Vandana Thakur
Asst professor
RIE Bhopal
 After independence, University Education Commission in 1948 under the
Chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, a di...
 To teach that life has a meaning.
 To awaken the innate ability to live a meaningful life in all aspects by developing ...
 the sixth commission in the history of commission in India.
 The Five Years Plan, started after independence helped the...
 The Commission was appointed under provision of a
resolution of the Government of India, dated 14th July,
1964.
 The Co...

i) All the five earlier commissions did not deal with education as a whole but focussed
attention on different levels of...
 Set up 12 task forces and 7 working groups.
 Interviewed 9000 men and women.
 Spent 100 days.
 Begin its task on 2nd ...
 The report of the commission has been appropriately entitled as ‘education and national
development’.
The report is divi...
 Education and National Objectives –
1.Increase in Productivity.
2. Promoting social and National Integration
3. Educatio...
 Education and Modernisation -
The present society is the science - based society. The present
century has made tremendou...
 The structural pattern recommended by the commission is commonly
known as 10+2+3.
 Pre-school education from 1 to 3 yea...
 The age of admission to class I should not be less than 6+.
 The first public external examination should come at the
e...
 Aggarwal, J.C., : Landmarks in the History of Modern
Indian Education; Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi; Repr...
 The National Policy of Education 1968 is based on the
recommendations of the Commission of 1964-66..
 The Commission re...
 In its policy declaration the Government of India stated that the
Government is convinced that a radical reconstruction ...
 Free and Compulsory Education :all children up to
the age of 14.
 Status, Emoluments and Education of Teachers –
 hono...
 Development of languages
 Regional Languages
 Three-Language Formula :the study of a modern
Indian language, preferabl...
 Equalisation of Educational Opportunities
 Identification of Talent
 Work - experience and national Service
 Science ...
 Secondary Education
 University Education
 Part time education and correspondence courses.
 Spread of Literacy and Ad...
 A radical reconstruction of education on the broad lines
recommended by the Education Commission, which will
involve -
...
 In a democratic country, there is need of democratization of education.
In order to achieve education for all, so many i...
 In 1968, when the National Policy of Education was formulated for improving the educational
scenario in our country, the...

In relation to Elementary Education, followings are the major objectives of
National Policy of Education 1986 are mainly...
 The basic formulations can be summed up as follows:
 The National Policy of 1986 marked a significant step in the
histo...
 The Programme of Action (POA) 1992 aimed to fulfill the objective of
universal enrolment and retention of children and s...
 The NPE and POA laid considerable stress on the need of
value education and inculcation of proper perspective
about the ...
 1Regarding Elementary Education, the major objectives of National Policy of
Education 1986 are mainly:
Universal access ...
 The values of secularism, socialism, democracy must be imbibed by the citizens of the country.
 Education must reduce t...
 NPE and POA gave due importance to improvement of education in
educationally backward areas.
 The NPE and POA perceived...
 Teacher training facilities should be provided to eligible candidates in the
teaching profession. It also suggested that...
 RMSA Vision :
 Provision of free access to good quality secondary
education to all young persons in the age group 14 - ...
 Mission :
 Provision of a secondary school within reasonable distance
of any habitation with a maximum distance of five...
 Objectives :
 To ensure that all secondary schools have physical facilities, staff and
supplies according to the standa...
National policies of Education, an overview
of 34

National policies of Education, an overview

This PPT contains a brief account of policies in India post independence.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - National policies of Education, an overview

  • 1. Vandana Thakur Asst professor RIE Bhopal
  • 2.  After independence, University Education Commission in 1948 under the Chairmanship of Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, a distinguished scholar and former vice-chancellor of Banaras Hindu University and who became the second President of India.  Aim of Appointment: The Commission was appointed to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements.  Terms of Reference: The terms of reference of the Commission were ways and means for the improvement and re-organization of the University Education.  Method of Study: The commission made a thorough study of the problems of Higher Education in India. 
  • 3.  To teach that life has a meaning.  To awaken the innate ability to live a meaningful life in all aspects by developing wisdom.  To acquaint with the social philosophy this should govern all our institutions - educational as well as economic and political.  To provide training for democracy.  To train for self - development.  To develop certain values like fearlessness of mind, strength of conscience and integrity of purpose.  To acquaint with cultural heritage for its registration.  To enable to know that education is a life - long process.  To develop proper understanding of the present as well as of the past.  To impart vocational and professional training.
  • 4.  the sixth commission in the history of commission in India.  The Five Years Plan, started after independence helped the growth of the country in many areas. However, the execution of these plans expresses the inherent weakness due to which the expected success was not being achieved.  Education appeared to be one of areas which indicated many problems that needed our efforts for immediate solutions Consequently, the defects in the area of education persisted.  In order to remove theses defects, the government had to appoint a new education commission to advise the government on national pattern of education along with general principles and policies for the development of education at all stages.
  • 5.  The Commission was appointed under provision of a resolution of the Government of India, dated 14th July, 1964.  The Commission included eminent educationists in diverse fields from India and abroad.  It consisted of total 17 members, where 14 members, 1 member - secretary, 1 Associate - Secretary and Dr. D.S. Kothari, chairman of the U.G.C. was appointed as the chairman of the commission. Therefore, it is also known as the Kothari Commission.  Among the members of the commission 5 educationists were from England, America, France, Japan and Russia. J.P. Naik was appointed as secretary of the commission and J.F McDougall as associated secretary.
  • 6.  i) All the five earlier commissions did not deal with education as a whole but focussed attention on different levels of education. But this commission was not to limit its enquiry to specific sectors or aspects of education, but to have a comprehensive review of the Entire Educational System. ii) Another unique feature of the Commission was its conviction that education is the most powerful instrument of the national development. “ Never before education was given such a niche of national honour, and never before was it conceived as a pivot of national honour, and never before was it conceived as a pivot of nation’s progress and the prosperity as revealed in the pages of the Commission’s Report.” iii) The international composition of the commission is also significant. As education remains the common quest of mankind, it was found profitable to draw upon the experience and thinking of educationists and scientists from other countries and to take advantage of the latest developments in the educationally advanced countries. As such the commission included 7 Indian members and 5 others; 1 each from Japan, France, U.K., U.S.A. and USSR. besides, 20 consultants from different countries of the world were available.
  • 7.  Set up 12 task forces and 7 working groups.  Interviewed 9000 men and women.  Spent 100 days.  Begin its task on 2nd October, 1964.  submitted it report on June, 1966.  Report divided into four sections.  Programmes categorized into three.
  • 8.  The report of the commission has been appropriately entitled as ‘education and national development’. The report is divided into four sections – Section I : deal with general Problems. Section II : deal with Education at different stages and in different sectors. Section III : deals with implementation of the various recommendations and programmes suggested by the commission. Section IV : consists of supplementary papers. The programmes of educational reconstructions proposed in this Report fall into three broad categories — 1) Internal transformation of the educational system so as to relate it to the life, needs and aspirations of the nation. 2) Qualitative improvement of education so that the standards achieved are adequate, keeping continually rising and, at least in a few sectors become internationally comparable; and, 3) Expansion of educational facilities broadly on the basis of man - power needs and with an accent on equalization of educational opportunities.
  • 9.  Education and National Objectives – 1.Increase in Productivity. 2. Promoting social and National Integration 3. Education and Modernization 4. Developing social, moral and spiritual values.
  • 10.  Education and Modernisation - The present society is the science - based society. The present century has made tremendous advancement in scientific and technical knowledge as a result of explosion of knowledge.  In such a situation one of the main functions of education is to keep pace with this advancement of knowledge.  Another feature of modern society is the rapid social change. In the situation of change, the school must always be alert if it is to keep abreast of significant changes.  An education system which does not renovate itself continuously, becomes out-dated and puts hindrance to progress.  To keep pace with modernisation the IEC is of the opinion that “greater emphasis must be placed on vocational subjects, science education and research.”
  • 11.  The structural pattern recommended by the commission is commonly known as 10+2+3.  Pre-school education from 1 to 3 years should also be given.  General education should last for a period of 10 years – 4 years of lower primary, 3 years of higher primary 3 years of lower secondary education.  Higher secondary education should be fixed for 2 years.  Degree course should be of 3 years.
  • 12.  The age of admission to class I should not be less than 6+.  The first public external examination should come at the end of the first 10 years of schooling.  Secondary schools should be of two types : higher schools providing a 10 years’ course and higher secondary schools providing a course of 11 or 12 years.  A new higher secondary course consisting of classes XI and XII should be introduced.  The pre-university courses should be transferred from Universities and added to the secondary schools.  The Commission has been suggested the reorganisation of the university stage. At this stage, the three year degree has been favoured by the Commission
  • 13.  Aggarwal, J.C., : Landmarks in the History of Modern Indian Education; Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi; Reprint 1994.
  • 14.  The National Policy of Education 1968 is based on the recommendations of the Commission of 1964-66..  The Commission recommended that the Government of India should issue a statement on the National Policy on Education which should provide guidance to the state Governments and the local authorities in preparing and implementing educational plans.  In 1967 the Govt. of India constituted a committee of Members of parliament on Education to prepare the draft of a statement on the National Policy of Education.  The Committee brought together the leading members of almost all the political parties in the country and prepared a draft which was considered by the Central Advisory Board of Education. A general consensus on the National Policy on Education emerged in the course of the Board’s deliberations.
  • 15.  In its policy declaration the Government of India stated that the Government is convinced that a radical reconstruction of education on the broad lines recommended by the education commission is essential for economic and cultural development of the country for national integration and for realizing the ideal of a socialistic pattern of society.  This will involve a transformation of the system to relate it more closely to the life of the people, effort to expand educational opportunity, effort to raise the quality of education at all stages, emphasis on development of science and technology and cultivation of moral and social values.  The educational system must produce young man and women of character and ability committed to national service and development..
  • 16.  Free and Compulsory Education :all children up to the age of 14.  Status, Emoluments and Education of Teachers –  honoured place in the society.  service conditions should be adequate  academic freedom of teachers to pursue and publish independent studies and researches  particularly in-service education, should receive due emphases
  • 17.  Development of languages  Regional Languages  Three-Language Formula :the study of a modern Indian language, preferably one of the southern languages, along with regional languages, Hindi and English.  Hindi : Every effort should be made to promote the development of Hindi as the link language  Sanskrit  International Languages
  • 18.  Equalisation of Educational Opportunities  Identification of Talent  Work - experience and national Service  Science Education and Research  Education for Agriculture and Industry  Production of Books  Examinations -A major goal of examination reforms should be to improve the reliability and validity of examinations and to make evaluation a continuous process
  • 19.  Secondary Education  University Education  Part time education and correspondence courses.  Spread of Literacy and Adult Education.  Games and Sports  Education of Minorities.  The Educational Structure.
  • 20.  A radical reconstruction of education on the broad lines recommended by the Education Commission, which will involve -  A transformation of the system to relate it more closely to the life of the people.  A continuous effort to expand educational opportunity.  A sustained and intensive effort to raise the equality of education at all stages.  An emphasis on the development of science and technology.  Emphasis on the cultivation of moral and social values.
  • 21.  In a democratic country, there is need of democratization of education. In order to achieve education for all, so many initiatives and attempts have been made by the Government of India.  Through policy formulation, the government lays down directives for the future course of action towards realizing some perceived goals. In a democratic society, the goal lies in the various aspects of the welfare of the people.  For the wellbeing of the Indian nation and the Indian society at the national and local level, definite thrust has been laid down on education.  Even in early Indian history, education figured in the administrative policies of the government.  The modern trend of development can be fruitfully traced to the British colonial government .This is reflected in the National Policy of Education, 1986 and its Modified Policy, 1992 which is known as Programme of Action.
  • 22.  In 1968, when the National Policy of Education was formulated for improving the educational scenario in our country, there it was envisaged that it would be followed by a ‘five yearly review to progress and working out of new policies and programmes.’  Regarding this statement, at the time of formulation of every new Five-Year plan, a review has been made to assess the drawbacks or shortcomings as well as achievements of education and finally to decide on some plans or programmes for the coming Five Years.  It is through making the policies and programmes that every country seeks to develop its system of education to express and promote its unique socio-cultural identity and also to meet the challenges of the times.  The National Policy of Education of 1986 is the result of the reviews which was discussed and adopted during the budget session of1985 when Rajiv Gandhi was the prime minister of India. Again, a committee was set up under the chairmanship of Acharaya Rammurti in May 1990 to review National Policy of Education (NPE) and to make recommendations for its modifications. The Central Advisory Board of Education, a committee set up in July 1991 under the chairmanship of Shri N. Janadhana Reddy, Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh; considered some modifications in NPE taking into considerations the report of the Rammurti Committee and other relevant development having a bearing on the policy. This Committee submitted its report in January 1992, which is known as National Programme of Action of 1992. This policy aimed to promote national progress, a sense of common citizenship and culture, and to strengthen national integration. It laid stress on the need for a radical reconstruction of the education system, to improve its quality at all stages, and therefore gave much greater attention to science and technology, the cultivation of moral values and a closer relation between education and the life of the people.
  • 23.  In relation to Elementary Education, followings are the major objectives of National Policy of Education 1986 are mainly: Universal access and enrolment  Universal retention of children up to 14 years of age and  A sustainable improvement in the quality education to enable all children to achieve essential levels of learning.  Regarding Secondary Education, National Policy of Education stressed on the improvement of the quality of secondary education. Effort to be made to provide computer literacy in as many secondary level institutions to make the students equipped with necessary computer skills.  Regarding higher education, National Policy of Education and Programme of Action of 1986 and 1992 emphasized that higher education should provide to the people with an opportunity to reflect on the critical social, economic, cultural, moral and spiritual issues.
  • 24.  The basic formulations can be summed up as follows:  The National Policy of 1986 marked a significant step in the history of post independent India  The National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action of 1992 provided a significant formulation regarding the content and process of education.  Emphasis was given on the values of secularism, socialism, democracy to be imbibed by the citizens of the country.  Education must reduce the rural urban disparities and determined measures should be taken to promote diversification and dispersal of employment opportunities.  Emphasis was laid on adult education especially within the age group of 15 and 35 years.
  • 25.  The Programme of Action (POA) 1992 aimed to fulfill the objective of universal enrolment and retention of children and successful completion of education upto 14 years.  POA also suggested decentralized planning and good management of primary education.  NPE and POA gave due importance to improvement of education in educationally backward areas.  The NPE and POA perceived the problem of women education in India and therefore stressed the need for equal opportunities for all.  The NPE and POA emphasized on the importance of technology and formulated policy regarding the utilizations of computer education in our country.  The policy and Programme stressed on the importance on non-formal and distance education modes to achieve the goal of universal education.
  • 26.  The NPE and POA laid considerable stress on the need of value education and inculcation of proper perspective about the country’s cultural traditions.  Both the Policy and Programme laid importance on higher education and research work.  Vocational education was given importance by the POA to increase individual competency and national productivity.  It emphasized that teacher training facilities should be provided to eligible candidates in the teaching profession. It also suggested that the service conditions and salaries of teachers should be improved.
  • 27.  1Regarding Elementary Education, the major objectives of National Policy of Education 1986 are mainly: Universal access and enrolment  Universal retention of children up to 14 years of age and  A sustainable improvement in the quality education to enable all children to achieve the essential levels of learning.  2Regarding the higher education, National Policy of Education and Programme of Action of 1986 and 1992 emphasized that higher education should be provided to the people with an opportunity to reflect on the critical social, economic, cultural, moral and spiritual issues.  3The followings were some of the recommendations of the N.P.E. and POA of 1986 and 1992: The National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action of 1992 provided a significant formulation regarding the content and process of education.
  • 28.  The values of secularism, socialism, democracy must be imbibed by the citizens of the country.  Education must reduce the rural urban disparities and determined measures should be taken to promote diversification and dispersal of employment opportunities.  Emphasis was laid on adult education especially within the age group of 15 and 35 years.  It also emphasized on distance education.  The Programme of Action (POA) 1992 aimed to fulfill the objective of universal enrolment and retention of children and successful completion of education upto 14 years.  POA suggested decentralized planning and good management of primary education.
  • 29.  NPE and POA gave due importance to improvement of education in educationally backward areas.  The NPE and POA perceived the problem of women education in India and therefore stressed the need for equal opportunity for all.  The POA, 1992 laid considerable stress on the need of value education and inculcation of proper perspective about the country’s cultural traditions.  It laid importance on higher education and research work.  Vocational education was given importance by the POA to increase individual competency and national productivity.
  • 30.  Teacher training facilities should be provided to eligible candidates in the teaching profession. It also suggested that the service conditions and salaries of teachers should be improved.  The NPE and POA emphasized that in order to avoid structural dualism, modern educational technology should be reached out.  The NPE and POA also emphasized on the education of the handicapped.  The NPE and POA emphasized on the protection of environment.  The NPE and POA stressed on the education of ST, SC. OBC and the minorities.
  • 31.  RMSA Vision :  Provision of free access to good quality secondary education to all young persons in the age group 14 - 18 years irrespective of gender, creed, religious denomination, physical and mental disabilities and social and economic status so as to enable them to progress towards becoming socially and economically active citizens capable of contributing positively to their own holistic development and that of the state and country as a whole.
  • 32.  Mission :  Provision of a secondary school within reasonable distance of any habitation with a maximum distance of five kilometres. If required residential schools shall be opened for girls, socially and economically weaker sections, religious minorities and sparsely populated regions. Ensure universal access and thereby universalisation of Secondary Education in the state where the state will reach GER of 80% by the end of the eleventh five year plan in 2012, and a GER of 100 % by end of twelfth five year plan in 2017. Improve the quality of education being provided in all secondary schools.
  • 33.  Objectives :  To ensure that all secondary schools have physical facilities, staff and supplies according to the standards prescribed in the RMSA norms with special emphasis on achieving and sustaining a pupil/teacher ratio of 30, pupil/classroom ratio of 40, adequate and fully equipped laboratories, computer rooms and libraries.  To provide full financial support in case of Government, Local Body and Government aided schools and also encourage public private partnership of various kinds and extent with NGOs and private providers of education.  To ensure that no child is deprived of secondary education of satisfactory quality due to poverty, gender, socio-economic, disability and other barriers.  To improve quality of secondary education through appropriate curriculum development, learning methodology and teachers' training.