Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)
Theresa Lowry-Lehnen
RGN, BSc (Hon’s) Specialist Nurse Practitioner, PGCC, Dip Cou...
The researchers also found that NPD rates are much higher among black men and
women, Hispanic women, younger adults, and p...
Diagnosing narcissistic personality disorder
Personality, by definition, involves stable traits that develop over time. If...
build up their self-esteem and acquire realistic expectations of themselves and other
people.
For some of the more distres...
of 4

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). By Theresa Lowry-Lehnen. Lecturer of Psychology

Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). By Theresa Lowry-Lehnen. Lecturer of Psychology

  • 1. Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) Theresa Lowry-Lehnen RGN, BSc (Hon’s) Specialist Nurse Practitioner, PGCC, Dip Counselling, Dip Advanced Psychotherapy, BSc (Hon’s) Clinical Science, PGCE (QTS), H.dip Ed, MEd, MHS accredited (Level 9) Emotional Intelligence (Assessor) PhD Psychology Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), is a disorder in which the individual has a distorted self image, unstable and intense emotions, is overly preoccupied with vanity, prestige, power and personal adequacy, lacks empathy, and has an exaggerated sense of superiority. NPD is closely associated with egocentrism - a personality characteristic in which people see themselves and their interests and opinions as the only ones that really matter. People with narcissistic personality disorder are not interested in the feelings of others - they lack empathy; they are unable to feel or appreciate feelings which are not their own. The term comes from a character in Greek mythology, called Narcissus who saw his reflection in a pool of water and fell in love with it. Narcissistic personality disorder belongs to a group of conditions known as dramatic personality disorders. Afflicted people have very unstable and intense emotions and a distorted image of "self". This seeming abnormal love of self, an excessive sense of importance and superiority, combined with a preoccupation with success and power do not, in fact, reflect real self-confidence. The individual has a deep sense of insecurity. His or her self-esteem is extremely fragile. It is common for people with narcissistic personality disorders to set unrealistic goals. A study carried out by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (2012) found that 7.7% of men and 4.8% of women develop narcissistic personality disorder (NDP) during their lifetime.
  • 2. The researchers also found that NPD rates are much higher among black men and women, Hispanic women, younger adults, and people who either never married or became divorced, widowed or separated. Signs and symptoms  Self-centred and boastful  Seek constant attention and admiration  Consider themselves better than others  Exaggerate their talents and achievements  Believe that they are entitled to special treatment  Are easily hurt but may not show it  Set unrealistic goals  May take advantage of others to achieve their goals. Other common traits of narcissistic personality disorder include the following:  Preoccupation with fantasies that focus on unlimited success, power, intelligence, beauty, or love  Belief that he or she is "special" and unique, and can only be understood by other special people  Expectation that others will automatically go along with what he or she wants  Inability to recognize or identify with the feelings, needs, and viewpoints of others  Envy of others or a belief that others are envious of him or her  Hypersensitivity to insults (real or imagined), criticism, or defeat, possibly reacting with rage, shame, and humiliation  Arrogant behaviour and/or attitude Causes The exact cause of narcissistic personality disorder is not known. However, many mental health professionals believe it results from a combination of factors that may include biological vulnerabilities, social interactions with early caregivers, and psychological factors that involve temperament and the ability to manage stresses. Some researchers believe that narcissistic personality disorder may be more likely to develop when children experience parenting styles that are excessively pampering, or when parents have a need for their children to be talented or special in order to maintain their own self-esteem. On the other end of the spectrum, narcissistic personality disorder might develop as the result of neglect or abuse and trauma inflicted by parents or other authority figures during childhood. The disorder usually is evident by adolescence or early adulthood when personality traits have become consolidated.
  • 3. Diagnosing narcissistic personality disorder Personality, by definition, involves stable traits that develop over time. If physical symptoms are present, a doctor may undertake a medical history and physical exam. There are no lab tests that diagnose personality disorders, but if someone has experienced a change from their usual personality, a doctor may order diagnostic tests, such as neuro-imaging or blood tests, to rule out a neurological or other physical illness as the cause of a change in personality. If the doctor finds no physical reason for the symptoms, he or she would likely refer the person to a psychiatrist or psychologist, health care professionals who are specially trained to diagnose and treat mental illnesses. Psychiatrists and psychologists use specially designed interview and assessment tools to evaluate a person for a personality disorder. There are several different types of personality disorders, some of them overlap, and it is possible to be diagnosed with more than one type. NPD diagnosis follows the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM) published by the APA (American Psychiatric Association). The following must be present for a diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder:  The patient's idea and importance of self is exaggerated  Fantasies about beauty, success and power over-dominate the patient's thoughts  Patients think they are special, and relate only to other "special" people  They need to be admired all the time  They believe they are entitled to most things  They manipulate and take advantage of other people  They lack empathy - the ability to feel and recognize the feelings of and needs of others  They envy other people  Their behaviour comes across as arrogant. The latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes some changes in how personality disorders are diagnosed. "(DSM-5) moves from the multi-axial system to a new assessment that removes the arbitrary boundaries between personality disorder and other mental health disorders." Treatment options There is no effective, known cure for NPD. Psychotherapy is often recommended - this is a type of counseling which aims to help the individual learn how to positively relate to other people. Psychotherapy may help the patient better understand what their problems are, which may bring about a change in their attitudes, resulting in better behaviour. Psychotherapy may involve CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy), family therapy or group therapy. CBT helps the patient identify negative beliefs and behaviours, and to replace them with healthy and positive ones. Psychotherapy aims to help patients
  • 4. build up their self-esteem and acquire realistic expectations of themselves and other people. For some of the more distressing aspects associated with NPD, the doctor may prescribe medication example, an anti-depressant. The prognosis depends on the severity of the disorder and the degree to which people who seek treatment recognize problems within themselves and desire to change aspects of their personality that may be maladaptive. Related complications A person with untreated NPD has a higher chance of substance abuse (including drugs and/or alcohol),depression, problems with relationships, difficulties at work or school, and suicidal behaviours or thoughts. A recent study found that males with narcissistic personality disorder have higher levels of cortisol in their blood. Cortisol is a stress hormone. Even those without much stress in their lives have higher levels. High blood cortisol is linked to a greater risk of developing cardiovascular problems. Living with somebody who has NPD Family members of somebody with NPD describe the sufferer as controlling, egotistical and forever dissatisfied with what anybody around them does. No matter what happens, the narcissist will blame others and make them feel guilty for all their problems. They are described as having short fuses, losing their tempers at the slightest provocation, or turning their backs and giving people the "silent treatment". Some can be physically and sexually abusive. The emotional and physical damage caused by somebody with NPD can be severe. Learning how to become more confident and assertive can help protect those living with somebody with NPD from long-term harm.