A Comprehensive Approach to Wire & Cable Material Enhancement Polymers in Cables
Overview • Curing Performance Rubber - Coagent Definition - Performance Measures - Applications • ...
Coagent Function • Coagents increase the quantity of crosslinks formed by making more efficient use of radicals ...
Coagent Types• Type I Coagents: Increase both the rate and state of cure - Generate very reactive radicals - Pola...
Coagent Types• Type II Coagents: Primarily increase the state of cure only - Generate less reactive, more stable radi...
Cure Profiles • The addition of coagents to a compound alters the: - Cure kinetics (scorch - t2, cure time - t90)...
Rubber Study Polymers • EPDM (72, 6) Evaluation Criteria • EPM (65) ...
Cure State, ODR Torque8 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
Electrical Properties9 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
Water Resistance10 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
Wire & Cable Applications Down Hole Oil Well Service Submarine Power Cables ...
Dispersing Methodologies Pre-treated (2 & 3) ATH tended to aerate less (EH&S Win) Material process improvements: t...
Improved Dispersion No Dispersant Mechanical Starve Coated Fewer instances of a large a...
Impact on Ductility Mechanical coating and wet coating were equally viable methods Integration of functional polyb...
Influence on Flammability UL94 V-2 UL94 V-0 UL94 V-2 Pre-coating ATH with dispers...
Heat & Smoke Generation Heat Release Rate (HRR) improved with the introduction of dispersant Rate of Smoke Rel...
Flow Modification Increase Flow Flow Control Nylon chain extension: TPE pla...
Thermoplastic Nylon THHN & THHW Cables • High/Low Tg chain extension HIGH ...
Thermoplastic Elastomers Flexible Wire • Flexibility & softness • Surface quality • Relevant to: - SB...
Cray Valley HSC • Leading global supplier of hydrocarbon resins, diene-based resins, and specialty monomers - W...
Cray Valley HSC A Division of Total SA Upstream Downstream Che...
Cray Valley HSC Focus Markets22 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
Cray Valley Global Presence vv ...
Cray Valley HSC •For additional information about Cray Valley, its products or its work in Hydrocarbon Special...
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Polymers in Cables

"Polymers in Cables" takes a close and comprehensive approach to wire and cable material enhancements. Focus areas for this study include curing performance rubber, inorganic mineral dispersion, and flow and processibility optimization.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Technology      Business      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Polymers in Cables

  • 1. A Comprehensive Approach to Wire & Cable Material Enhancement Polymers in Cables
  • 2. Overview • Curing Performance Rubber - Coagent Definition - Performance Measures - Applications • Inorganic Mineral Dispersion - Mineral Dispersion - NHFR Transition - Property Balancing • Flow & Processibility Optimization - Flow Modification - Nylon Chain Extension - TPE Flow Optimization2 Cray Valley HSC
  • 3. Coagent Function • Coagents increase the quantity of crosslinks formed by making more efficient use of radicals - Minimize beta scission reactions - Maximize crosslink-forming reactions • Through the proper choice of coagents, the quality of the crosslinks can be changed as well - Alter the bond strength of linkage - Alter network polarity3 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 4. Coagent Types• Type I Coagents: Increase both the rate and state of cure - Generate very reactive radicals - Polar molecules usually of low molecular weight - Capable of homopolymerization as well as grafting - Typical structures include acrylate and methacrylate esters, bismaleimides4 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 5. Coagent Types• Type II Coagents: Primarily increase the state of cure only - Generate less reactive, more stable radicals - Higher molecular weight unsaturated molecules, oligomers and polymers - Can be used at higher loadings due to increased compatibility with most elastomer systems - Contain allylic hydrogens capable of abstraction5 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 6. Cure Profiles • The addition of coagents to a compound alters the: - Cure kinetics (scorch - t2, cure time - t90) - Ultimate state-of-cure (maximum torque - S) A – Peroxide cure torque (dNm) B S* C B – Type I coagent A S C – Type II coagent t 2* t2 t90* t90 time (minutes)6 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 7. Rubber Study Polymers • EPDM (72, 6) Evaluation Criteria • EPM (65) • EVA (18) • Rheometry Data (ODR) • Tensile Strength • EVM (50) • Elongation • CPE • Modulus • Compression Set • Water Resistance • Heat Aging Properties Type II Coagent • Electrical Properties  Volume Resistivity High Vinyl  Dielectric Strength Polybutadiene (Ricon® 154) 2 phr {3 phr in CPE}7 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 8. Cure State, ODR Torque8 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 9. Electrical Properties9 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 10. Water Resistance10 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 11. Wire & Cable Applications Down Hole Oil Well Service Submarine Power Cables Transmission - Deep well applications - Large diameter high voltage cables (>50 kV) - Temperatures >260oC - Ricon 153 & 154 - Highly corrosive - Moisture resistance - Ricon 154 - Insulation property - Highly loaded: 25 – 40 phr - Highly loaded: 25 – 40 phr11 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 12. Dispersing Methodologies Pre-treated (2 & 3) ATH tended to aerate less (EH&S Win) Material process improvements: torque & throughput (Productivity Win) Reduced dilution of EVA matrix (Formulation Win)12 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 13. Improved Dispersion No Dispersant Mechanical Starve Coated Fewer instances of a large aggregate in coated samples and relative aggregate size reduction Dispersion efficiency was comparable between mechanical and starve coating methods13 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 14. Impact on Ductility Mechanical coating and wet coating were equally viable methods Integration of functional polybutadiene can coincide with mineral surface treatment14 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 15. Influence on Flammability UL94 V-2 UL94 V-0 UL94 V-2 Pre-coating ATH with dispersant not only maintained the flammability performance, but also improved it Dispersing augments the ‘self-extinguishing’ nature of the filled polymer15 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 16. Heat & Smoke Generation Heat Release Rate (HRR) improved with the introduction of dispersant Rate of Smoke Release (RSR) was lowest in composition prepared using starve coating Dispersant coatings in general imparted better HRR and RSR to EVA/ATH composite16 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 17. Flow Modification Increase Flow Flow Control Nylon chain extension: TPE plasticization: • Productivity • Softness • Mechanical properties • Flow • Thermal properties • Productivity17 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 18. Thermoplastic Nylon THHN & THHW Cables • High/Low Tg chain extension HIGH LOW • Melt flow control & optimization • Hydrophobicity & dielectric • Moisture content properties • Dial in MFR • Recycled content18 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 19. Thermoplastic Elastomers Flexible Wire • Flexibility & softness • Surface quality • Relevant to: - SBCs - EVA - Ethylene α-olefins19 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 20. Cray Valley HSC • Leading global supplier of hydrocarbon resins, diene-based resins, and specialty monomers - Wingtack® and Norsolene® (C5 & C9 tackifiers) - Poly bd®, KrasolTM, and Ricon® (low molecular weight liquid polybutadiene resins) - SMA® (styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer resins) - DymalinkTM (metal centered monomers) • Annual sales over $350 million and has more than 340 employees worldwide • Company’s more than 250 products are manufactured at 9 sites in 4 countries20 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 21. Cray Valley HSC A Division of Total SA Upstream Downstream Chemicals • Oil & gas exploration • Trading & shipping • Base chemicals • Production • Refining & marketing • Industrial & consumer Focus • Gas & power • Commodity & specialty market specialty • Alternative energy fluids chemicals Sales $24.6 $163.4 $23.2 (billion) Employees 17,192 32,631 41,658 Total, a partner in your challenges21 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 22. Cray Valley HSC Focus Markets22 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 23. Cray Valley Global Presence vv vvv v v v v v v vv v v Global HQv Regional HQ vv Sales Officev Researchv Manufacturing Distribution Network 23 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12
  • 24. Cray Valley HSC •For additional information about Cray Valley, its products or its work in Hydrocarbon Specialty Chemicals, visit www.CVPolymerAdditives.com.24 Polymers in Cables - 4/18/12

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