants 2. Presence of minarets 3. Colourful mosaics 4. Windows of coloured glass 5. Walls of the mosque has Quranic Inscriptions written on them 6. All decoration is accomplished through tiles work, calligraphy and architectural forms. 7. Nine outer gates, led to the same number of naves within the mosque.
  • 35. 35 Moroccan Architecture Moroccan style is a new trend in decoration which takes its roots from Moorish architecture and Moroccan architecture In the national mosque, previously the mihrab was in angular shape like a door but has been modified to curved arch. This mihrab is inlaid with verses of the Quran in Moroccan caligraphy. There is a parallel line of writing, with white lettering set against a gold background. The wall that surrounds the mihrab are modified according to the Moroccan architecture with decorative and cursive characteristics of inscription in Arabic Script. The reverence attached to calligraphy was based primarily on the primacy of Arabic as the language of the Qur’an. Since the Qur’an contained Allah’s (God’s) final revelation to the world in His words, the written word carried potent meaning. The entrance is highlighted by rich, rectangular frames (alfiz) enclosing arabesques and lettering carved in marble, stucco and mosaic. Mihrab inNational MosqueMihrab in Mosque ofCórdoba
  • 36. 36 Mughal Architecture The Qur'an uses the garden as an analogy for paradise and Islamcame to have a significant influence on garden design. The concept of paradise garden was commonly used in the Persian gardens, Ottoman gardens as well as Charbagh garden of Mughal architecture. The word ‘Charbagh’ is divided into “Char” and “Bagh” which means four and garden respectively in Persian. Therefore, the garden is divided into walkways and flowing water. Charbagh garden of Mughal architecture in Humayun’s Tomb Courtyard with water fountain in front of Masjid Negara A fountain can be found in the centre of the garden of Masjid Negara A pool which reflects the beauties of sky and looks quite similar to canal can be found outside the prayer hall of Masjid Negara
  • 37. 37 The interior of the prayer hall is decorated with patterns that depict the Islamic culture and resembles the pattern found in the Taj Mahal and Patehphur Sikri Mosques in India. Persian Architecture Multi-fold umbrella-like roof painted blue in colour which is very similar to the Persian domes which normally is blue in colour and aims to dominate the skyline of the city especially during the reflection under the sun and glitters like the turquoise gemand the use of extensive inscription bounds of calligraphy and arabesque beneath the dome. Prayerhall inTaj Mahal PrayerHall in National Mosque Masjid-e Jame mosque in Kerman, Iran Multi-fold umbrella-like roof in Masjid Negara, Malaysia Prayerhall inPatehphurSikri Mosque
  • 38. 38 5.0 Construction Process Providing a unique design for the mosque was not an easy task. Firstly, a proposal to hold a competition to get talented designers from around the world to design the mosque was held by the committee of Kuala Lumpur’s Township Arrangement. Later, the proposal was rejected, and they suggested a competition be held amongst designers and architects in the country. Unfortunately, the suggestion was also turned down as it would cost a lot of money and difficulty, thus making the work process even slower. The committee finally decided to give the job of designing the mosque to the Public Works Department. Firstly, a council of architects from the Public Works Department had to collect, analyse and compare the designs of all the famous mosques in the Islamic world. The ministry of Foreign Affairs had asked the United Arab Republic to help in giving suggestions and design proposals for the mosque in the Arab countries were sent to Kuala Lumpur to study. The task to design the National Mosque was given to a young architect, Mr. Baharuddin Bin Abu Kassimwho had specific knowledge in mosque studies. He had visited India, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey, Spain and the Arab states to study more on the designs of all the famous Mosques in those countries. His design was accepted and confirmed by the mosque Committee in June 1960
  • 39. 39 Preparation Site The first stage if the construction of the mosque was to provide a site. A lot of work had to be carried in the first stage of construction, which included the demolition of previous buildings, levelling on the ground, piling works and water systemconstruction. The preparation of the site was carried out by the local contractor, Messrs K.C.Boon and Cheah within two years. On 29th September 1961, a ceremony to set the Qibla’ direction was officially done by the Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj. After the site was ready and the Qibla’ was determined, the next stage was the construction of building. The Initial cost of overall material for the building was too high and they had to reduce the cost by changing the specification of materials used. After discussion, it was decided that the remaining terrazzo design was replaced with local marble. This way, the construction cost was saved by more than two million ringgit.
  • 40. 40 The main Construction On, February 27,19633. Yang di-pertuan Agong held the stone- laying ceremony of the national Mosque. The mosque consists of a main hall with a veranda surrounding three sides of the hall, a tower, a courtyard with two pools, a hall, a library, a room for temporary use for the Yang di-pertuan Agong. King and the head Imam Building Material The main hall, which is the prayer hall is the most significant part of the national Mosque. The area of the hall is 153 square feet, built with reinforced concrete and covered with beautiful Italian marbles. Reinforced concrete is concrete in which steel is embedded in such a manner that two materials act together in resisting forces. Reinforced concrete was used as it was able to withstand bad weather conditions due to it being stronger than normal concrete. Next, there were nine sliding doors that were placed along the walls on the three facades of the main hall. The doors were made out of big aluminium. The construction of the roof along the veranda was built in waffle slabs. The roof structures are cantilevered which extends horizontally over the veranda and corridor walkways. Waffle Ribs Pans Removed Near Column
  • 41. 41 The similarities with the modern building in the west Based on the construction of the national mosque, we can see some similarities with the construction of the most well-known residences in the west, designed by one of the modern masters. Frank Lloyd Wright. The house mentioned is the falling-water in Bear Run. Pennsylvania. One of the similarities is that Fallingwater was built using reinforced concrete. CantileveredRoof of FallingWater
  • 42. 42 Reinforced concrete was commonly used in the modern building as it was the new technology at that period. Wright had also designed the house with cantilevered floors. This reflects back to the national Mosque’s cantilevered roof design. Lastly, the third similarity was the use of the waffle slabs. Wright used waffle slabs in the construction of Fallingwater as it provided a lighter and stiffer slab which reduced the extent of foundations. This was made of a thin topping slab and narrow ribs spanning in both directions between column heads or band beams. The column heads or band beams are the same depth as the ribs. Building Materials The floors are constructed from white tiles while the once- pink concrete roof is now clad in green and blue tiles. Tiles have the characteristic of low water absorption and declared freeze-resistance is required. Tiling on concrete roof also ensure quiet prayer hall at all times. It also has the characteristic of reflection which brightens up the whole walkways while give the dome the ability to reflects during the day which catches the attention of the user. Concrete pillars are widely used to support the whole structure and to emphasize on the verticality elements in the mosque. It also symbolizes Muslim follow the 5 basic principles of Islam. This method have been shown to effectively increase the axial load capacity of columns.
  • 43. 43 Concrete roof in the shape of opened umbrella is decorated with glass mosaic in white and gold. Concrete roof requires little maintenance over time, fire resistances and provide thermal insulation to the main prayer hall which is fully air- conditioned. It is also much cheaper and concrete was all that is available with the absence of aluminium and steel structures. Verandahs are protected from the outside by the lattice curtains of aluminum with original Islamic patterns. It provides an additional layer between the exterior and the interior. Besides, interesting composure is created with the reflection of the floor since not as much light is passing through the fabric.
  • 44. 44 Main Prayer Hall The main prayer hall is constructed with triangular glass panels and blue stained glass windows which are very similar to the technique of painting in Europe especially in church and cathedral. In medieval times, blue glass was made by adding cobalt, which at a concentration of 0.025 to 0.1% in soda-lime glass achieves the brilliant blue characteristic of Chartres Cathedral. Stained glass is very suitable to make windows especially in a prayer hall as it is very long lasting if well maintained and having the characteristic of giving out light which could manipulate the interior atmosphere when sunlight penetrates from outside. Several written verses from the Quran are placed across the wall above the interior part of the door of the prayer hall. The writing measures two feet high and woven with gold and blue shiny mosaic which is commonly use during the Islamic period. Glass mosaics were widely use both inside and outside by craftsmen of the Byzantine tradition with rich floral motifs. Compare to other materials, it is harder than steel, less dense and resistant to heat and corrosion. Terrazzo which is a composite material normally for floor and wall were also used in Masjid Negara where the pillars are paved with terrazzo while the floors are constructed from terrazzo pieces. The prayer hall has reinforced concrete wall garnished with Italian marble reflecting a mixture of Islamic and modernist design principles.
  • 45. 45 6.0 Architectural Elements THE UMBRELLA ROOF As the Masjid Negara (National Mosque) was built to represent the independence of Malaysia, there are quite a few architectural elements that can be observed and analysed. One of the more prominent ones would be the half-opened umbrella roof that represents the protection from god to all His followers. As Malaysia has just recently achieved its in 1957, this mosque was built with unity and the importance of Islamic principles in mind. Hence, the dome has 18 folded points to represent the 13 states and the five pillars of Islam. The dome also helps strengthen the emphasis on the National Mosque among all the other Islamic structures built around it.
  • 46. 46 THE HERO’S MAUSOLEUM Not far from the main umbrella roof, sits a second umbrella roof that shelters the Hero’s Mausoleum. This structure started much later into the construction, work started in 1963 and was completed at the same time as the main hall in 1965. The seven-sided umbrella sits directly on the ground with the lower folded edges as the support, hence the roof also served as the walls of the structure. The seven triangular “holes” act as access points into and out from the mausoleum, and also as openings for natural lighting to illuminate the interior.
  • 47. 47 THE MINARET Moving on, also one of the more prominent features of a mosque, would be the minarets. Traditionally, the main function of a minaret is to provide a vantage point where the Azan can be read to notify all the Muslims around the vicinity that it is time to carry out their prayers. Nowadays, loudspeakers or microphones are installed at the top of the minarets so the azan can be heard from longer distances. The minaret that stands 73 meters tall is built on top of a long reflective pool, next to the main hall. The top of the minaret is designed to resemble a closed umbrella, unlike most minarets in Islamic architecture. Because of this unique, one-of-a-kind design, the minaret serves as a pinnacle or landmark that can be seen and recognized from across the city skyline as the National Mosque.
  • 48. 48 THE ENTRANCE As you approach the grand entrance of the National Mosque, you will be greeted by a wide protruding flat-planed flight of stairs that incorporates a feeling of serenity and peacefulness through its horizontality. The stairs are also wide to improve the flow of up to 15,000 Muslims that come and leave every Friday to pray. After ascending the stairs, you will be overwhelmed by the grandeur and magnificent structure built above ground. The corridors/walkways in front of the main structure are supported by repeated pillars to allow air ventilation and natural lighting to create a light and open feeling for the occupants as they enter the mosque.
  • 49. 49 THE POOL Walking along the open corridors and walkways, you can’t help but notice the big blue pool that is situated in the centre of the building, which also happens to be the base of the lone minaret. The main pool also branches out of all the way to the Hero’s Mausoleum and encircles it. A strong emphasis on water has been implemented into the mosque to strengthen the focus of Islamon nature and the environment, water being one of the four elements earth, air, water and fire. The sound of water drizzling from many of the fountains produces a calm and peaceful atmosphere.
  • 50. 50 THE COURTYARD At the front entrance of the main hall is the semi-enclosed courtyard that serves the purpose of being a secondary praying area for the Muslims when the main hall has been filled during the Friday prayers. Similar to the walkways and mausoleum, the gaps between the concrete parasols held up by many uniformly-arranged concrete pillars are cover in glass to allow sunlight to penetrate through, yet keeps the place dry from rain. The parasols are elevated above the lower roof, which allows for space to include a row of clerestory that surrounds the entire courtyard to provide natural lighting. Therefore, the interior of the courtyard is well lit during the day that complements the white tiles and mosaic flooring, giving off a sense of clarity and purity.
  • 51. 51 THE MAIN HALL Sitting right beneath the half-opened umbrella roof, is the main prayer hall that can accommodate up 15 thousand Muslims. Blue tainted glass was used in the upper floor windows and triangular glass panes to embody the utter purity and clarity of God, and also to encourage a serene and calmenvironment in the prayer hall. Each triangular window panes are tainted with a different Quranic Inscriptions that carry different meanings. Unlike the walkways, courtyard and mausoleum outside, the main prayer hall is fully enclosed with several access points for improved circulation. The Mihrah placed at the front of the hall dictates the direction and position of the entire structure due to the position of the Qibla.
  • 52. 52 Details Although the exterior of the mosque carries many modern architecture design elements, the three architects that designed the mosque knows that, as a mosque that embodies the very essence of Islamic architecture, many minor details of the National Mosque maintains the traditional geometric patterns, motives and forms. One of the many examples, are the four equilateral sides which form the square to represent the equally important elements of nature: earth, air, fire and water. Without any one of the four, the physical world, represented by a circle that inscribes the square, would collapse upon itself and cease to exist. Too many minute details that carry strong emphasis of the Islamic architecture can be mentioned; among the more obvious ones are the hand rails, ponds, wall ornamentations and eaves.
  • 53. 53 Conclusion During the entire course of this assignment, our group has thoroughly researched on the National Mosque and its characteristics. However, the complete knowledge of the National mosque alone would not suffice; hence we also immersed ourselves into the world of Islamic architecture to fully grasp the ideology. We also visited the mosque to experience the building for ourselves through our five senses. After thoroughly observing and analysing the building inside out, we proceed to delegate the tasks between ourselves and produced a detailed report on the National Mosque.
  • 54. 54 References: 1. Mosque typology and mosque architecture in Malaysia. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2, 2015, from http://www.slideshare.net/erazedrus/mosque-typology 2. FOREIGN OCCUPATION: ISLAMIC SYMBOLISM IN MALAYSIA. (2015, November 16). Retrieved November 1, 2015, from http://theislamicmonthly.com/foreign- occupation-islamic-symbolism-in-malaysia/ 3. Mosque Architecture in Malaysia: Classification of Styles and Possible Influence. (n.d.). Retrieved October 31, 2015, from http://eprints.utm.my/1780/1/Mosque_style-tajuddin.pdf 4. Malaysian architecture: Crisis within. (2005). Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors. 5. Mosque Architecture in Malaysia. (2007, September 9). Retrieved November 1, 2015, from https://zainabdullah.wordpress.com/2007/09/09/mosque-architecture- in-malaysia/ 6. Inside the Great Mosque of Córdoba, Spain. (n.d.). Retrieved November 3, 2015, from http://www.spainthenandnow.com/spanish-architecture/inside-the-great- mosque-of-cordoba/default_43.aspx 7. Koh, J., & Ho, L. (2009). Culture and customs of Singapore and Malaysia. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood Press. 8. Why Choose Concrete Roof Tiles? - Boral. (n.d.). Retrieved November 3, 2015, from http://www.boral.com.au/rooftiles/roof-tile-guide-benefits-concrete.asp 9. The man behind Masjid Negara's iconic 'umbrella' dome. (2015, September 4). Retrieved November 4, 2015, from http://www.themalaymailonline.com/features/article/the-man-behind-masjid-negaras- iconic-umbrella-dome 10. Hammer, J. (2013). The Cambridge companion to American Islam. New York: Cambridge University Press.

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