Vasco Teixeira
Vasco Teixeira, Joaquim Carneiro
Department of Physics, University of Minho
Azurém Campus, 4800-058 Guimarã...
Vasco Teixeira
Outline
Nanotechnology
Construction
Industry
Definition of nanotechnology and nanomaterials
Economic impa...
Vasco Teixeira
Innovative nanoscale coating architectures for functional
decorative and smart surfaces
GRF- Functional Coa...
Vasco Teixeira
Nanotechnology
A definition of Nanotechnology was presented in 1981
by Drexler, as being the fabrication of...
Vasco Teixeira
Nanocrystalinne materials: % atoms in grain
boundaries
HRTEM image of a region of
nanocrystalline palladium...
Vasco Teixeira
Nanotechnology
Available forecasts suggest a global market for nanotechnology
products in the range of USD...
Vasco Teixeira
Forecast 2015:
• Annual growth of 10-15%
• Nanotech driven total
market volume >750 bn Euro
Nanotechnology:...
Vasco Teixeira
Examples of Companies already
using Nanotechnology
Vasco Teixeira
Nanocoatings are opening new market opportunities in
the global surface coatings arena, offering new
applic...
Vasco Teixeira
Introduction: Construction Industry
 60% of global industrial waste is from the
construction and demolitio...
Vasco Teixeira
Schematic overview of a typical house indicating where
nanoproducts could be found
"Einsatz von Nanotechnol...
Vasco Teixeira
Overview – nanorelated areas and their relevance
for the construction sector (after Andersen and Molin 2007)
Vasco Teixeira
Overview – nanorelated areas and their relevance for
the construction sector - cont.(after Andersen and Mol...
Vasco Teixeira
Nanosilica and nanotitania in construction
Cement and Concrete • Nanosilica and clinker used to increase
de...
Vasco Teixeira
-Rolling water drops
act as “mini-wipers“
-no adhering water drops => no
evaporation residues, “spots”
-sel...
Vasco Teixeira
When a photon impinges a
semiconductor with energy equal to
or higher than the respective band
gap, an elec...
Vasco Teixeira
Photocatalytic Products: market
Taking into account that, within
civil construction market,
photocatalytic ...
Vasco Teixeira
Coatings - Inorganic
conventional
glass
self-cleaning
glass
Self-cleaning glass
TiO2 coating
glass
transpar...
Vasco Teixeira
PLEXIGLAS SOUNDSTOP® with
Photocatalytic Coating
Some examples (self-cleaning and
pollution reduction)
UMin...
Vasco Teixeira
Solar control coatings are a technology with growing interest due to the
necessity of improving the energy ...
Vasco Teixeira
Thermochromic coatings: V0.97W0.03O2
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Heating
Cooli...
Vasco Teixeira
 Nanoparticles enhance
physical and aesthetic qualities
 Hard, durable finish
 Excellent water resistanc...
Vasco Teixeira
Innovative shading devices
Electrochromic Coatings / Switchable Glasses
Switch!!
Carl M. Lampert, Materials...
Vasco Teixeira
Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPVs)
• Depositing directly on tiles and ceramic
facades the solar cell...
Vasco Teixeira
UMinho Project: Photocatalytic Asphalt Mixtures
The modified asphaltic mixtures should be able
to:
 Degrad...
Vasco Teixeira
Photocatalytic Asphalt Mixtures
Development of innovative
PHOTOCATALYTIC asphalt
mixtures by using TiO2
nan...
Vasco Teixeira
X-ray diffraction spectrum of
TiO2 nanoparticles
 The crystalline phases can be
confirmed by the presence ...
Vasco Teixeira
Experimental results: Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
AFM
bitumen
Bee-likestructures
pH 810×10m 5×5m
pH 5.5...
Vasco Teixeira
100(%)
0
0







 

A
AA

The results reveal that the highest efficiency values
were achieved ...
Vasco Teixeira
Experimental results: Surface Wettability
 The produced samples present a surface with a hydrophilic natur...
Vasco Teixeira
Performance of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified
asphalt mixtures after laboratory-simulated wear te...
Vasco Teixeira
Conclusions
 Nanotechnology can produce novel materials with unique and improved
properties/functions of h...
Vasco Teixeira
THANK YOU FOR YOUR
ATTENTION
“This work was supported by FEDER through the COMPETE Program and by the Portu...
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Nanoscale-based Concepts for Innovative and Eco-Sustainable Constructive Materials - Challenges and Opportunities for Energy and Environment Applications

Invited talk at Conference Dubai Nanotech 2013. Nanoscale-based Concepts for Innovative and Eco-Sustainable Constructive Materials: Challenges and Opportunities for Energy and Environment Applications. Economic impact of Nanotechnology. 1-Development of smart coatings for window IR control 2-Flexible smart multilayers for coloration & shading 3-Solar Tiles - photovoltaics thin films integrated on roof tiles and ceramic facades 4-Development of novel asphalt pavements with photocatalytic ability (with self-cleaning and pollution reduction functions)
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Science      Technology      Business      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanoscale-based Concepts for Innovative and Eco-Sustainable Constructive Materials - Challenges and Opportunities for Energy and Environment Applications

  • 1. Vasco Teixeira Vasco Teixeira, Joaquim Carneiro Department of Physics, University of Minho Azurém Campus, 4800-058 Guimarães, PORTUGAL vasco@fisica.uminho.pt Nanoscale-based Concepts for Innovative and Eco- Sustainable Constructive Materials: Challenges and Opportunities for Energy and Environment Applications Nanotech Dubai 2103 28-30 Oct. 2013
  • 2. Vasco Teixeira Outline Nanotechnology Construction Industry Definition of nanotechnology and nanomaterials Economic impact of Nanotechnology Integration of nanomaterial’s in construction industry: some examples 1-Development of smart coatings for window IR control 2-Flexible smart multilayers for coloration & shading 3-Solar Tiles - photovoltaics thin films integrated on roof tiles and ceramic facades 4-Development of novel asphalt pavements with photocatalytic ability (with self-cleaning and pollution reduction functions) Project´s overview: Conclusions
  • 3. Vasco Teixeira Innovative nanoscale coating architectures for functional decorative and smart surfaces GRF- Functional Coatings Group 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 10 20 30 40 50 70ºC Transmittance(%) Wavelength (nm) 10ºC a ) b )
  • 4. Vasco Teixeira Nanotechnology A definition of Nanotechnology was presented in 1981 by Drexler, as being the fabrication of several structures with dimensions and precision between 0.1 and 100 nm.  human hair diameter ~80,000 nm DNA double helix diameter = 2 nm Top DownBottom Up Mincor TX TT
  • 5. Vasco Teixeira Nanocrystalinne materials: % atoms in grain boundaries HRTEM image of a region of nanocrystalline palladium Unifying features -synthetic materials with modulated structures in 0 to 3 dimensions. -size constraint (“confinement”) <100nm in at least one dimension. -significant volume fraction (>1%) of interfaces. As the grain size decreases to the nanometer range, there is a significant increase in the volume fraction of grain boundaries or interfaces.
  • 6. Vasco Teixeira Nanotechnology Available forecasts suggest a global market for nanotechnology products in the range of USD 150-3100 billion in the coming years, while some 2 million new jobs could be created. The global distribution of R&D investments, publications and patents indicate that nanotechnology related research and development activities are concentrated in a few countries and regions of the world. The United States dominates in this context with regions in the San Francisco, Boston, New York and Los Angeles area, followed by Japan and some of the larger EU countries (Germany, France and the United Kingdom). The rapid entry of other countries such as Korea, India and especially China should also be highlighted. OECD - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, STI WORKING PAPER 2009/7 Report Nanotechnology OECD
  • 7. Vasco Teixeira Forecast 2015: • Annual growth of 10-15% • Nanotech driven total market volume >750 bn Euro Nanotechnology: Market potential
  • 8. Vasco Teixeira Examples of Companies already using Nanotechnology
  • 9. Vasco Teixeira Nanocoatings are opening new market opportunities in the global surface coatings arena, offering new applications in various sectors Revenues from anti-microbial, easy-clean and self- cleaning nanocoatings were approximately US$ 764 million in 2010 Main markets are in construction and exterior protection (mainly in anti-weathering coatings and glazing) and interior household protection for surfaces (easy clean and anti-microbial) Revenues expected: approx. US$ 2117 million in 2015 The world market for nanocoatings
  • 10. Vasco Teixeira Introduction: Construction Industry  60% of global industrial waste is from the construction and demolition of buildings  60% of electrical use in developed countries is by buildings  40% of total energy consumed is by buildings How to integrate nanomaterial’s in construction industry? • Task #1: Building energy savings • Task #2: Road pavements Due to a constant market push towards more durable, more sustainable and more cheap products, products for the construction industry are option for continuous research and development.
  • 11. Vasco Teixeira Schematic overview of a typical house indicating where nanoproducts could be found "Einsatz von Nanotechnologien in Architektur und Bauwesen" published by HA Hessen Agentur 2007, sources: Schrag GmbH VDI TZ Nanoproducts in Construction Sector
  • 12. Vasco Teixeira Overview – nanorelated areas and their relevance for the construction sector (after Andersen and Molin 2007)
  • 13. Vasco Teixeira Overview – nanorelated areas and their relevance for the construction sector - cont.(after Andersen and Molin 2007)
  • 14. Vasco Teixeira Nanosilica and nanotitania in construction Cement and Concrete • Nanosilica and clinker used to increase densification and hence mechanical properties and durability of cementitious materials • Service life can be doubled through the use of nano-additive viscosity enhancers which reduces diffusion of harmful agents in concrete • Photocatalytic TiO2 (nanotitania) nanoparticles added to concrete to reduce carbon monoxide and NOx emissions on roadways
  • 15. Vasco Teixeira -Rolling water drops act as “mini-wipers“ -no adhering water drops => no evaporation residues, “spots” -self-cleaning q << 90° hydrophilic surface q= 120° hydrophobic surface (e.g. Teflon) sliding drops, no roll off q  180° ultra-hydrophobic surface roll off angle  0° (flat) hydrophobic surface 90° <= intrinsic contact angle qi <=120° hydrophobic surface combined with specific surface nano-roughness contact angle q 180° Ultra-hydrophobic surfaces: “Self-cleaning effect” Smart nanocoatings - Self-cleaning & anti-dirt surfaces “Study of the deposition parameters and Fe-dopant effect in the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 films prepared by dc reactive magnetron sputtering”, J.O. Carneiro, V. Teixeira, A. Portinha, L. Dupák, A. Magalhães and P. Coutinho, Vacuum, Vol 78, 2005, p.37-46
  • 16. Vasco Teixeira When a photon impinges a semiconductor with energy equal to or higher than the respective band gap, an electron is promoted from the valence to the conduction band, creating a hole in the valence band. In semiconductors, a portion of these photo-excited electron/hole (e-/h+) pairs diffuse to the surface of the catalytic particle and electron/hole pairs are trapped at the surface. These (e-/h+) pairs take part in chemical reactions with the adsorbed donor or acceptor molecules. Photocatalytic Products: Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)  TiO2 based materials has been the target of several research works due to its powerful oxidation strength, chemical stability, non-toxic properties and availability.
  • 17. Vasco Teixeira Photocatalytic Products: market Taking into account that, within civil construction market, photocatalytic products are mainly used for building facades its application on other constructive structures with large surface areas such as road pavements will contribute to the enlargement of the overall market share.  The field of construction and building industry was identified as an important market for the use of photocatalytic products since they can be applied to reduce building facades maintenance costs and pollution effects, particularly important in metropolis with high population density.  In fact, the field of construction and building materials holds the largest market share (about 87%) in what concerns photocatalytic products. Source: BCC Research
  • 18. Vasco Teixeira Coatings - Inorganic conventional glass self-cleaning glass Self-cleaning glass TiO2 coating glass transparent TiO2 Self-cleaning & anti-dirt surfaces  The advantages of self-cleaning coatings range from reducing maintenance costs and prevention of snow and ice build-up, to protection from environmental pollution.
  • 19. Vasco Teixeira PLEXIGLAS SOUNDSTOP® with Photocatalytic Coating Some examples (self-cleaning and pollution reduction) UMinho - ceramic samples with Photocatalytic Surfaces After UV radiation UMinho - water purification Nano-Photocatalysis Using TiO2 photocatalytic material on roadway for pollution reduction
  • 20. Vasco Teixeira Solar control coatings are a technology with growing interest due to the necessity of improving the energy efficiency of buildings avoiding excessive energy consumption with cooling systems on summer. Thermochromics materials - smart coatings for window IR control VO2(M) is being considered as a potential candidate for application in smart windows with active solar control for energy savings I.P. Parkin and T.D. Manning, Journal of Chemical Education 83 (2006) 393-400
  • 21. Vasco Teixeira Thermochromic coatings: V0.97W0.03O2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Heating Cooling Transmittance(%) Temperature ºC Ts = 40ºC =2.5 m 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 10 20 30 40 50 70ºC Transmittance(%) Wavelength (nm) 10ºC Thermal control of buidings (smart windows) W doped films with different switching temperatures (e.g. 20 to 60ºC) and max. transmittance over 40%, in the visible, can be easily obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering. Semiconductor Monoclinic phase Metallic Tetragonal phase Reversible APPLICATIONS: - optical and electrical switching devices - light detectors - temperature sensors - microbatteries 40ºC
  • 22. Vasco Teixeira  Nanoparticles enhance physical and aesthetic qualities  Hard, durable finish  Excellent water resistance  Self-Cleaning ability  Stain blocking and other properties  Thermochromic inks Paints Thermochromic nanobased inks Bituminous road pavements Thermochromic nanobased inks Sensorial ink developed at UMinho
  • 23. Vasco Teixeira Innovative shading devices Electrochromic Coatings / Switchable Glasses Switch!! Carl M. Lampert, Materials Today, March 2004 p.28-35 Device in operation UMinho Flexible Device in operation EU FP7 Innoshade Project H. N. Cui , M. F. Costa, V. Teixeira, I. Porqueras, E. Bertran, Electrochromic coatings for smart windows, Surface Science, Vol. 532(2003) 1127-1131.
  • 24. Vasco Teixeira Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPVs) • Depositing directly on tiles and ceramic facades the solar cell based in silicon. • Predominant photovoltaic material is silicon, but an emerging technology involves the use of dye-sensitized solar cells with TiO2 nanoparticles . • Large surface area of TiO2 nanoparticles greatly increases photovoltaic efficiency • Also has potential for lower material and processing costs relative to conventional solar cells.  With the development of nanotechnology in various areas of materials science, the possibility of more efficient solar conversion by employing nanostructured components in thin film solar cells can be possible.
  • 25. Vasco Teixeira UMinho Project: Photocatalytic Asphalt Mixtures The modified asphaltic mixtures should be able to:  Degrade adsorbed organic compounds and reduce the concentration of pollutants in air without loosing any of the initial mechanical and physical characteristics of the road pavement Strategies:  Surface deposition (by spraying) of TiO2 nanoparticles  Addition of TiO2 nanoparticles by volume incorporation Production of new Asphalt Mixtures by using TiO2 Nanoparticles
  • 26. Vasco Teixeira Photocatalytic Asphalt Mixtures Development of innovative PHOTOCATALYTIC asphalt mixtures by using TiO2 nanoparticles Two methods used in the preparation of photocatalytic asphalt mixtures J.O. Carneiro et al. / Construction and Building Materials 38 (2013) 594–601
  • 27. Vasco Teixeira X-ray diffraction spectrum of TiO2 nanoparticles  The crystalline phases can be confirmed by the presence of (101), (004) and (200) diffraction peaks, in the case of anatase phase and (110), (111) and (002) for the rutile crystalline phase.  Using the Scherrer equation, it was observed that the mean crystallite grain size of the TiO2 particles was around 23 nm and 28 nm for anatase and rutile phases, respectively. Experimental Results: NNPs Characterization
  • 28. Vasco Teixeira Experimental results: Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) AFM bitumen Bee-likestructures pH 810×10m 5×5m pH 5.510×10m 5×5m  The use of a solution with acidic pH is not feasible for the production of asphalt binders  Using a solution with a pH = 8 is possible to identify the maintenance of bee-like structures, that are characteristics of the bitumen. In fact, for this pH, the average size of the observed structures is of the same order of magnitude (610 nm) from those that were identified in the original bitumen surface.
  • 29. Vasco Teixeira 100(%) 0 0           A AA  The results reveal that the highest efficiency values were achieved by using the spraying technique (60% compared to 45% obtained by volume incorporation technique). Experimental results: Evaluation of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified asphalt mixtures The produced samples were immersed in a MB aqueous solution and absorbance was measured for different time intervals to evaluate the photocatalytic degradation.
  • 30. Vasco Teixeira Experimental results: Surface Wettability  The produced samples present a surface with a hydrophilic nature. It is observed that there is a reduction of the contact angle (56%) in the samples modified by using the spraying technique (which also showed the higher photocatalytic efficiency). t = 0 min q = 57º t = 30 min q = 25º Practical Point of View  A higher degree of hydrophilicity helps these surfaces being more easily and effectively washed away by rainwater, thus minimizing accidents.
  • 31. Vasco Teixeira Performance of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified asphalt mixtures after laboratory-simulated wear tests Some concerns were raised that the TiO2 nanoparticles would be removed by action of vehicle tires and harsh service conditions  Using a scaled wheel, passing over the samples surface, a laboratory-simulated wear test was performed.  The wheel has applied a load of 500 N. After three hours, the wear test was stopped and then the samples were once again subjected to a photocatalytic test. Experimental results: photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified asphalt mixtures after wear tests
  • 32. Vasco Teixeira Conclusions  Nanotechnology can produce novel materials with unique and improved properties/functions of high interest to construction industry as shown.  Window IR modulation by doped-VO2 thermochromic films with different at.% and different switching temperatures were successfully achieved and are new potential candidates for improving the energy efficiency of buildings.  The application of nanotechnology has the potential to improve solar cells efficiency significantly and it will add value by reducing manufacturing costs in PV industry and turn possible novel Building Integrated PV concepts.  In this presentation we also focused in our recent project: the benefits of adding titanium dioxide nanoparticles in asphalt mixtures to include functional photocatalytic properties (self-cleaning and pollution reduction).  Two application methods were used: a water-based titanium dioxide solution, applied by spraying, and using TiO2 as an additive (volume incorporation) to the base asphalt mixture. The spraying modification technique, unlike the volume incorporation, has great advantage because it does not require any changes to a bituminous paving structure, thereby reducing the modification costs.
  • 33. Vasco Teixeira THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION “This work was supported by FEDER through the COMPETE Program and by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) in the framework of the Project PTDC/FIS/120412/2010” - EU-7FP-200431-NMP-LARGE-1-2007-“INNOSHADE—Innovative Switchable Shading Appliances based on Nanomaterials and Hybrid Electrochromic Device Configurations” - EU-6FP-017761-CRAFT-2005-"TERMOGLAZE: Production of thermochromic glazings for energy saving applications“

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