CHOMSKYAN
vs
GREEN BERG UNIVERSAL
Nargis Hadayat
Chomsky’s Universal Grammar
• Noam Chomsky is well known on two fronts, as a
philosopher and as a social thinker. He is ju...
Universal grammar
(chomskyan)
• Universal grammar (UG) is a theory in linguistics, usually credited
to Noam Chomsky, propo...
Chomsky argued that the human brain contains a limited set of rules
for organizing language. This implies in turn that all...
As Chomsky puts it, "Evidently, development of language in the individual must
involve three factors:
(1) genetic endowmen...
Chomsky, and Fitch present the three leading hypotheses for how language
evolved and brought humans to the point where we ...
greenbergian universals
• Joseph Greenberg, 1963: “Some Universals of Grammar
with Particular Reference to the Order of Me...
If both the derivation and inflection follow the root, or
they both precede the root, the derivation is always
between the...
similerities
• All the languages of the world have vowels and consonants.
• All the languages of the world have yes/no-que...
Nargis Present New 6
of 10

Nargis Present New 6

CHOMSKYAN VS GREEN BERG UNIVERSAL
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nargis Present New 6

  • 1. CHOMSKYAN vs GREEN BERG UNIVERSAL Nargis Hadayat
  • 2. Chomsky’s Universal Grammar • Noam Chomsky is well known on two fronts, as a philosopher and as a social thinker. He is justifiably famous today for his efforts to combat social injustice, which has led him to present a radical critique of the institutions of power in modern society. His fame initially arose, however, from his work as a linguistic philosopher and his still controversial suggestion that the human brain is somehow equipped at birth with a Universal Grammar out of which all human languages later develop.
  • 3. Universal grammar (chomskyan) • Universal grammar (UG) is a theory in linguistics, usually credited to Noam Chomsky, proposing that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain.It is sometimes known as mental grammar, and as opposed to other 'grammars', e.g. prescriptive, descriptive and pedagogical. The theory suggests that linguistic ability manifests itself without being taught (see the poverty of the stimulus argument), and that there are properties that all natural human languages share. It is a matter of observation and experimentation to determine precisely what abilities are innate and what properties are shared by all languages.
  • 4. Chomsky argued that the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language. This implies in turn that all languages have a common structural basis; the set of rules is what is known as universal grammar. • Speakers proficient in a language know which expressions are acceptable in their language and which are unacceptable. The key puzzle is how speakers come to know these restrictions of their language, since expressions that violate those restrictions are not present in the input, indicated as such
  • 5. As Chomsky puts it, "Evidently, development of language in the individual must involve three factors: (1) genetic endowment, which sets limits on the attainable languages, thereby making language acquisition possible; (2) external data, converted to the experience that selects one or another language within a narrow range; (3) principles not specific to FL."[FL is the faculty of language, whatever properties of the brain cause it to learn language.]
  • 6. Chomsky, and Fitch present the three leading hypotheses for how language evolved and brought humans to the point where we have a Universal Grammar. Hypothesis 1 states that FLB (the Faculty of Language in the broad sense) is strictly homologous to animal communication. This means that homologous aspects of the Faculty of Language exist in non-human animals. Hypothesis 2 states that FLB "is a derived, uniquely human adaptation for language". This hypothesis believes that individual traits were subject to natural selection and came to be very specialized for humans. Hypothesis 3 states that only FLN (the Faculty of Language in the narrow sense) is unique to humans. It believes that while mechanisms of FLB are present in both humans and non-human animals.
  • 7. greenbergian universals • Joseph Greenberg, 1963: “Some Universals of Grammar with Particular Reference to the Order of Meaningful Elements”
  • 8. If both the derivation and inflection follow the root, or they both precede the root, the derivation is always between the root and the inflection. • If a language has inflection, it always has derivation. • No language has a trial number unless it has a dual. No language has a dual unless it has a plural. • If a language has the category of gender, it always has the category of number. • A language never has more gender categories in nonsingular numbers than in the singular.
  • 9. similerities • All the languages of the world have vowels and consonants. • All the languages of the world have yes/no-questions. • All languages have pronominal categories involving at least three persons and two numbers. • All most all the languages have nasal consonants. • On a more abstract level, the assumption on the language capacity in terms of Chomsky also belong to this type. The properties of Universal Grammar applies to all the languages of the world.