NANOTECHNOLOGY
IN INDUSTRIES
MADE BY- GUIDED BY-
VEDANT PATEL Dr. JAYESH RUPARELIA
13BCH043 Professor
OVERVIEW
• Introduction.
• Nanotech in various Industries.
– FOOD INDUSTRY
– AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY
– OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
–...
INTRODUCTION
• What is Nanotechnology?
• A basic definition: Nanotechnology is the
engineering of functional systems at
th...
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN
VARIOUS INDUSTRIES
FOOD INDUSTRY
• The definition of nanofood is that the
nanotechnology techniques or tools are
used during cultivation, pro...
Image Ref: www.nature.com
AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY
• The main applications and advances in the
agriculture industry are :
PRECISION FARMING.
NANO DEL...
OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
• The Nanotechnology applications have
pierced through different Petroleum
disciplines from Explorati...
CONSUMER GOODS
INDUSTRY
• The main areas of application are :
SURFACES AND COATINGS.
TEXTILES.
COSMETICS.
SPORTS.
Img ...
AEROSPACE INDUSTRY
• The primary development are advantages
offered by using various nanomaterials in
the place of traditi...
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY
• The main area of application of nanotech in
chemical industry is the catalysis process.
• due to the e...
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
• Nanotechnology has the potential to make
construction faster, cheaper, safer, and more
varied.
• T...
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN
BIOTECHNOLOGY
• ADVANTAGES OF
NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY:
• Drug targeting .
• Accumulation at higher concentrati...
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN
BIOTECHNOLOGY (conti.)
• DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS:
• DETECTION.
• INDIVIDUAL TARGET PROBES.
• PROTEIN CHI...
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN
BIOTECHNOLOGY (conti.)
• THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS:
• DRUG DELIVERY.
• GENE DELIVERY.
• BIOMOLECULAR ENGI...
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN
BIOTECHNOLOGY (conti.)
• POTENTIAL HAZARDS:
• If ingested, the nanoparticles can reach the
circulation a...
NANOTECH IN COMPOSITE
MATERIALS
• The key to nanoparticle benefits is this high
ratio of surface area to total volume.
• T...
NANOTECH IN COMPOSITE
MATERIALS (conti.)
• APPLICATION:
• Lubricants and scratch free paints.
• New fire retardant materia...
NANOTECH IN
ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY
• Main advances to happen in next few years:
• Flexible electronic circuits.
• Higher spe...
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE
ENERGY SECTOR
WHERE NANOTECHNOLOGY
MAY CONTRIBUTE..
Ref: Part One Sustainable Energy Production, Nanotechnology for Energy Production, E...
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENERGY
PRODUCTION
• Solar Economy.
• Hydrogen Economy.
• Biofuels.
• Thermoelectricity etc..
SOLAR ECONOMY
• This section deals with the use of
nanotechnology in all the energy-related
processes that involve the use...
PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY
• PV (Photo Voltaic) solar cells are devices which
produce electricity from the sun radiation by m...
Ref: www.azonano.com
Ref: www.solartribune.com
DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL
• O’Regan and Gratzel introduced in 1991 the first
nanostructured solar cell namely Gratzel cell...
Ref: www.nanotech-now.com
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN
HYDROGEN PRODUCTION
• PV energy can be used to break water
molecules into hydrogen and oxygen via
the so...
Schema of solar water splitting system a composite polycrystalline-Si/doped TiO2
semiconductor thin-film electrode.
Ref: R...
HYDROGEN ECONOMY
• Hydrogen has a tremendous application in the
energy sector as it produces a lot of energy by
combustion...
BIOFUELS
• U.S. scientists say they are using nanotechnology to
improve the cellulosic ethanol processes involved in
produ...
THERMOELECTRICITY
• Thermoelectricity (TE), also known as the Peltier–
Seebeck effect, refers to the direct conversion of
...
Structure of solar thermoelectric
generators (STEGs) based on bulk
nanostructured materials.
a) STEG cell;
b) Schematic il...
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENERGY
SAVINGS
• Energy savings can be achieved in numerous
ways, such as improving insulation of
reside...
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENERGY
DISTRIBUTION
• Replacing current wires with nanoscale
transmission wires, called quantum wires
(Q...
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENERGY
STORAGE
• Nanotechnology can also be applied to
the field of energy storage. Due to the
large sur...
ASSESSMENT, RISKS AND
MANAGEMENT OF
NANOTECHNOLOGY
ASSESSMENT
Nanoparticles Uses
Metal oxides
• Silica (SiO2)
• Titania (TiO2)
• Aluminia (AL2O3)
• Iron oxide (Fe3O4, Fe3O3)...
RISKS
• Keeping in mind the broad range of
applications of nanotechnologies
outlined in the previous chapters and the
vari...
EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH
• Nanoparticles are acutely toxic when
compared to larger particles composed of
the same material,...
EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT
• Some nanoparticles (such as copper or silver)
have been shown to be harmful to aquatic life.
•...
Product Examples Potential release and exposure
Cosmetics IV absorbing TiO2 or ZnO2 in
sunscreen
Directly applied to skin ...
RISK MANAGEMENT
• Nanotechnology presents both an
unprecedented challenge and an unparalleled
opportunity for risk managem...
RISK MANAGEMENT
PRINCIPLES
• The three most common traditional models
for risk management of hazardous agents
are:
– Accep...
THE PRECAUTIONARY
PRINCIPLE
• Often summarized by the phrase “Better safe
than Sorry.”
• Given the massive uncertainty abo...
REGULATION OF
NANOTECHNOLOGY
• In 2009, EPA began work on a TSCA
regulation that would be applicable to all
nanoscale mate...
NANOMATERIAL SIGNIFICANT
NEW USE RULE
• The anticipated SNUR would be applicable to any use of a nanoscale
material. For n...
NANOMATERIAL INFORMATION
COLLECTION RULE
• Coupled with the nanomaterial SNUR, EPA is also poised to issue a
TSCA section ...
CURRENT STATUS OF THE
NANOMATERIAL INFORMATION
COLLECTION RULE AND SNUR
• The combined rule has been delayed.
• EPA submit...
REFERENCES
• M.H. Fulekar, Nanotechnology Importance and Application, I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. (FULEK...
REFERENCES• Part One Sustainable Energy Production, Nanotechnology for Energy Production, Elena Serrano , Kunhao Li , Guil...
Nanotechnology in Industries
Nanotechnology in Industries
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Nanotechnology in Industries

Nanotechnology in Industries
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Engineering      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanotechnology in Industries

  • 1. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN INDUSTRIES MADE BY- GUIDED BY- VEDANT PATEL Dr. JAYESH RUPARELIA 13BCH043 Professor
  • 2. OVERVIEW • Introduction. • Nanotech in various Industries. – FOOD INDUSTRY – AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY – OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY – CONSUMER GOOD INDUSTRY – AEROSPACE INDUSTRY – CHEMICAL INDUSTRY – CONSTUCTION INDUSTRY – NANOTECH IN BIOTECH – NANOCOMPOSITES – ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY • Nanotechnology in the energy sector: – Introduction. – Nanotechnology in Energy Production. – Nanotechnology in Energy Saving. – Nanotechnology in Energy Distribution. – Nanotechnology in Energy Storage. • Assessment, Risks and Management of Nanotechnology in industries.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • What is Nanotechnology? • A basic definition: Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. • In other words Nanotechnology is the study, process, and manipulation of material at a molecular level i.e. one of its dimension should lie in the range of 1 to 100 nm.
  • 4. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIES
  • 5. FOOD INDUSTRY • The definition of nanofood is that the nanotechnology techniques or tools are used during cultivation, production, processing or packaging of the food. • The main areas of application are-  CHANGING FOOD CHARACTERISTICS.  FOOD PACKAGING.  FOOD PRODUCTION.  FOOD PROCESSING
  • 6. Image Ref: www.nature.com
  • 7. AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY • The main applications and advances in the agriculture industry are : PRECISION FARMING. NANO DELIVERY SYSTEMS. Image Ref : www.nanobugle.org
  • 8. OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY • The Nanotechnology applications have pierced through different Petroleum disciplines from Exploration, to Reservoir, Drilling, Completion, Production and Processing & Refinery. • The main areas of nanotech application are: SENSORS. COATINGS. NANOMEMBRANES. NANOFLUIDS AND NANOMATERIALS FOR DRILLING AND COMPLETION. Image Ref: http://www.aflglobal.com
  • 9. CONSUMER GOODS INDUSTRY • The main areas of application are : SURFACES AND COATINGS. TEXTILES. COSMETICS. SPORTS. Img ref: http://www.nanotec h-now.com Img ref: http://nanohex.orgImg ref: http://blogs.dickinson.edu Img ref: http://www.itc.polyu.edu.hk
  • 10. AEROSPACE INDUSTRY • The primary development are advantages offered by using various nanomaterials in the place of traditional bulk metals like steel. • The main advances are in: NANOSTRUCTURED METALS. POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES. TRIBOLOGICAL AND ANTI-CORROSION COATINGS. Img ref: http://www.airforce-technology.com
  • 11. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY • The main area of application of nanotech in chemical industry is the catalysis process. • due to the extremely large surface to volume ratio. The application potential of nanoparticles in catalysis ranges from fuel cell to catalytic converters and photocatalytic devices. • Platinum nanoparticles are now being considered in the next generation of automotive catalytic converters. Img ref: http://images.gizmag.com
  • 12. CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY • Nanotechnology has the potential to make construction faster, cheaper, safer, and more varied. • The main advances are in: CEMENT STEEL GLASS Img ref: http://www.european-coatings.com Img ref: http://www.nanotechuniversal.com Img ref: http://www.vanguardwindows.com
  • 13. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOTECHNOLOGY • ADVANTAGES OF NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY: • Drug targeting . • Accumulation at higher concentrations than normal drugs. • Increased permeability . • Selective localization. • Overcoming the presence of blood–brain barrier. • Enhanced drug efficiency.
  • 14. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOTECHNOLOGY (conti.) • DIAGNOSTIC APPLICATIONS: • DETECTION. • INDIVIDUAL TARGET PROBES. • PROTEIN CHIPS. • TOOL IN IMAGING. Image ref: en.wikibooks.org http://www.nanotech.upenn.edu
  • 15. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOTECHNOLOGY (conti.) • THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS: • DRUG DELIVERY. • GENE DELIVERY. • BIOMOLECULAR ENGINEERING. • BIOPHARMACEUTICALS. http://trialx.com
  • 16. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN BIOTECHNOLOGY (conti.) • POTENTIAL HAZARDS: • If ingested, the nanoparticles can reach the circulation and reach different organs and systems and possibly result in toxicity. • CHALLENGES: • Exposure to nano-materials need to be monitored. • To develop applicable methods. • Predicting effects of these nano-materials. • Impact of engineered nano-materials on health. • Properly assess risk to human health.
  • 17. NANOTECH IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS • The key to nanoparticle benefits is this high ratio of surface area to total volume. • The trend in composites has been to use nanomaterials as a kind of “super filler” in polymer resins. • These polymers achieve the same performance properties achieved with traditionally filled resins but with a smaller filler volume fraction. • Other novel beneficial characteristics, such as improved thermal and electrical conductivity or reduced flammability.
  • 18. NANOTECH IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS (conti.) • APPLICATION: • Lubricants and scratch free paints. • New fire retardant materials. • New scratch/abrasion resistant materials. • Superior strength fibers and films. • Food Packaging. • Fuel Tanks. • Environmental Protection. • Flammability Reduction. • Drug delivery systems. • Anti-corrosion barrier coatings. • UV protection gels.
  • 19. NANOTECH IN ELECTRONICS INDUSTRY • Main advances to happen in next few years: • Flexible electronic circuits. • Higher speed data transmission. • Nanomagnets as switches. • Print prototype circuit boards using standard inkjet printers. • Light with much tighter frequency control. • Nanoemmissive" display panel. • Using buckyballs to build dense, low power memory devices.
  • 20. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ENERGY SECTOR
  • 21. WHERE NANOTECHNOLOGY MAY CONTRIBUTE.. Ref: Part One Sustainable Energy Production, Nanotechnology for Energy Production, Elena Serrano , Kunhao Li , Guillermo Rus , and Javier García-Martínez.
  • 22. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENERGY PRODUCTION • Solar Economy. • Hydrogen Economy. • Biofuels. • Thermoelectricity etc..
  • 23. SOLAR ECONOMY • This section deals with the use of nanotechnology in all the energy-related processes that involve the use of solar radiation as an energy source. • Currently the main use of Nanotech is in – Photovoltaic Technology. – Hydrogen Production (Artificial Photosynthesis).
  • 24. PHOTOVOLTAIC TECHNOLOGY • PV (Photo Voltaic) solar cells are devices which produce electricity from the sun radiation by means of the photoelectric effect. • The inclusion of nanoscale components in PV cells leads to – The ability to control the energy band gap provides flexibility and inter-changeability. – Nanostructured materials enhance the effective optical path and significantly decrease the probability of charge recombination. • The use of nanocrystals quantum dots, which are nanoparticles usually made of direct band gap semiconductors, lead to thin film solar cells based on a silicon or conductive transparent oxide (CTO), like Indium-tin-oxide (ITO), substrate with a coating of nanocrystals.
  • 25. Ref: www.azonano.com
  • 26. Ref: www.solartribune.com
  • 27. DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL • O’Regan and Gratzel introduced in 1991 the first nanostructured solar cell namely Gratzel cell or dye- sensitized solar cell, based on Dye-sensitized colloidal titanium dioxide films. • These films were sandwiched between a transparent electrode acting as anode, which is based on a conducting glass, and a platinum electrode, which acts as a catalytic conductor. An electrolyte is placed between the film and the platinum electrode for transportation of the electrons. • In these cells, most of the light absorption takes place in dye molecules, the electrons produced leading to an increase of light harvesting due to the high surface area of the nanoparticles.
  • 28. Ref: www.nanotech-now.com
  • 29. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN HYDROGEN PRODUCTION • PV energy can be used to break water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen via the so-called photocatalytic water electrolysis. It means that solar energy can be directly stored in the form of hydrogen. • For this purpose, a variety of semiconductor nanoparticulated catalyst systems based on CdS, SiC, or TiO2 can be used, the last one being the most promising candidate.
  • 30. Schema of solar water splitting system a composite polycrystalline-Si/doped TiO2 semiconductor thin-film electrode. Ref: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 13 issue 9 2009 2373–2384, E. Serrano et al.
  • 31. HYDROGEN ECONOMY • Hydrogen has a tremendous application in the energy sector as it produces a lot of energy by combustion. One of the most attractive features of hydrogen is that the only product of its combustion is water. • The main existing application of Nanotech in Hydrogen Economy are: – Hydrogen production. – Hydrogen transport and storage. – Fuel Cells.
  • 32. BIOFUELS • U.S. scientists say they are using nanotechnology to improve the cellulosic ethanol processes involved in producing biofuels. • The nanotechnology processes developed at Louisiana Tech University can immobilize the expensive enzymes used to convert cellulose to sugars, allowing them to be reused several times over and, thus significantly reducing the overall cost of the process. Savings estimates range from approximately $32 million for each cellulosic ethanol plant to a total of $7.5 billion. • A new type of membrane, developed by scientists of the University of Twente in The Netherlands, can stand high temperatures for a long period of time. This ‘molecular sieve’ is capable of removing water out of e.g. solvents and biofuels. It is a very energy efficient alternative to existing techniques like distillation.
  • 33. THERMOELECTRICITY • Thermoelectricity (TE), also known as the Peltier– Seebeck effect, refers to the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric potential or vice versa. • Currently, there are two primary areas of research: – (i) Electricity generation from waste heat. – (ii) Thermoelectric refrigeration. • Nanoscaled multilayered bulk materials manufactured by repeated pressing and rolling of alternately stacked thin metallic foils in the Cu–Fe system were synthesized by Shinghu et al. in 2001, who observed a significant change in thermoelectricity depending on the layer thickness. • Recently, Cobalt Antimonide (CoSb3) has been extensively studied because of its promising properties for thermoelectric applications.
  • 34. Structure of solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) based on bulk nanostructured materials. a) STEG cell; b) Schematic illustration of thermal concentration; c) Photograph of a real STEG device. Ref: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 13 issue 9 2009 2373–2384, E. Serrano et al.
  • 35. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENERGY SAVINGS • Energy savings can be achieved in numerous ways, such as improving insulation of residential homes and offices; more efficient lighting; and using lighter and stronger materials to build devices which would then require less energy to operate. Nanotechnologies can potentially be applied to all of these energy-saving materials and technologies. • Main applications Industrially of Nanotech are: – Catalysis. – Advanced materials. – Insulators and ‘smart’ coatings.
  • 36. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENERGY DISTRIBUTION • Replacing current wires with nanoscale transmission wires, called quantum wires (QWs) or armchair QWs, could revolutionize the electrical grid. The electrical conductivity of QW is higher than that of copper at one-sixth the weight, and QW is twice as strong as steel. A grid made up of such transmission wires would have no line losses or resistance. • High-temperature superconductors (HTS) (i.e., substances that become superconducting near liquid nitrogen temperatures [about 77 Kelvin (K)] rather than near liquid helium temperatures [about4 K]) may be developed.
  • 37. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN ENERGY STORAGE • Nanotechnology can also be applied to the field of energy storage. Due to the large surface to volume ratio the storage capacity increases thereby reducing the cost. • Mainly Nanotech in the storage available is: – Ultra capacitors. – Hydrogen Storage.
  • 38. ASSESSMENT, RISKS AND MANAGEMENT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
  • 39. ASSESSMENT Nanoparticles Uses Metal oxides • Silica (SiO2) • Titania (TiO2) • Aluminia (AL2O3) • Iron oxide (Fe3O4, Fe3O3) • Zirconia (ZrO2) • zinc dioxide (ZNO2) • Additives for polymer composites • UV-A protection • Solar cells • Pharmacy /medicine • Additives for scratch resistance coatings Fullerenes • C60 • Mechanical and Tribological applications / additives to grease Carbon Nanotubes • Single-wall carbon nanotubes • Multiwall carbon nanotubes • Additives for polymer composites (mechanical performance, conductivity) • Electronic field emitters • Batteries • Fuel cells Compound Semiconductors • CdTe • GaAs • Electronic an optical devices Organic Nanoparticles • Micronized drugs and chemicals
  • 40. RISKS • Keeping in mind the broad range of applications of nanotechnologies outlined in the previous chapters and the variety of industrial sectors that are affected, it is self-evident, that the nanotechnologies will also form a set of risks. • The assessment to be made of effects of manufactured Nano-Particles are on the Humans and the Environment.
  • 41. EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH • Nanoparticles are acutely toxic when compared to larger particles composed of the same material, such as ultra-fine carbon and diesel exhaust particles respectively. • The main effects are: – Inhalation of nanoparticles. – Ingestion of nanoparticles. – Absorption through skin.
  • 42. EFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT • Some nanoparticles (such as copper or silver) have been shown to be harmful to aquatic life. • Removing nanoparticles from the environment may also present a significant problem due to their small size. Particles could conceivably be absorbed quickly into plants and soil or transported large distances in the air or suspended in water. • Many studies indicate that nanoparticles generally are more toxic than larger particles of the same materials • The biggest concern is that free nanoparticles or nanotubes could be inhaled, absorbed through the skin or ingested.
  • 43. Product Examples Potential release and exposure Cosmetics IV absorbing TiO2 or ZnO2 in sunscreen Directly applied to skin and late washed off. Disposal of containers Fuel additives Cerium oxide additives in the EU Exhaust emission Paints and coatings antibacterial silver nanoparticles coatings and hydrophobic nanocoatings Wear and washing releases the particles or components such as Ag+. Clothing antibacterial silver nanoparticles coatings and hydrophobic nanocoatings Skin absorption; wear and washing releases the particles or components such as Ag+. Electronics Carbon nanotubes are proposed for future use in commercial electronics Disposal can lead to emission Toys and utensils Sports gear made from carbon nanotubes Disposal can lead to emission Combustion processes Ultrafine particles are the result of diesel combustion and many other processes can create nanoscale particles in large quantities. Emission with the exhaust Soil regeneration Nanoparticles are being considered for soil regeneration (see later in this chapter) High local emission and exposure where it is used. Nanoparticle production Production often produces by products that cannot be used (e.g. not all nanotubes are single wall) If the production is not suitably planned, large quantities of nanoparticles could be emitted locally in wastewater and exhaust gasses.
  • 44. RISK MANAGEMENT • Nanotechnology presents both an unprecedented challenge and an unparalleled opportunity for risk management. • The nanotechnology risk assessment dilemma is thus aptly summarized by Kristen Kulinowski, Executive Director of the Center for Biological and Environmental Nanotechnology: “We are in this awkward middle territory where we have just enough information to think there is an issue, but not enough information to really inform policymakers about what to do about it”.
  • 45. RISK MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES • The three most common traditional models for risk management of hazardous agents are: – Acceptable risk. – Cost-benefit analysis. – Feasibility (or best available technology).
  • 46. THE PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE • Often summarized by the phrase “Better safe than Sorry.” • Given the massive uncertainty about nanotechnology risks, this technology might appear to be an ideal candidate for application of the precautionary principle. • The main disadvantages are: – It is too poorly defined to serve as a decision making rule. – What level of risk is acceptable.
  • 47. REGULATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY • In 2009, EPA began work on a TSCA regulation that would be applicable to all nanoscale materials. • It would have two components: – Significant New Use Rule – Information reporting rule.
  • 48. NANOMATERIAL SIGNIFICANT NEW USE RULE • The anticipated SNUR would be applicable to any use of a nanoscale material. For new uses, the rule would require: – Importers, manufacturers, and processors to submit a dossier (a “significant new use notice” or “SNUN”) to EPA detailing how the nanomaterial substance would be manufactured and used by the proponent and its downstream customers. – The SNUN would have to be submitted at least 90 days prior to any new use of a nanomaterial. EPA would conduct a risk assessment of that use, and could then choose to ban or restrict the use under an order, or compel testing. – The user would be obligated to notify EPA before exporting the material, and required to keep records. – Based recent EPA SNURs for new nanomaterials, the restriction might tightly bind the user to a particular use of the material, restrict the user to material made by a particular manufacturer, and require a submission of a new SNUN and new 90-day review period if there were any changes. – The SNUR might also require the user to have its customers enter into a parallel order with EPA, at least for 12 or 18 months until EPA issued a regulation imposing those restrictions.
  • 49. NANOMATERIAL INFORMATION COLLECTION RULE • Coupled with the nanomaterial SNUR, EPA is also poised to issue a TSCA section 8(a) information collection rule applicable to all existing nanoscale materials. • EPA has great flexibility is determine the extent of the information to be collected on manufacturing, processing, use and exposure. • In this case, it appears EPA anticipates very significant information collection efforts by industry as it estimates each response will require nearly 160 man hours to complete. • EPA would use that information to identify existing uses that may present risks warranting future EPA regulation. • EPA also would use the information responses to inventory all existing commercial uses of nanomaterials. • Any use not identified in the ‘inventory’ presumably would be deemed to be a “new use” and prohibited unless first notified to EPA under the nanomaterial SNUR.
  • 50. CURRENT STATUS OF THE NANOMATERIAL INFORMATION COLLECTION RULE AND SNUR • The combined rule has been delayed. • EPA submitted a draft of the proposed rule to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in the White House for review in late 2010, but it has not yet been returned. • While such a long review is unusual, EPA sources confirm that discussions between EPA and OMB are continuing.
  • 51. REFERENCES • M.H. Fulekar, Nanotechnology Importance and Application, I.K. International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. (FULEKAR, 2010) • The promises of food nanotechnology, http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=1846.php , 28-Jan-15 8:30 PM • Food Tech International. The application of Nanotechnology in the food industry, https://www.foodtech- international.com/papers/application-nano.htm Nanotechnology in agriculture, http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=37064.php, 28-Jan-15 8:34 PM. • Cocuzza Matteo, Pirri Candido, Rocca Vera and Verga Francesca, Current and Future Nanotech Applications in the Oil Industry, American Journal of Applied Sciences 9 (6): 784-793, 2012 ISSN 1546-9239 © 2012 Science Publications. • V.I Beklemyshev and I.I Makhonin , Nanomaterials and Coating with antimicrobial properties, Encyclopedia of Life Support (EOLSS). • Nanotechnology in Textiles, http://www.textileworld.com/Issues/2010/November-December/Nonwovens- Technical_Textiles/Nanotechnology_In_Textiles , 29-Jan-15 5:32 AM • Nanotechnology in sports equipment: The game changer, http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=30661.php , 29-Jan-15 5:33 AM • Nanotechnology in Aerospace Materials, http://www.azonano.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=3103, 28-Jan-15 8:43 PM. • NANOTECHNOLOGY IN AEROSPACE, http://www.academia.edu/6781200/NANOTECHNOLOGY_IN_AEROSPACE, 28-Jan-15 8:47 PM • The Essential Chemistry Industry online, http://www.essentialchemicalindustry.org/materials-and-applications/nanomaterials.html, • 28-Jan-15 8:49 PM. • Nanotechnology optimizes catalyst systems, http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=2680.php, 28-Jan-15 8:50 PM. • Nanotechnology in the Construction Industry, http://www.nanowerk.com/nanotechnology-in-construction-industry.php, 28-Jan-15 8:54 PM. • Nanotechnology in construction, http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/spotid=26700.php , 29-Jan-15 5:35 AM • Md Fakruddin, Zakir Hossain and Hafsa Afroz, Prospects and applications of Nanobiotechnology: a medical perspective, Journal of Nanobiotechnology 2012 doi:10.1186/1477-3155-10-31. • Commercial Applications of Nanotechnology in Materials, Composites. http://www.azonano.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=1059 , 29- Jan-15 6:15 AM • Nanotechnology in Electronics: Nanoelectronics. http://www.understandingnano.com/nanotechnology-electronics.html, 29-Jan-15 6:22 AM.
  • 52. REFERENCES• Part One Sustainable Energy Production, Nanotechnology for Energy Production, Elena Serrano , Kunhao Li , Guillermo Rus , and Javier García-Martínez. • Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Volume 13 issue 9 2009 2373–2384, E. Serrano et al. • Nanotechnology-Enabled Energy Harvesting for Self- Powered Micro-/Nanosystems, Zhong Lin Wang and Wenzhuo Wu , Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012. • Nanotechnologies Principles, Applications, Implications and Hands-on Activities A compendium for educators, EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-General for Research and Innovation Industrial technologies (NMP). • Nanotechnology Applications In The Energy Sector, Priya G. Deshmukh Prof. S.S. Katariya, International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 2, Issue3, March-2013 1 ISSN 2278-7763. • Opportunities and risks of Nanotechnologies, Allianz AG in co-operation with the OECD International Futures Programme. • Nanotechnology Recent developments, risks And opportunities, Lloyd’s emerging risks team report. • Risk Assessment of Products of Nanotechnologies, Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). • Essentials of Nanotechnology, Jeremy Ramsden. • Recent Developments in Nanotechnology and Risk Assessment Strategies for Addressing Public and Environmental Health Concerns, Niall O'Brien & Enda Cummins, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 14:3, 568-592. • Risk Management Principles for Nanotechnology, Gary E. Marchant, Douglas J. Sylvester and Kenneth W. Abbott, Nanoethics (2008) 2:43–60 DOI 10.1007/s11569-008-0028-9 • Nanotechnology Regulation – EPA Developing Rule to Regulate All New Uses of Engineered Nanoscale Materials: http://www.environmentalleader.com/2013/07/25/nanotechnology-regulation-epa-developing-rule-to-regulate-all-new-uses-of-engineered nanoscale-materials/ 19-Apr-15 3:47:13 PM.

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