Political advertising in US
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Political advertising in US
Political advertising in US By Sinyat
United state of America The United States of America (also known as America, the U.S., or the U.S.A.) is a country on the continent of North America. It is made up of 50 states and a federal district. After the United States was on the winning side of two World Wars (see WW1 and WW2) it became one of the worlds superpowers. It is famous for its influence over finance, trade, culture, militar y, politics, and technology.
Government of US .The United States is a federal republic. The federal government is set up by the Constitution. There are three branches of government. They are the executive branch- is the part of the government that enforces the law. the legislative branch- the government that makes laws the judicial branch- is the part of government that interprets what the law means State governments work very much like the federal government United States of America consists of 50 states, 5 territories and 1 district (Washington D.C). States can make laws about things inside the state, but federal law is usually about things dealing with more than one state or dealing with other countries. In some areas, if the federal government makes laws that say different things from the state laws, people only have to follow the federal governments law because the state law is not a law any more.
President by the people for the people Unlike in some parliamentary systems, Americans vote for a specific candidate instead of directly selecting a particular political party. With a federal government, officials are elected at the federal (national), state and local levels. On a national level, the President, is elected indirectly by the people, through an Electoral College. In modern times, the electors virtually always vote with the popular vote of their state.
Raising money for campaigns Successful participation, especially in federal elections, requires large amounts of money, especially for television advertising.This money is very difficult to raise by appeals to a mass base, although in the 2008 election, candidates from both parties had success with raising money from citizens over the Internet, as had Howard Dean with his Internet appeals. Both parties generally depend on wealthy donors and organizations - traditionally the Democrats depended on donations from organized labor while the Republicans relied on business donations. This dependency on donors is controversial, and has led to laws limiting spending on political campaigns being enacted. Fundraising plays a large role in getting a candidate elected to public office. Without large sums of money, a candidate has very little chance of achieving their goal. In the 2004 general elections, were won by the candidates who spent the most on their campaigns. Attempts to limit the influence of money on American political campaigns dates back to the 1860s. Recently, Congress passed legislation requiring candidates to disclose sources of campaign contributions, how the campaign money is spent, and regulated use of “soft money” contributions.
Advertising in politics Advertising whose central focus is the marketing of ideas, attitudes, and concerns about public issues, including political concepts and political candidates. The essential task of political advertising is to gain the confidence of the people for their acceptance of ideas and, in the case of political campaign advertising, to influence their vote. Political advertising differs from commercial advertising in that the product is either a person or a philosophy rather than goods and services, and, in addition, the advertising objectives must be met within a specific time frame. political advertising carries a moral implication, because the results have potentially far-reaching effects on the population at large. Political advertising raises many controversial social questions concerning the funding of political campaigns, the truth or reality of political claims, and the likelihood of slanderous or libelous claims made by political candidates.
Gate keeping theory Gatekeeping is the process through which information is filtered for dissemination, whether for Gatekeeping occurs at all levels of the publication, broadcasting, the media structure - from a reporter deciding Internet, or some other mode of which sources are chosen to include in a communication. story to editors deciding which stories are The academic theory of gatekeeping is printed or covered, and includes media found in multiple fields of outlet owners and even advertisers. study, including communication Individuals can also act as studies, journalism, political gatekeepers, deciding what information to science, and sociology. include in an email or in a blog, for It was originally focused on the mass example media with its few-to-many dynamic gatekeeper A news editor selects stories but now gatekeeping theory also for publication based on his or her addresses face-to-face communication organizations specific and the many-to-many dynamic criteria, e.g., importance and relevance to inherent in the Internet. their readership. For example, a The theory was first instituted by social presidential resignation would be on the psychologist Kurt Lewin in 1943. front page of a newspaper but likely not celebrity break-up
Gate keeping in politics Barzilai-Nahon introduces a In a political system there are typology for the gated. According gatekeepers, individuals or to her approach, the gated can institutions which control have four key attributes at different access to positions of power levels that determine how they can interact with the gate. and regulate the flow of information and political These are 1) Political power in influence. relation to the gatekeeper, 2) Information production ability, Feminists have adapted this 3) Relationship with the theory to explain male control gatekeeper of language and knowledge. 4) Alternatives in the context of gatekeeping . A typology of combinations of these characteristics then allows for evaluation of potential interactions between the gatekeeper and the gated based on the number and type of attributes an individual has
Change of the gatekeeping The Clinton–Lewinsky scandal illustrates a fundamental change in the contemporary American media environment: the virtual elimination of the gatekeeping role of the mainstream press. While most current understanding of media and politics (held by scholars, citizens, and practitioners) assumes that journalists can and/or should operate as the gatekeeper for politically relevant information, the most profound impact of the new media environment may well be the way it undermines the ability of any elite to play this central role. The new media environment, by providing virtually unlimited sources of political information
Negative campaigning work Negative campaigning like Attack ad (Some believe that attack ads are public opinion) Fear mongering Push poll Smear campaign Voter suppression social psychologists feel that negative information has a tendency “to be more influential than equally extreme or equally likely positive information.” Citizens may want to hear the good qualities of the candidates but they tend to remember more about the less desirable ones when presented with them. Candidates can and will display messages in their advertisements that come very close to propaganda.