Taylor Bogan 1
Nanoparticles and the usage in chemotherapy
Taylor Bogan
Abstract
Nanoparticles are a topic that is growing...
Taylor Bogan 2
To address the amount of deaths by cancer
researchers and oncologist across the world
have been trying to a...
Taylor Bogan 3
particles range from 2500 to 10000
nanometers. Fine particles range from 100 to
2500 nanometers. [2] There ...
Taylor Bogan 4
associated key or maker that other
noncancerous cells do not have. Once the
particles have reached the cell...
Taylor Bogan 5
patients have also chosen to partake in the
experimental procedure of using
nanoparticle therapies and they...
Taylor Bogan 6
References
[1]American Cancer Society Website
http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactss
tatistics/cancerf...
of 6

Nanoparticle research article

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanoparticle research article

  • 1. Taylor Bogan 1 Nanoparticles and the usage in chemotherapy Taylor Bogan Abstract Nanoparticles are a topic that is growing at a rapid rate in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) field. However, it should be noted that the concept of nanoparticles has been around since the late 1850’s. A nanoparticle can be defined as a particle between the sizes of 1 up to 100 nanometers. There are several different categories of nanoparticles including ultrafine particles, coarse particles, and fine particles. There are many applications to be used by nanoparticles but the main focus in this article will be the use of nanoparticles and their application in chemotherapy. Nanoparticles have been selected to be used in chemotherapy because they are much smaller than the other particle sizes. It also has been seen that the shape of the nanoparticle affects how effective the particle is. Studies have been done to show that disk shaped nanoparticles and rod shaped nanoparticles yield the best results. Chemotherapy is a treatment method that is used to remove cancerous cells from one’s body. It initially began in the 1940’s using nitric mustards and folic acid based drugs. Since then it has evolved drastically and now has numerous drugs prescribed to treat each individual case. It should be noted that the drugs used to treat the cancerous cells are determined on a case by case bases. The method of delivering the drugs to the patient is done by a port which is typically surgically inserted into the patient in their chest and an infusion pump. An infusion pump is a medical device that delivers fluids in large or small amounts, and may be used to deliver the needed medications to remove cancerous cells from a patient’s body. The traditional method has been proven to be affective yet causes a large amount of damage to the body. The application using nanoparticles has been seen to target the direct cancer cells and causes less damage to the body. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Methods 3. Discussion 4. Conclusion 5. References 1. Introduction As stated by the American Cancer Society (ACS), Cancer is known to be the second most common cause for death in the United States and 1 out of 4 deaths are caused by cancer. It is stated by the American Cancer Society that in 2014 there will be nearly 1,665,540 new cancer cases and nearly 585,720 deaths caused by cancer in the United States alone. This number is much larger globally and the chart below provides statistics from 2008 on the number of deaths that occurred from cancer. [1]
  • 2. Taylor Bogan 2 To address the amount of deaths by cancer researchers and oncologist across the world have been trying to advance the methods of chemotherapy to increase the number of survivors and decrease the number of deaths. The traditional chemotherapy methods involving an infusion pump have been found to be very successful, however, the side effects that come with the treatment include vomiting, nausea, hair loss, weak immune systems, and the damage to noncancerous cells is very high. Introducing nanoparticles to chemotherapy has a very high promise of removing some of those side effects especially the damage to other cells. 2. Methods Nanoparticles also known as ultrafine particles can be defined as a particle that ranges from 100 to 2500 nanometers. Coarse
  • 3. Taylor Bogan 3 particles range from 2500 to 10000 nanometers. Fine particles range from 100 to 2500 nanometers. [2] There are three different ways nanoparticles can be created. The first method is known as attrition which involves grinding in a ball mill. A ball mill is a grinder that grinds materials into extremely thin powder and then the particles are recovered by air classification (the separation of particles based on their size, shape, and density). The second method pyrolysis uses a liquid or gas that through high pressure and burning produces nanoparticles. The final method hydrothermal synthesis uses thermal energy which causes vaporization to occur and an end result of nanoparticles. Many companies and universities have been doing research on how to take these small sized particles and use them in chemotherapy. The concept that is being developed is using these nanoparticles as a way to destroy cancer cells directly and individually. The nanoparticles would be inserted into the body through the bloodstream. Once inside of the bloodstream they would be able to recognize the specific cancer cells. They were able to do this because the cancerous cells have an Nanoparticles are a concept that has been around since the late 1850’s. In 1857 Michael Faraday provided a scientific article that talked about nanoparticle and their uses in metals. Also, artisans during the early 1900’s used nanoparticles as a method to adding a glittery affect to the pottery that they were making. They would do this by using copper and silver salts along with oxides and vinegar and mix them into their clay which allowed them to get a glazed pottery as the end result. Recently, however, the usage of nanoparticles has started to be researched and developed in the medical field.
  • 4. Taylor Bogan 4 associated key or maker that other noncancerous cells do not have. Once the particles have reached the cells they would penetrate them and disperse the drug into the cell which ends up destroying it. [4] There are several methods of delivery that uses the concept of nanoparticles. The attachment of ethylene glycol molecules to nanoparticles allows the particle to travel through the blood stream without being destroyed by white blood cells. Once in the blood stream the particles are able to locate and destroy the tumors. They are able to do this because the particles are engineered in a way to recognize the diseased cells and leave the healthy cells alone. The University Of California has used membranes from red blood cells to allow travel through the blood flow to attack cancer cells. MIT has used two types of particles to target and destroy cancer cells. One particle is used as a way to locate the cancer cell and the second particle locates the first particle to deliver the therapeutic drug by sensing a signal that it gives off. Researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology and IBM researchers use hydrogel as a method. They insert it into the skin and it travels through the body for several weeks and destroys the cancerous cells. A final method that has been used is photosensitivity agents that are used as a way to get to the tumor. Once at the tumor it uses infrared light that allows the blood vessels to become more porous. Once they, the blood vessels, are porous the nanoparticles are able to enter the tumor and release the therapeutic drug. [4] All of these different methods would allow direct contact to the cancerous cells. This is a great benefit for the patient because their body would not be damaged as much because the healthy cells would not be affected. This in hand would allow the patient’s immune system not to be compromised as much as the traditional method. Also, this can help decrease the feeling of nausea, pain, and potentially stop one from vomiting. The traditional method does not have direct contact with the cancerous cells which causes a large amount of healthy cells to be destroyed and that greatly affects the person undergoing treatment. 3. Discussion I personally feel that this topic has a lot of potential and as more research and trials keep happening it is going to grow and become an alternative to the traditional method of chemotherapy. As a cancer survivor I see the great benefits that can come from this method of treatment. Treating the cells directly will truly allow the patients to feel better after they undergo therapy and it will allow the after effects of chemotherapy to disappear faster. At this stage a lot of research has been done using rats and some patients have used the method of nanoparticles. They have done testing to compare the delivery of cancer drugs with nanoparticles versus with direct delivery of a specific drug. A specific drug known as Cisplatin is known to cause damage to the kidney’s and nerves. When using a drug known as Prodrug in nanoparticles they have seen a large decrease in kidney and nerve damage. An experiment in which rats were injected with prostate cancer and then injected with a low dose of nanoparticle treatment versus Cisplatin showed that after four weeks the nanoparticle treatment was able to remove just as many tumors as the Cisplatin. A few
  • 5. Taylor Bogan 5 patients have also chosen to partake in the experimental procedure of using nanoparticle therapies and they have seen good results from the procedures. Potential shortcomings for this treatment are that it is expensive and fairly new to the market. This could cause oncologist to be skeptical about using this form of treatment because they do not have years of data to show the side effects that can occur from this treatment. They, oncologists, might see this as more of a risk then a benefit for the patients. Another issue that could arise is getting the patients to be on board with the treatment because some people are not familiar with nanoparticles and the concepts that come along with this treatment. Also, for some people that do know about nanoparticles they are very opposed to using them in any aspects of their life. However, I do feel that with the proper education and training this method of therapy can be very successful and useful in the medical field. A way to improve this method would be for oncologist to work hand in hand with the researchers and other developers on this form of treatment. That would allow the oncologist to feel more comfortable going forward with this treatment and it would allow them to properly educate their patients on the treatment that they would be getting. I do foresee this treatment being very successful in the future. It has great potential and benefits to the patients that will be undergoing with treatment. With the correct partnership amongst researchers and oncologist and the right education this treatment can be implemented in multiple treatment facilities in the next few years. 4. Conclusion Throughout this paper several topics were discussed. The first topic discussed was chemotherapy and the importance of it. As stated earlier by the American Cancer Society in 2014 there will be nearly 1,665,540 new cancer cases and nearly 585,720 deaths caused by cancer in the United States alone and that it is the second leading death in the United States. [1] These statistics show that the need for chemotherapy treatments is high; however the side effects of chemotherapy can be very damaging to the patient. Nanoparticle chemotherapy treatment provides a different alternative to directly targeting the cancer cells. This in hand will allow the patients to have fewer side effects from the therapy.
  • 6. Taylor Bogan 6 References [1]American Cancer Society Website http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactss tatistics/cancerfactsfigures2014/index [2]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanoparticle [3]http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/n/n anoparticle.htm [4]http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/januar y2011/01242011nanoparticles.htm [5]http://www.understandingnano.com/nano technology-drug-delivery.hmtl

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