A small presentation with a little information on natural calamities. A school level project
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Natural disasters
-------------This is what nature does when it
A natural disaster is a major adverse
event resulting from natural processes of the
Earth; examples include floods, volcanic
eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other
geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause
loss of life or property damage, and typically
leaves some economic damage in its wake, the
severity of which depends on the affected
population's resilience, or ability to recover.
An adverse event will not rise to the level of a
disaster if it occurs in an area without
vulnerable population.In a vulnerable area,
however, such as San Francisco, an
earthquake can have disastrous
consequences and leave lasting damage,
requiring years to repair.
Evidence of a natural disaster?
Ocotillo, Canada, 2010
Natural Disasters in 2004 and 2005
• More than 280,000 people killed by natural
disasters in 2004, almost 100,000 in 2005
• 2005 Pakistan earthquake: 88,000 people killed
– 3.3 million left homeless
– 2nd wave of deaths from winter storm
• 2005 Hurricane Katrina
– 2004 Hurricane Ivan was dress rehearsal, close miss
– 2005 Hurricane Katrina was direct hit on Mississippi,
engulfed much of Gulf Coast
– Failure of Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain
levees flooded parts of New Orleans up to 20 feet
In 2012, there were 905 natural catastrophes
worldwide, 93% of which were weather-
related disasters. Overall costs were US$170
billion and insured losses $70 billion. 2012 was
a moderate year. 45% were meteorological
(storms), 36% were hydrological (floods),12%
were climatological (heat waves, cold waves,
droughts, wildfires) and 7 % were geophysical
events (earthquakes and volcanic eruptions).
Between 1980 and 2011 geophysical events
accounted for 14% of all natural catastrophes.
DIFFERENT NATURAL DISASTERS
4 Hydrological disasters
4.2 Limnic eruptions
5 Meteorological disasters
5.2 Cyclonic storms
5.2.2 Extratropical Cyclones
5.5 Heat waves
7 Health disasters
8 Space disasters
8.1 Impact events
8.2 Solar flare
8.3 Gamma-ray burst
LET’S DISCUSS A FEW NOW
It is a series of water waves caused by the
displacement of large volume of a body ,
generally an ocean, a sea or a large lake.
Earth-quake, volcanic eruptions, land slides,
meteorological disasters, etc., are responsible
Tsunami waves are not normal sea waves.
They are much stronger and voilent.
Tsunamis can be caused by undersea
earthquakes as the one caused by the 2004
Indian Ocean Earthquake, or by landslides
such as the one which occurred at Lituya Bay,
The 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake created
the Boxing DayTsunami.
On March 11, 2011, a tsunami occurred near
Fukushima, Japan and spread through the
Tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is
in contact with both the surface of the earth and
a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of
a cumulus cloud. It is also referred to as a twister or a
cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in
a wider sense, to refer to any closed low pressure circulation.
Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but are typically
in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow
end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud
of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less
than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h), are approximately 250
feet (80 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometres)
before dissipating.The most extreme tornadoes can attain
wind speeds of more than 300 mph (480 km/h), stretch more
than two miles (3 km) across, and stay on the ground for
dozens of miles (perhaps more than 100 km).
tornado looks like…
Volcanoes can cause widespread destruction and
consequent disaster in several ways.The effects
include the volcanic eruption itself that may
cause harm following the explosion of the
volcano or the fall of rock. Second,lava may be
produced during the eruption of a volcano. As it
leaves the volcano, the lava destroys many
buildings and plants it encounters.
Third, volcanic ash generally meaning the cooled
ash - may form a cloud, and settle thickly in
When mixed with water lava forms a concrete-
In sufficient quantity ash may cause roofs to
collapse under its weight but even small
quantities will harm humans if inhaled. Since the
ash has the consistency of ground glass it causes
abrasion damage to moving parts such as
The main killer of humans in the immediate
surroundings of a volcanic eruption which consist
of a cloud of hot volcanic ash and rushes down
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release
of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic
waves. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes
manifest themselves by vibration, shaking and
sometimes displacement of the ground.The
vibrations may vary in magnitude. Earthquakes
are caused mostly by slippage within
geological faults, but also by other events such
as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts,
and nuclear tests.The underground point of
origin of the earthquake is called the focus.The
point directly above the focus on the surface is
called the epicenter.
Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people
It is usually the secondary events that they
trigger, such as building collapse,
fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and
volcanoes, that are actually the human
Many of these could possibly be avoided by
better construction, safety systems, early
warning and planning.
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water
that submerges land.
The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a
temporary covering by water of land not
normally covered by water.In the sense of
"flowing water", the word may also be applied to
the inflow of the tide.
Flooding may result from the volume of water
within a body of water, such as a river or lake,
which overflows or breaks levees, with the result
that some of the water escapes its usual
Some significant floods:
The Huang He (Yellow River) in China floods
The Great Flood of 1931 caused between
800,000 and 4,000,000 deaths.
The 1998Yangtze River Floods, in China, left
14 million people homeless.
There are many such examples.
A landslide is a gological phenomenon which
includes a wide range of ground movement
such as a rock fall.
This might be due to movement in tectonic
plates, floods ,etc.,.
An avalanche is also called as a snow slide
It is a rapid flow of snow down a slopy surface
Wildfires are large fires which often start
in wildland areas.
include lightning and drought but wildfires
may also be started by human negligence
or arson.They can spread to populated areas
and can thus be a threat to humans and
property, as well as wildlife.
Notable cases of wildfires were the
1871 Peshtigo Fire in the United States, which
killed at least 1700 people, and the
2009Victorian bushfires in Australia.
VEDIO OF FOREST FIRES
These are of two types: 1.Tropical
Tropical cyclones or hurricanes are rapidly
rotating storm characterised by a low pressure
centre, strong wind and spiral arrangement of
thunder storm that produce heavy rain.
Extra-tropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-
latitude cyclones, are a group of cyclones
defined as low pressure weather systems that
occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth
(outside the tropics) not having tropical
An epidemic is an outbreak of a
contractible disease that spreads through a
human population. A pandemic is an
epidemic whose spread is global.There have
been many epidemics throughout history,
such as the Black Death.