Office for National Statistics: March 2005
Focus on Ethnicity and Identity paints a picture of the
ethnic groups in the UK...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 1
Population Size
7.9% from a non-White ethnic group
The majority of the UK pop...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 2
Age/Sex Distribution
Non-White groups are younger
White groups have an older ...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 3
Geographic Distribution
45% of non-White people live in London
Non-White ethn...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 4
Inter-ethnic marriages form a very small proportion of all marriages in
Engla...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 5
Households
Asians have largest housholds
Household size
Asian households are ...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 6
Religion
7 in 10 identify as White Christian
The 2001 Census collected inform...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 7
Identity
9 in 10 of Mixed group identify as British
National identity
In most...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 8
Education
Chinese pupils have best GCSE results
GCSE performance
In 2002 Chin...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 9
Labour Market
Bangladeshis’ unemployment highest
Unemployment rates for peopl...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 10
Employment Patterns
Pakistanis most likely to be self-employed
Self-employme...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 11
Health
Asians have worst self-reported health
Pakistani and Bangladeshi men ...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 12
Care
1 in 10 White and Indian people provide unpaid care
Informal care
Peopl...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 13
Smoking and Drinking
Bangladeshi men have highest smoking rates
Bangladeshi ...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005 14
Victims of Crime
Highest risk for Mixed race people
In 2002/03, adults from ...
Office for National Statistics: March 2005
Office for National Statistics
1 Drummond Gate
London SW1V 2QQ
Telephone: 0845 ...
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National statistics - Ethnicity & Identity

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
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Transcripts - National statistics - Ethnicity & Identity

  • 1. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 Focus on Ethnicity and Identity paints a picture of the ethnic groups in the UK today. It includes information on their characteristics, lifestyles and experiences, placing particular emphasis on comparing and contrasting the main groups. The 2001 Census revealed that the UK today is more culturally diverse than ever before. The 4.6 million people from a variety of non-White backgrounds are not evenly distributed across the country, tending to live in the large urban areas. The different groups share some characteristics but there are often greater differences between the individual ethnic groups than between the minority ethnic population as a whole and the White British people. Population Size ............................................................... 1 Age/Sex Distribution ...................................................... 2 Geographic Distribution................................................. 3 Inter-ethnic Marriage...................................................... 4 Households...................................................................... 5 Religion............................................................................ 6 Identity ............................................................................ 7 Education ........................................................................ 8 Labour Market................................................................. 9 Employment Patterns ................................................... 10 Health ............................................................................ 11 Care................................................................................ 12 Smoking and Drinking.................................................. 13 Victims of Crime ............................................................ 14
  • 2. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 1 Population Size 7.9% from a non-White ethnic group The majority of the UK population in 2001 were White (92 per cent). The remaining 4.6 million (or 7.9 per cent) people belonged to other ethnic groups. Indians were the largest of these groups, followed by Pakistanis, those of Mixed ethnic backgrounds, Black Caribbeans, Black Africans and Bangladeshis. The remaining minority ethnic groups each accounted for less than 0.5 per cent of the UK population and together accounted for a further 1.4 per cent. Around half of the non-White population were Asians of Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi or other Asian origin. A further quarter were Black, that is Black Caribbean, Black African or Other Black. Fifteen per cent of the non- White population were from the Mixed ethnic group. About a third of this group were from White and Black Caribbean backgrounds. There were almost 691,000 White Irish people in Great Britain accounting for 1 per cent of the GB population. In Great Britain the number of people who came from an ethnic group other than White grew by 53 per cent between 1991 and 2001, from 3.0 million in 1991 to 4.6 million in 2001. In 1991 ethnic group data were not collected on the Northern Ireland Census. The non-White population: by ethnic group, April 2001 United Kingdom Percentages Asian or Asian British (50%) Mixed (15%) Chinese (5%) Other ethnic groups (5%) Black or Black British (25%) Population: by ethnic group, April 2001 United Kingdom Total Non-White population population (Numbers) (Percentages) (Percentages) White 54,153,898 92.1 . Mixed 677,117 1.2 14.6 Indian 1,053,411 1.8 22.7 Pakistani 747,285 1.3 16.1 Bangladeshi 283,063 0.5 6.1 Other Asian 247,664 0.4 5.3 All Asian or Asian British 2,331,423 4.0 50.3 Black Caribbean 565,876 1.0 12.2 Black African 485,277 0.8 10.5 Black Other 97,585 0.2 2.1 All Black or Black British 1,148,738 2.0 24.8 Chinese 247,403 0.4 5.3 Other ethnic groups 230,615 0.4 5.0 All minority ethnic population 4,635,296 7.9 100.0 All population 58,789,194 100 Sources: Census, April 1991 and 2001, Office for National Statistics; Census, April 2001, General Register Office for Scotland; Census, April 2001, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Notes: Census ethnic group questions: In both 1991 and 2001 respondents were asked to which ethnic group they considered themselves to belong. The question asked in 2001 was more extensive than that asked in 1991, so that people could tick ‘Mixed’ for the first time. This change in answer categories may account for a small part of the observed increase in the minority ethnic population over the period. Different versions of the ethnic group question were asked in England and Wales, in Scotland and in Northern Ireland, to reflect local differences in the requirement for information. However, results are comparable across the UK as a whole. In the table ‘.’ means not applicable. Non-White ethnic group includes all minority ethnic groups but not White Irish or Other White groups.
  • 3. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 2 Age/Sex Distribution Non-White groups are younger White groups have an older age structure than other ethnic groups, reflecting past immigration and fertility patterns. The White Irish group had the oldest age structure of all in 2001, with one in four people in Britain aged 65 and over. Among the non-White group, Black Caribbeans had the largest proportion of people aged 65 and over (11 per cent) reflecting the first large-scale migration of non-White groups to Britain back in the 1950s. The Mixed group had the youngest age structure - half (50 per cent) were under the age of 16. The Bangladeshi, Other Black and Pakistani groups also had young age structures: 38 per cent of both the Bangladeshi and Other Black groups were aged under 16, and 35 per cent of Pakistanis also fell into this age group. This was almost double the proportion of the White British group where one in five (20 per cent) were under the age of 16. Progressive ageing of the non-White ethnic groups is anticipated in the future, but this will depend on fertility levels, mortality rates and future net migration. Differences in mortality rates mean that women aged 65 and over normally outnumber men. This can clearly be seen in the White (with 58 per cent women), Mixed (55 per cent) and Chinese ethnic groups (54 per cent). However for some ethnic groups this has been affected by differing immigration patterns. This is particularly evident in the Bangladeshi group where only one third (34 per cent) of those aged 65 and over were women. Similarly, for the Pakistani group, women made up 45 per cent of the 65 and over age group. Age distribution: by ethnic group, April 2001 Great Britain Percentages 0 20 40 60 80 100 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups Under 16 16–64 65 and over Sex distribution of people aged 65 and over: by ethnic group, April 2001 Great Britain Percentages 0 20 40 60 80 100 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups Males Females Sources: Census, April 2001, Office for National Statistics; Census, April 2001, General Register Office for Scotland.
  • 4. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 3 Geographic Distribution 45% of non-White people live in London Non-White ethnic groups are considerably more likely to live in England than in the other countries of the UK. In 2001 they made up 9 per cent of the total population in England compared with only 2 per cent in both Scotland and Wales, and less than 1 per cent in Northern Ireland. The non-White population of the UK is concentrated in the large urban centres. Nearly half (45 per cent) lived in the London region in 2001, where they comprised 29 per cent of all residents. After London, the second largest proportion was in the West Midlands (with 13 per cent of the non-White population), followed by the South East (8 per cent), the North West (8 per cent), and Yorkshire and the Humber (7 per cent). In contrast less than 4 per cent of those from non-White groups lived in the North East and the South West. Minority ethnic groups made up only 2 per cent of each of these regions’ populations. Seventy eight per cent of Black Africans and 61 per cent of Black Caribbeans lived in London. More than half of the Bangladeshi group (54 per cent) also lived in London. Other ethnic minority groups were more dispersed. Only 19 per cent of Pakistanis resided in London, while 21 per cent lived in the West Midlands, 20 per cent in Yorkshire and the Humber, and 16 per cent in the North West. In Great Britain the highest concentration of White Irish people was in London. Almost a third (32 per cent) of the 691,000 White Irish people lived in London where they made up 3 per cent of the population. The English region with the lowest proportion of White Irish people was the North East, where they made up less than half a per cent of the population. Regional distribution of the non-White population, April 2001 United Kingdom Percentages 0 10 20 30 40 50 North East North West Yorkshire and the Humber East Midlands West Midlands East London South East South West Wales Scotland Northern Ireland Sources: Census, April 2001, Office for National Statistics; Census, April 2001, General Register Office for Scotland; Census, April 2001, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency.
  • 5. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 4 Inter-ethnic marriages form a very small proportion of all marriages in England and Wales as a whole - 2 per cent. There were 10.3 million married couples in England and Wales on census day in 2001. The vast majority of these marriages, 98 per cent, were between people from the same ethnic background, where ethnic background is defined as White, Mixed, Asian, Black, Chinese, or Other ethnic group. Two per cent of marriages were between people from different ethnic backgrounds (219,000). Of these inter-ethnic marriages, most (198,000) included a White person. In the remaining 21,000 inter-ethnic marriages both partners were from different minority ethnic backgrounds. The most common inter-ethnic marriages were between White and Mixed race people, 26 per cent of all inter-ethnic marriages. Marriages between a White person and someone who described their ethnic group as ‘Other’ were the next most common (15 per cent), followed by White and Black Caribbean marriages (12 per cent), and White and Indian marriages (11 per cent). People from the Mixed ethnic group were the most likely to be married to someone outside their ethnic group (78 per cent). The Mixed ethnic group is relatively small and there are limited opportunities to marry someone from the same ethnic group. However, mixed race people are often married to someone from a related ethnic group. For example, among men who described their own ethnic group as ‘Mixed - White and Black Caribbean’, 76 per cent were married to White women, 8 per cent to Black Caribbean women and 11 per cent to ‘Mixed – White and Black Caribbean’ women. Among people who described their ethnic group as ‘Other’, 56 per cent of women and 34 per cent of men had married outside their ethnic group and most had married a White person. This Other group includes people from the Philippine Islands, Malaysia, Japan, Vietnam and various middle-eastern countries. People who described their ethnic group as ‘Other Black’, largely young Black people born in Britain, were the next most likely to be married to someone outside their ethnic group, followed by Black Caribbean people. Almost five in ten Other Black men (48 per cent) and three in ten Black Caribbean men (29 per cent) were married to women outside the Black ethnic group, in most cases White women. People from South Asian backgrounds were the least likely of the minority ethnic groups to be married to someone from a different ethnic group. Only 6 per cent of Indians, 4 per cent of Pakistanis, and 3 per cent of Bangladeshis had married someone outside the Asian group. As well as cultural and racial differences, people from South Asian backgrounds generally have different religions to people from other ethnic groups which may explain their relatively low inter-marriage rate. People who described their ethnicity as ‘Other Asian’ were more likely to have married a non-Asian person (18 per cent). Although most inter-ethnic marriages include a White person, White people are the least likely to be married to someone outside their ethnic group – only 1 per cent of White men or women had done so. White people form the majority population in England and Wales (91 per cent) and consequently there are limited opportunities to marry people from a minority ethnic group. This is particularly true for people living outside London, where the minority ethnic population is often very small. Patterns of inter-ethnic marriage were similar for men and women. Exceptions were that Black women were less likely than Black men to have married outside their ethnic group, and Chinese women were more likely than Chinese men to have done so. Married couples: by whether or not they are in an inter-ethnic marriage, April 2001 England & Wales Percentages Same ethnic group marriages (98%) Inter-ethnic marriages (2%) Percentage of married people in inter-ethnic marriages: by ethnic group and sex, April 2001 England & Wales Percentages 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 All married people Other ethnic groups Chinese Other Black Black African Black Caribbean Other Asian Bangladeshi Pakistani Indian Mixed White Males Females Inter-ethnic marriages 2% of marriages are inter-ethnic Source: Census, April 2001, Office for National Statistics Notes: Inter-ethnic marriages are defined as marriages between people from different aggregate ethnic groups, where the ethnic group categories are: White, Mixed, Asian, Black, Chinese, Other ethnic group. For example, a White British person married to someone from a non-White ethnic group or a Pakistani person married to someone from a non-Asian ethnic group. Only married couples are covered by this analysis. Co-habiting couples are excluded.
  • 6. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 5 Households Asians have largest housholds Household size Asian households are larger than households of any other ethnic group. Households headed by a Bangladeshi person were the largest of all with an average size of 4.5 people in April 2001, followed by Pakistani households (4.1 people) and Indian households (3.3 people). The smallest households were found among the White Irish (average size 2.1 people). Black Caribbean and White British households were the next smallest, both with an average size of 2.3 people. All these groups have an older age structure than other ethnic groups, and contain a higher proportion of one-person households. Thirty-eight per cent of Black Caribbean households, 37 per cent of White Irish households and 31 per cent of White British households contained only one person. Only 9 per cent of Bangladeshi households contained just one person. Types of household Three quarters (74 per cent) of Bangladeshi households contained at least one dependent child. This was the highest proportion for any ethnic group and was nearly three times that of White British households (28 per cent). Households headed by a Pakistani or Indian person were also more likely than non-Asian households to contain at least one dependent child - 66 per cent of Pakistani and 50 per cent of Indian households did so. Asians are least likely to live in lone parent households. Among households with dependent children, only 10 per cent of Indian households and 13 per cent of both Pakistani and Bangladeshi households contained a lone parent. In contrast, around half of Black Caribbean (48 per cent) and Other Black (52 per cent) households with dependent children were headed by a lone parent. The percentage for the White British group was 22 per cent. The highest proportions of married couples under pension age, with or without children, were found in Asian households. Over half of Bangladeshi (54 per cent), Indian (53 per cent) and Pakistani (51 per cent) households contained a married couple, compared with 37 per cent of those headed by a White British person. Just one fifth (19 per cent) of Black Caribbean households contained a married couple, which was the lowest proportion of any ethnic group. Asian households were also the least likely to contain a cohabiting couple. The proportion of pensioner households ranged from 2 per cent of Bangladeshi households to 27 per cent of White Irish households. Among the non-White ethnic groups, Black Caribbeans were most likely to live in households which only contained pensioners (13 per cent). Households containing more than one family with dependent children are most likely to be headed by people from Asian ethnic groups. These types of households made up 2 per cent of all households in Great Britain whereas among the Bangladeshi community they made up 17 per cent of households. Average household size: by ethnic group of household reference person, April 2001 Great Britain People per household 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups All ethnic groups Households with dependent children as a proportion of all households: by ethnic group of household reference person, April 2001 Great Britain Percentages 0 20 40 60 80 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups All ethnic groups Source: Census, April 2001, Office for National Statistics; Census, April 2001, General Register Office for Scotland. Notes: Household Reference Person was introduced in 2001 and replaces Head of Household. The Household Reference Person is used to assign the ethnic group of the household. It does not follow that everyone in the household will be of the same ethnic group as the Household Reference Person. A dependent child is a person aged 0 to 15 in a household or aged 16 to 18 in full-time education and living with his or her parents. Married couple and lone parent households contain at least one person below pensionable age.
  • 7. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 6 Religion 7 in 10 identify as White Christian The 2001 Census collected information about ethnicity and religious identity. Combining these results show that while the British population is more culturally diverse than ever before, White Christians remain the largest single group by far. In Great Britain, 40 million people (nearly seven in ten) described their ethnicity as White and their religion as Christian. Majorities of Black people and those from Mixed ethnic backgrounds also identified as Christian (71 and 52 per cent respectively). In total there were 815,000 Black Christians and 353,000 Christians from Mixed ethnic backgrounds. Among other faiths the largest groups were Pakistani Muslims (686,000) and Indian Hindus (471,000) followed by Indian Sikhs (307,000), Bangladeshi Muslims (261,000) and White Jews (259,000). The Indian group was religiously diverse: 45 per cent of Indians were Hindu, 29 per cent Sikh and a further 13 per cent Muslim. In contrast the Pakistani and Bangladeshi groups were more homogeneous, Muslims accounting for 92 per cent of each ethnic group. Some faith communities were concentrated in particular ethnic groups. For example, 91 per cent of Sikhs were Indian and 97 per cent of Jews described their ethnicity as White. Other faiths were more widely dispersed. Considerable proportions of Buddhists were found in the White, Chinese, Other Asian and Other ethnic groups. Overall, 15 per cent of the British population reported having no religion although variation by ethnicity was marked. Just over half of all Chinese people (53 per cent), and just under one quarter of people from Mixed ethnic backgrounds (23 per cent), stated they had no religion. Asian, Black African and White Irish people were least likely to have no religious affiliation. Around 1 in 200 Pakistanis and Bangladeshis reported having no religion. Fourteen per cent of people in the Other Black group chose not to answer the religion question, almost twice the average for Great Britain as a whole. Similar proportions of people in the Black Caribbean and Mixed ethnic groups also gave no answer. Sources: Census, April 2001, Office for National Statistics Census, April 2001, General Register Office for Scotland Notes: The Census question about religion was voluntary This page presents information with coverage for Great Britain. When it was originally published, in January 2004, it covered England and Wales only. Religious composition of ethnic groups, April 2001 Great Britain Percentages 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Black Caribbean Black African Chinese All ethnic groups Christian Jewish Any other religion Buddhist Muslim No religion Hindu Sikh Religion not stated
  • 8. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 7 Identity 9 in 10 of Mixed group identify as British National identity In most non-White ethnic groups in Britain, the majority of people described their national identity as either British, English, Scottish or Welsh. This included 88 per cent of people from the Mixed group, around 80 per cent of Pakistanis, Black Caribbeans and Bangladeshis, and three quarters of the Indian and Other Black groups. People from the White British group were more likely to describe their national identity as English (58 per cent) rather than British (36 per cent). However, the opposite was true of the non-White groups, who were far more likely to identify themselves as British. For example, three quarters (76 per cent) of Bangladeshis said they were British, while only 5 per cent said they were English, Scottish or Welsh. Sources: Annual local area Labour Force Survey 2002/03, Office for National Statistics Census, April 2001, Office for National Statistics Census, April 2001, General Register Office for Scotland Proportion who consider their identity to be British, English, Scottish or Welsh: by ethnic group, 2002/03 Great Britain Percentages 0 20 40 60 80 100 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups All ethnic groups People living in Great Britain who were born in the United Kingdom: by ethnic group, April 2001 Great Britain Percentages 0 20 40 60 80 100 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups All ethnic groups Country of Birth Among people living in Great Britain, the proportion born in the UK (England, Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland) varied markedly by ethnic group. Other than the White British group, those most likely to be born in the UK were people from the Mixed ethnic group and from the Other Black group, 79 per cent in each. This reflects their younger age structure. A substantial proportion of the Other Black group were young people, who were born in Britain, and who chose to describe their ethnicity as Other Black and wrote in ‘Black British’ as their answer. Black Caribbeans were the next most likely group to be born in the UK. Among the non-White ethnic groups the proportions born in the UK generally declined with age. For example, 83 per cent of Black Caribbeans aged 25 to 34 were born in the UK, but this fell sharply with age so that only 5 per cent of those aged 45 to 64 were born in the UK. For some other non-White ethnic groups (Black Africans, Chinese and Bandgladeshis) this sharp decline occurred in younger age groups, reflecting their later immigration.
  • 9. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 8 Education Chinese pupils have best GCSE results GCSE performance In 2002 Chinese pupils were the most likely to achieve five or more GCSE grades A*-C in England, with 77 per cent of Chinese girls and 71 per cent of Chinese boys respectively. Indian pupils had the next highest achievement levels: 70 per cent of Indian girls and 58 per cent of Indian boys achieved these levels. The lowest levels of GCSE attainment were among Black Caribbean pupils. Only 23 per cent of Black Caribbean boys and 38 per cent of Black Caribbean girls achieved five or more A*-C grade GCSEs. Pupils from the Other Black, Black African and Pakistani groups had the next lowest levels of attainment. Within each ethnic group a higher proportion of girls than boys achieved five or more GCSE grades A*-C (or equivalent). School exclusions In 2001/02 Black pupils were more likely to be permanently excluded from schools in England than children from other ethnic groups. The highest permanent exclusion rate was among Black Caribbean pupils, at 42 per 10,000. This was three times the rate for White pupils. Chinese and Indian pupils had the lowest exclusion rates, at 2 per 10,000 and 3 per 10,000 respectively. For all ethnic groups, the rate of permanent exclusions was higher for boys than girls. Highest qualification In 2001/02, only people from the Black Caribbean, Other Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi groups were less likely than White British people to have degrees (or equivalent). Among men, Black Caribbeans were the least likely to have degrees (8 per cent). Among women, Pakistanis/Bangladeshis were the least likely group to have degrees (7 per cent). The White Irish, Chinese, and Indian groups were among those most likely to have degrees, but they also had fairly high proportions with no qualifications (19 per cent of White Irish, 18 per cent of Indians, and 20 per cent of Chinese). This compared with 16 per cent of the White British group having no qualifications. Pakistanis and Bangladeshis were the most likely to be unqualified. Nearly half (48 per cent) of Bangladeshi women and 40 per cent of Bangladeshi men had no qualifications. Among Pakistanis, 40 per cent of women and 28 per cent of men had no qualifications. Pupils achieving 5 or more A*-C at GCSE/GNVQ: by sex and ethnic group, 2002 England Percentages 0 20 40 60 80 White Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Any other ethnic group Boys Girls People of working age with no qualifications: by ethnic group, 2001/02 Great Britain Percentages 0 10 20 30 40 50 White British White Irish White Other Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups Sources: Version 2.2 of the National Pupil Database, Department for Education and Skills; Annual Local Area Labour Force Survey, 2001/02, Office for National Statistics. Notes: The chart showing people with no qualification is shown as a proportion of all the working age population (males aged 16-64, females aged 16-59).
  • 10. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 9 Labour Market Bangladeshis’ unemployment highest Unemployment rates for people from non-White ethnic groups were generally higher than those from White ethnic groups. However, Indian men had a similar level of unemployment to Other White men (7 per cent for each group). In 2002/03, men from Bangladeshi and Mixed ethnic backgrounds had the highest unemployment rates in Great Britain, at 18 per cent and 17 per cent respectively. The next highest male rates were among Black Africans (15 per cent), Pakistanis (14 per cent) and Black Caribbeans (13 per cent). These rates were around three times the rate for White British men (5 per cent). The unemployment rates for Indian and Chinese men, at 7 and 6 per cent respectively, were similar to those for White British or White Irish men (5 per cent for each group). Among women, Pakistanis had the highest unemployment rates (17 per cent) . Unemployment rates for women from the Black African, Black Caribbean and Mixed ethnic groups, at around 12 per cent, were also relatively high and around three times the rate for White British women (4 per cent). Economic inactivity Working-age men and women from non-White ethnic groups were generally more likely than those from White groups to be economically inactive, that is, not available for work and/or not actively seeking work. Reasons include being a student, being disabled, or looking after the family and home. In 2002/03 Chinese men had the highest male working-age economic inactivity rate in Great Britain, at 35 per cent, twice the rate for White British men. The vast majority of inactive Chinese men were students. Bangladeshi and Pakistani women had the highest female economic inactivity rates (77 per cent and 68 per cent respectively). The majority of these women were looking after their family or home. Within each ethnic group women were more likely than men to be economically inactive. Source: Annual local area Labour Force Survey 2002/03, Office for National Statistics. Notes: The unemploment rate is based on the ILO definition as a percentage of all economically active. Economic inactivity rates are expressed as a proportion of the working age population. See also Labour Market Glossary. Charts: Figures for Other Black and Bangladeshi females are not shown where samples are too small for reliable estimates. Data are presented in accompanying tables. Unemployment rates: by ethnic group and sex, 2002/03 Great Britain Percentages 0 5 10 15 20 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Chinese All ethnic groups Males Females Economic inactivity rates for people of working age: by ethnic group and sex, 2002/03 Great Britain Percentages Males Females 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Chinese All ethnic groups
  • 11. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 10 Employment Patterns Pakistanis most likely to be self-employed Self-employment People in employment from Pakistani and Chinese groups are more likely to be self-employed than those in other ethnic groups in Great Britain. In 2002/03, around one quarter (23 per cent) of Pakistanis in employment were self-employed, as were around one fifth (18 per cent) of Chinese people. This compared with around one in ten (12 per cent) White British people and fewer than one in ten Black people. Industry Certain ethnic groups are concentrated in particular industries. In 2002/03, three fifths of Bangladeshi men and two fifths of Chinese men in employment worked in the distribution, hotel and restaurant industry, compared with one sixth of their White British counterparts. Pakistani men were the group most likely to work in the transport and communication industry − 25 per cent of them worked in this sector compared with 10 per cent of employed men overall. White Irish men were more likely than other men to work in the construction industry – 21 per cent compared with 12 per cent overall. Bangladeshi and Chinese women are also concentrated in the distribution, hotel and restaurant industry. Two fifths of each group worked in this industry in 2002/03, compared with one fifth of all women in employment. Half of Black Caribbean and Black African women (52 per cent and 51 per cent respectively) worked in the public administration, education or health sector. Occupation Those most likely to be employed in professional occupations were from the Indian, Chinese, White Irish, and other non-British White groups (between 16 and 18 per cent). White British people had relatively low rates of people working in professional occupations (11 per cent). The groups with the lowest proportions of professionals were the Black groups, Bangladeshis and Pakistanis, each with less than 10 per cent. The pattern was similar for managers and senior officials. Looking at particular jobs, one in six Pakistani men in employment were cab drivers or chauffeurs, compared with 1 in 100 White British men. One third of Bangladeshi men were either cooks or waiters, compared with 1 in 100 White British men. The proportion of Indian men working as doctors, at 5 per cent, was almost 10 times higher than the rate for all White British men. Among women in employment, around one in ten Black African women and 1 in 12 White Irish women were working as nurses in 2002/03, compared with around 1 in 30 White British women. Pakistani women were eight times more likely than White British women to be working as packers, bottlers, canners and fillers. Indian women were almost seven times more likely than White British women to be working as sewing machinists. Source: Annual local area Labour Force Survey, 2002/03, Office for National Statistics Notes: The White Irish group has been derived using the Annual local area Labour Force Survey national identity variables. Self-employment, occupation and industry rates are as a proportion of all in employment. The Other Black group is omitted from the charts as the sample size is too small for reliable estimates. Self employment as a percentage of all in employment: by ethnic group, 2002/03 Great Britain Percentages 0 5 10 15 20 25 Chinese Black African Black Caribbean Other Asian Bangladeshi Pakistani Indian Mixed Other White White Irish White British All ethnic groups All ethnic groups White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Chinese 0 5 10 15 20 People in professional occupations as a percentage of all in employment: by ethnic group, 2002/03 Great Britain Percentages
  • 12. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 11 Health Asians have worst self-reported health Pakistani and Bangladeshi men and women in England and Wales reported the highest rates of ‘not good’ health in 2001. Pakistanis had age-standardised rates of ‘not good’ health of 13 per cent (men) and 17 per cent (women). The age-standardised rates for Bangladeshis were 14 per cent (men) and 15 per cent (women). These rates, which take account of the difference in age structures between the ethnic groups, were around twice that of their White British counterparts. Chinese men and women were the least likely to report their health as ‘not good’. Women were more likely than men to rate their health as ‘not good’ across all groups, apart from the White Irish and those from Other ethnic groups. Reporting poor health has been shown to be strongly associated with use of health services and mortality. White Irish and Pakistani women in England had higher GP contact rates than women in the general population. Bangladeshi men were three times as likely to visit their GP than men in the general population after standardising for age. There were marked variations in rates of long-term illness or disability which restricted daily activities between different ethnic groups in England and Wales. After taking account of the different age structures of the groups, Pakistani and Bangladeshi men and women had the highest rates of disability. Rates were around 1.5 times higher than their White British counterparts. Chinese men and women had the lowest rates. In some groups the difference between men and women in their rates of disability was much greater than in others. In the Indian, Pakistani, Black Caribbean and Black African groups, women had higher rates than men. In the White British and White Irish groups it was men who had higher rates than women. Sources: Census, April 2001, Office for National Statistics; Health Survey for England, The Health of Minority Ethnic Groups, 1999, TSO (London 2001). Notes: The question in the 2001 Census was “Over the last twelve months would you say your health has on the whole been Good, Fairly Good, Not Good”. Age-standardised rates allow comparisons between populations with different age structures. The method used here is direct standardisation using the European Standard Population. The term disability is used to refer to limiting long term illness or disability which restricts daily activities. It is calculated from a ‘Yes’ response to the question in the 2001 Census: “Do you have any long- term illness, health problem or disability which limits your activities or the work you can do?” Age standardised 'not good' health rates: by ethnic group and sex, April 2001 England & Wales Percentages 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups Males Females Age standardised rates of long-term illness or disability which restricts daily activities: by ethnic group and sex, April 2001 England & Wales Percentages 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups Males Females
  • 13. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 12 Care 1 in 10 White and Indian people provide unpaid care Informal care People from White British and White Irish backgrounds together with Indian people are most likely to be providing informal care, that is unpaid care to relatives, friends or neighbours. Ten per cent of each of these groups in Great Britain provided informal care in April 2001. Those least likely to be providing informal care were people from Mixed backgrounds (5.1 per cent), Black Africans (5.6 per cent) and the Chinese (5.8 per cent). This pattern to some extent reflects the different age structures of the different ethnic groups, as informal care is most likely to be provided by people aged 50 to 60. The White groups have older age structures and are therefore more likely to both provide and need care. The amount of time that people spend caring differs by ethnic group. Groups most likely to provide very substantial amounts of care (50 hours per week or more) tend to be the same groups who provide care in the first place. The White Irish (2.5 per cent), Bangladeshi (2.4 per cent), Pakistani (2.4 per cent) and White British (2.2 per cent) groups had the highest rates of spending 50 hours a week or more caring. Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Other Asian groups had the highest rates of spending 20 to 49 hours a week caring (1.5 per cent or slightly more for each group). In April 2001, 109,000 children under the age of 16 in Great Britain were providing some informal care. Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani children were the most likely to be carers, around 1.5 per cent of each group. Black African children were least likely to provide care, at 0.7 per cent. Among White British children, 0.9 per cent were providing some unpaid care. Residential care In April 2001, 0.8 per cent of the population of Great Britain were resident in hospitals or other care establishments. This percentage varied greatly by ethnic group from 0.1 per cent among Bangladeshis and Pakistanis to 1.0 per cent among the White Irish group. Carers: by ethnic group and time spent caring per week, April 2001 Great Britain Percentages 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups 1 to 19 hours 20 to 49 hours 50 or more hours Population in hospitals and other care establishments: by ethnic group, April 2001 Great Britain Percentages 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 White British White Irish Other White Mixed Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Other Asian Black Caribbean Black African Other Black Chinese Other ethnic groups Sources: Census, April 2001, Office for National Statistics; Census, April 2001, General Register Office for Scotland. Notes: Hospitals and other care establishments are as classified as ‘Medical and Care establishments’ in the 2001 Census: NHS Psychiatric hospitals/ homes, other NHS hospitals/homes, Local Authority children’s homes, LA nursing homes, LA residential care homes, other LA homes, Housing association homes or hostels, other nursing homes, other residential care homes, other children’s homes, other psychiatric hospitals/homes, other hospitals and other medical and care homes.
  • 14. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 13 Smoking and Drinking Bangladeshi men have highest smoking rates Bangladeshi men were the most likely group in England to smoke cigarettes (44 per cent in 1999), followed by White Irish (39 per cent) and Black Caribbean men (35 per cent). Men from each of these ethnic groups were more likely to smoke than men in the general population (27 per cent). Chinese men (17 per cent) were the least likely to smoke. Similar proportions of Pakistani (26 per cent) and Indian (23 per cent) men smoked as in the general population. Like men, White Irish and Black Caribbean women had the highest smoking rates in 1999 (33 per cent and 25 per cent respectively), although only White Irish women had a rate higher than the general population (27 per cent). However, unlike men, women in every other minority ethnic group were much less likely to smoke than women in the general population. Patterns of cigarette smoking among the different ethnic groups remained the same after allowing for differences in their age structures. Although very few Bangladeshi women smoked cigarettes, a relatively large proportion (26 per cent) chewed tobacco. This method of using tobacco was also popular among Bangladeshi men (19 per cent), but they tended to use it in conjunction with cigarettes. In the general population, men and women were equally likely to be smokers. However, among minority ethnic groups women were less likely to smoke than men. The sex difference was particularly marked among the Bangladeshi group. Smoking behaviour is strongly related to a person’s socio-economic class. People from lower socio-economic classes are more likely to smoke than those from higher classes. Part of the pattern of smoking among the different ethnic groups is explained by the socio-economic differences among the groups. For example, Bangladeshi men were over represented in the lowest socio- economic class (semi-routine or routine occupations), and these men also had the highest rates of smoking. Drinking White Irish men and women were more likely than any other ethnic group to drink in excess of government recommended guidelines. Current guidelines are no more than 3 to 4 units per day for men and 2 to 3 units per day for women. Fifty eight per cent of men and 37 per cent of women from a White Irish background drank in excess of the recommended daily levels on their heaviest drinking day in the week before interview in 1999. All other minority ethnic groups were much less likely than the general population to have consumed alcohol in excess of the daily guidelines. After the White Irish, Black Caribbeans were most likely to drink above the guidelines. Twenty seven per cent of Black Caribbean men and 17 per cent of Black Caribbean women did so. Less than 10 per cent of men and women from the Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Chinese groups drank more than these recommended amounts on their heaviest drinking day. Very few Indian women exceeded the guidelines (5 per cent) but 22 per cent of Indian men drank above this level. Current cigarette smoking: by ethnic group and sex, 1999 England Percentages 0 10 20 30 40 50 General population White Irish Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Black Caribbean Chinese Males Females Adults drinking above recommended daily alcohol guidelines: by ethnic group and sex, 1999 England Percentages 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 General population White Irish Indian Pakistani Bangladeshi Black Caribbean Chinese Males Females Source: The Health of Minority Ethnic Groups, Health Survey for England 1999, TSO (London 2001). Notes: Age-standardised rates allow comparisons between populations with different age structures. The method used here is direct standardisation using the European Standard Population. The Health Survey for England report compares minority ethnic groups drawn from special boost samples with the general population. The sample for the general population was drawn using standard random sampling techniques. It should be noted that the minority ethnic group samples analysed in the HSE report and on this web page included not only those in the boost samples but those found within the general population sample. The latter grouped were included both within the general population and within the minority ethnic group samples, appropriate weights being applied to equalise selection probabilities.
  • 15. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 14 Victims of Crime Highest risk for Mixed race people In 2002/03, adults from a Mixed race or Asian background were more likely than those from other ethnic groups to be victims of crime in England and Wales. Almost half (46 per cent) of adults of Mixed race had been the victim of a crime in the previous 12 months. This compared with 30 per cent of Asians. Black adults and those from the ‘Chinese or other’ group experienced similar levels of crime to White people. Young adults are more likely than older people to be victims of crime and minority ethnic groups have a younger age structure than the White ethnic group. After allowing for their younger age structure, Asian adults were no more likely than those from other groups to be victims of crime. In contrast, Mixed race people still had higher risks of crime after allowing for age and the type of area in which they lived. When overall crime is split between personal crime and household crime, adults from Mixed race backgrounds still had the highest risk of both types of crime. Seventeen per cent of Mixed race people had been the victim of a personal crime (common assault, robbery, theft from the person and other personal theft) compared with between 7 and 9 per cent of people from other ethnic groups. A third (34 per cent) of Mixed race people had experienced household crime (which includes vehicle theft, vandalism and burglary) compared with between 18 to 23 per cent of people from other ethnic groups. In 2002/03 one in ten Mixed race households (10 per cent) had experienced a burglary in the previous 12 months compared with less than 1 in 20 of other households (between 3 and 4 per cent). People from Mixed race backgrounds were also at greater risk than other ethnic groups of violence. Eleven per cent reported being the victim of a violent crime in the previous 12 months, compared with no more than 5 per cent in any other ethnic group. In 2002/03, the risk of being the victim of a racially motivated incident was higher for members of minority ethnic groups than for White people. Four per cent of Mixed race people, 3 per cent of Asians, 2 per cent of Black people, and 2 per cent of those from a ‘Chinese or other’ background had experienced a crime they thought was racially motivated in the previous 12 months. This compared with less than 1 per cent of White people. People from minority ethnic groups were much more likely than White people to report that they were ‘very worried’ about crime. For instance, 43 per cent of Asian people were very worried about violent crime compared with 19 per cent of White people. Levels of worry about crime are higher in inner-city areas and for those who have experienced crime. Even after allowing for these factors, people from minority ethnic groups were still more likely than White people to be worried about crime. Source: British Crime Survey, 2002/2003, Home Office Notes: All BCS crime includes: all personal crime and all household crime. All personal crime includes: assault; robbery; theft from the person; and other personal theft. All household crime includes: bicycle theft; burglary; theft in a dwelling; other household theft, thefts of/from vehicles, and vandalism to household property/vehicles. Racially motivated crime: British Crime Survey respondents are asked, in respect of all crimes of which they were victims, whether they thought the incident was racially motivated. Victims are defined as anyone who judged that racial motivation was present in any household or personal crime which they had experienced in the relevant year, including threats. Violent crime: levels of worry about violent crime were calculated using four types of violence: mugging/robbery, rape, physical attack by a stranger and racially motivated assault. Proportion of adults who have experienced a crime in the last 12 months: by ethnic group, 2002/03 England & Wales Percentages 0 10 20 30 40 50 Chinese or other Black Asian Mixed White Proportion of adults who felt very worried about violent crime: by ethnic group, 2002/03 England & Wales Percentages 0 10 20 30 40 50 Chinese or other Black Asian Mixed White
  • 16. Office for National Statistics: March 2005 Office for National Statistics 1 Drummond Gate London SW1V 2QQ Telephone: 0845 601 3034 www.statistics.gov.uk © Crown copyright 2004 Published with the permission of the controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO). A National Statistics publication Official statistics bearing the National Statistics logo are produced to high professional standards set out in the National Statistics Code of Practice. They undergo regular quality assurance reviews to ensure that they meet customer needs. They are produced free from any political interference. Each overview in the Focus On series combines data from the 2001 Census and other sources to illustrate its subject. The online Focus On overviews will be followed by more detailed reports. Links to further information can be found in the online overviews. www.statistics.gov.uk/focuson Contact details: Content: Michael Rendall 020 7533 5248 General series: Hayley Butcher 020 7533 5882

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