POLITICAL SCIENCE
1
THE TAMIL NADU NATIONAL LAW SCHOOL
POLITICAL SCIENCE PROJECT
ON
POLITICS OF RESERVATION
SUBMITTED TO
P...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
2
DECLARATION
I do hereby declare that the project entitled “POLITICS OF
RESERVATION” submitted to Tamil...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgements ………………4
Introduction ………………5
Meaning of Reservation ………………6
History...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
4
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to sincerely thank my Political Science teacher
Dr.Subba Rao for giving ...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
5
INTRODUCTION
India is a huge country with a massive population of over 1.2 billion people
residing in ...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
6
MEANING OF RESERVATION
Reservation in India is a form of affirmative action designed to improve the we...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
7
HISTORY OF RESERVATION IN INDIA
The idea of caste based reservation system was envisioned by William H...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
8
MANDAL COMMISSION
The Mandal Commission was established in India in 1979 by the Janata Party
governmen...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
9
Assuming that a child from an advanced class family and that of a backward class family
had the same i...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
10
The report of the commission was submitted in December 1980. The following are the
recommendations as...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
11
BENEFICIARY GROUPS OF RESERVATION
Enrolment in educational institutions and job placements are reserv...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
12
of providing preferential treatment to women to create a level playing field for all of its
citizens....
POLITICAL SCIENCE
13
 Sports personalities.
 Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) have a small fraction of reserved seats in educ...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
14
WHAT THE CONSTITUTION SAYS
India’s constitution guarantees “equal rights.”
Article 14 says that “The ...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
15
UNFAIR,UNEQUAL SYSTEM
Since the introduction of reservation system in India, a lot of controversy
has...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
16
The only argument that momentarily arrests our attention is the equalisation concept.In
our opinion i...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
17
JUDICIAL INTERPRETATION
Whereas it is true that 60 years ago almost all the families of certain commu...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
18
Thus two conditions have to be satisfied:
 The class of citizens is backward
 The said class is not...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
19
VOTE BANK POLITICS
According to Article 334 of the Constitution lays down that the provisions of the
...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
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were weaker and exploited,but after so many years of Independence the same criteria of
caste does not...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
21
CONSEQUENCES OF RESERVATION
 In the Higher Education institutes and Government Bodies reserved categ...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
22
provided to them. How long can they be deprived of their rights in order to
promote the interests of ...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
23
CAN MERIT REPLACE CASTE?
When we think of a an alternative to the caste based reservation system, mer...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
24
SUGGESTIONS
To remove this evil it suggested the following:
 Make education mandatory and free for a...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
25
inescapable need for preserving merit at a time when India’s position in world economy
and science an...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
26
CONCLUSION
Reservation is not a complete or even a real solution of the problems of Scheduled Castes
...
POLITICAL SCIENCE
27
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTERNET SOURCES
www.wikipedia.com
www.slideshare.net
www.quora.com
http://www.shareyour...
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Politics of Reservation

This document brings about how the Indian reservation system functions and the consequences it brings.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Politics of Reservation

  • 1. POLITICAL SCIENCE 1 THE TAMIL NADU NATIONAL LAW SCHOOL POLITICAL SCIENCE PROJECT ON POLITICS OF RESERVATION SUBMITTED TO Prof. DR. SUBBA RAO VEDAVALLI.S SEMESTER 1 ROLL NO:BA0140073
  • 2. POLITICAL SCIENCE 2 DECLARATION I do hereby declare that the project entitled “POLITICS OF RESERVATION” submitted to Tamil Nadu National Law School in partial fulfilment of the requirement of the award of the degree of BA.,LLB is a record of original work done by me under the supervision and guidance of Prof. Dr.SUBBA RAO (mentor) Political Science department of Tamil Nadu National Law School,Trichy and that has not formed the basis for the award of any degree or diploma or fellowship or any other title to any candidate of any university.
  • 3. POLITICAL SCIENCE 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements ………………4 Introduction ………………5 Meaning of Reservation ………………6 History of Reservation in India ……………….7 Mandal Commission ……………….8 Beneficiary groups of Reservation ……………….11 What the Constitution says ……………….14 Unfair, Unequal System ……………….15 Judicial Interpretation ……………….17 Vote Bank Politics ………………..19 Consequences of Reservation ………………..21 Can merit replace caste? ………………..23 Suggestions ………………..24 Conclusion ………………...26 Bibliography …………………27
  • 4. POLITICAL SCIENCE 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to sincerely thank my Political Science teacher Dr.Subba Rao for giving me this topic and guiding me through out the project. Through this research project I have learned a lot about the aforesaid topic and this in turn has helped me grow as a student . I also thank my parents and friends for their precious inputs which have been very helpful in the completion of this project.
  • 5. POLITICAL SCIENCE 5 INTRODUCTION India is a huge country with a massive population of over 1.2 billion people residing in it. It comprises of people from different ethnicity and religion. There is also a rigid caste system prevailing in the country. We live in a free country and this freedom is a gift of democracyto us. Our constitution gives us the right to freedom and most importantly to exercise this freedom in an equitable manner. At the same time it is incumbent on the part of the state to ensure that equality prevails in all sections of the society. However in today’s time one of the major roadblocks to this equality is the Reservation System. India being a developing nation is currently facing many challenges and the reservation system being one of them. The biggest question that lies in front of us is whether implementing this reservation system has really helped the downtrodden? The current scenario clearly depicts that the ‘lower’ castes are still discriminated in their daily lives. To uproot casteism it is important that we fight the reservation system which alone will lead us to development, competency, equality and unity. Firstly we need to understand that the reservation system only divides the society leading to discrimination and conflicts between different sections. It is oppressiveand does not find its basis in casteism. It is actually the antithesis of a communal living. The main objective of the Indian reservation system is to increase the opportunities for enhanced social and educational status (in the sense better than the previous—until it becomes equal to that enjoyed by an average member of other communities) of the underprivileged communities and, thus, enable them to take their rightful place in the mainstream of Indian society.
  • 6. POLITICAL SCIENCE 6 MEANING OF RESERVATION Reservation in India is a form of affirmative action designed to improve the well-being of perceived backward and under-represented communities defined primarily by their 'caste' (quota-system based on 'gender' or 'religion') is a phenomenon that commenced with the coming into force of the Indian Constitution. What is a “caste”? "Caste" is the term used to describe the complex system of social divisions that pervades life in India. Caste is an ancient hereditary system that developed alongside and became intertwined with Hinduism. Caste determines whom a personcan marry, specifies what kind of work he can do, and even controls what he can eat or touch. Since the great majority of Indians are Hindu, the caste system has played an enormous role in the history of India, and it continues to exert tremendous influence on modern Indian culture and politics. The reservation system finds its origin in the age-old caste system of India. The caste system at its birth was meant to divide people on the basis of their occupation like teaching and preaching (Brahmins), kingship and war (Kshatriya) and lastly business(vaish) etc. but soonit became an instrument to divide the society on caste-basis, creating various walls between different sections of the society. Today we stand divided widely into Hindu, Muslim, SC, ST & OBCs with newer reservations coming up for other different sections of the society like Christians, Kashmiris, Jats, Kashmiri Pandits, Tribals etc.
  • 7. POLITICAL SCIENCE 7 HISTORY OF RESERVATION IN INDIA The idea of caste based reservation system was envisioned by William Hunter and Jyotirao Phule in various forms in 1882.The Hunter Commission was appointed. Phule made a demand of free and compulsoryeducation for all along with proportionate representation in government jobs.TheHunter Commission was implemented by the Maharaja of Kolhapur in Maharashtra , Chatrapati Sahuji Maharaj in 1902.He introduced reservation in supportof backward classes to wipe out poorquality of their life by providing them opportunity in the state government.He was the first king in India to implement Reservation Policy. After India obtained Independence, Dr.Ambedkar was appointed chairman of the drafting committee for Indian Constitution. The idea was that a vast majority of the poor were from a very small caste group and they needed a social net so that they can be accommodated into society as full fledged members. It is important to note that this part of the reservation was for electoral rights first (to guarantee political representation - PoonaAct ‘35) and a education/job rights issue second. Also note that education was made free in these early attempts so that poverty does not hinder their education by these early efforts. If not for Dr.Ambedkar's efforts, even this would not have come through during Independence. Ambedkar remains an icon for minority causes even today and is revered becauseof this. In 1990 Mandal commission recommendations were implemented by Vishwanath Pratap Singh that a fixed quota of all jobs in the public sectorbe reserved for the historically disadvantaged classes of the society. It provoked nationwide public wrath in 1990.At present we have a reservation system with a percentage distribution of Scheduled Castes – 15% Scheduled Tribes – 7.5% Other Backward Classes (OBC) – 27% Total reservation – 49.5% General (Open to all including SC/ST and OBC) – 50.5%
  • 8. POLITICAL SCIENCE 8 MANDAL COMMISSION The Mandal Commission was established in India in 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to "identify the socially or educationally backward. It was headed by Indian parliamentarian B.P. Mandal to consider the question of seat reservations and quotas for people to redress caste discrimination, and used eleven social, economic, and educational indicators to determine backwardness. In 1980, the commission's report affirmed the affirmative action practice under Indian law whereby members of lower castes (known as Other Backward Classes (OBC), Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST)) were given exclusive access to a certain portion of government jobs and slots in public universities, and recommended changes to these quotas, increasing them by 27% to 49.5%. Setting up of Mandal Commission The plan to set up another commission was taken by the Morarji Desai government in 1978 as per the mandate of the under article 340 for the purpose of Articles like 15 and 16. The decision was made official by the president on 1 January 1979. The commission is popularly known as the Mandal Commission with its chairman being B.P. Mandal. Observations and findings The commission estimated that 54% of the total population (excluding SCs and STs), belonging to 3,743 different castes and communities, were ‘backward’. Figures of caste- wise population are not available beyond. So the commission used 1931 census data to calculate the number of OBCs. The population of Hindu OBCs was derived by subtracting from the total population of Hindus, the population of SC and ST and that of forward Hindu castes and communities, and it worked out to be 52 per cent.Assuming that roughly the proportionof OBCs amongst non-Hindus was of the same order as amongst the Hindus, the population of non-Hindu OBCs was considered as 52 per cent.
  • 9. POLITICAL SCIENCE 9 Assuming that a child from an advanced class family and that of a backward class family had the same intelligence at the time of their birth, it is obvious that owing to vast differences in social, cultural and environmental factors, the former will beat the latter by lengths in any competitive field. Even if an advanced class child's intelligence quotient was much lower compared to the child of backward class, chances are that the former will still beat the latter in any competition where selection is made on the basis of 'merit'. In fact, what we call 'merit' in an elitist society is an amalgam of native endowments and environmental privileges. A child from an advanced class family and that of a backward class family are not 'equals' in any fair sense of the term and it will be unfair to judge them by the same yard-stick. The conscienceof a civilised society and the dictates of social justice demand that 'merit' and 'equality' are not turned into a fetish and the element of privilege is duly recognised and discounted for when 'unequal' are made to run the same race. To place the amalgams of open caste conflicts in properhistorical context, the study done by Tata institute of Social Sciences Bombay observes. “TheBritish rulers produced many structural disturbances in the Hindu caste structure, and these were contradictory in nature and impact …. Thus, the various impacts of the British rule on the Hindu caste system, viz., near monopolisation of jobs, education and professions by the literati castes, the Western concepts of equality and justice undermining the Hindu hierarchical dispensation, the phenomenon of Sanskritization, gentle reform movement from above and militant reform movements from below, emergence of the caste associations with a new role set the stage for the caste conflicts in modern India. Two more ingredients which were very weak in the British period, viz., politicisation of the masses and universal adult franchise, became powerful moving forces after the Independence.
  • 10. POLITICAL SCIENCE 10 The report of the commission was submitted in December 1980. The following are the recommendations as stated in the report: “It may appear the upliftment of Other Backward Classes is part of the larger national problem of the removal of mass poverty. This is only partially correct. The deprivation of OBCs is a very special case of the larger national issue: here the basic question is that of social and educational backwardness and poverty is only a direct consequenceof these two crippling caste-based handicaps. As these handicaps are embedded in our social structure, their removal will require far – reaching structural changes. No less important will be changes in the perception of the problems of OBCs by the ruling classes of the country.” Protests against Mandal Commission A decade after the commission gave its report, V.P. Singh, the Prime Minister at the time, tried to implement its recommendations in 1989. The criticism was sharp and colleges across the country held massive protests against it. Soonafter, Rajiv Goswami, student of Delhi University(Deshbandhu College), committed self-immolation in protestof the government's actions. His act further sparked a series of self-immolations by other college students and led to a formidable movement against job reservations for Backward Castes in India. He died at age 33 in a hospital in New Delhi on February 24, 2004. His death was due to complications due to his self immolation 14 years earlier. First student to die due to self-immolation was Surinder Singh Chauhan on 24 Sep 1990. He left a suicide note stating that "The responsibility for my death lies with those people who consider reservation a vote bank,people like V.P. Paswan, Yadav .…..”
  • 11. POLITICAL SCIENCE 11 BENEFICIARY GROUPS OF RESERVATION Enrolment in educational institutions and job placements are reserved based on a variety of criteria. The quota system sets aside a proportion of all possible positions for members of a specific group. Thosenot belonging to the designated communities can compete only for the remaining positions, while members of the designated communities can compete for all positions (both reserved and open). For example, when 1 out of 10 clerical positions in railways are reserved for ex-servicemen, those who have served in the Army can compete both in the "General Category" as well as in the specific quota. Seats are reserved for people under the following criteria:  Caste  Gender  Religion  State of Domicile  ManagementQuota Caste We almost follow a reservation system based on caste primarily.The people belonging to the castes of OBC,SC,STenjoy this facility.The percentage of reservation varies from state to state in India. Caste is decided based on birth, and can never be changed.A person can change his religion, and his economic status can fluctuate, the caste is permanent. Gender In India there is always a misperception of women’s abilities for many years. Recent research on the quota system has revealed that it has changed perceptions of women’s abilities, improved women’s electoral chances, and raised aspirations and educational attainment for adolescent girls. There is a long-term plan to extend this reservation to parliament and legislative assemblies. Forinstance, some law schools in India have a 30% reservation for females. Progressive political opinion in India is strongly in favour
  • 12. POLITICAL SCIENCE 12 of providing preferential treatment to women to create a level playing field for all of its citizens.In 1993, a constitutional amendment in India called for a random one third of village council leader, or pradhan, positions in gram panchayat to be reserved for women. The Women's Reservation Bill was passed by the Rajya Sabha on 9 March 2010 by a majority vote of 186 members in favour and 1 against. As of March 2013, the Lok Sabha has not voted on the bill. Critics say gender cannot be held as a basis for reservation alone other factors should also be considered e.g. economic, social conditions of woman candidate especially when applying reservation for educated women. There also is a growing demand for women reservation in pre-existing reservations like OBC, SC/ST, Physically handicapped etc. Some feminist groups still demand that reservation for women should be at least 50% as they comprise 50% of the population. Religion Reservation has also been extended to religious minorities. Government says that this sub-quotais based on the backwardness of the religious communities and not on the religions themselves. State of Domicile Most of jobs under state government are reserved to those who are domiciles under that government. There are also some seats reserved for the Jammu and Kashmir 'migrants' in every Government-aided educational institute. Management Quota It is a quota based on economic status irrespective of caste, race and religion; anybody who has money can buy his/her seat. Other Criteria  Sons / Daughters / Grandsons / Granddaughters of Freedom Fighters.  Physically handicapped.
  • 13. POLITICAL SCIENCE 13  Sports personalities.  Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) have a small fraction of reserved seats in educational institutions. They have to pay more fees and pay in foreign currency.  Seat reservation for Senior citizens/ PH in Public Bus transport  Terrorist victims from Kashmir, e.g. in Punjab  Single Girl-Child (in Punjab)  Migrants from the state of Jammu and Kashmir  Candidates sponsoredbyvarious organisations  Thosewho have served in the armed forces ('ex-serviceman' quota—becausethe age of superannuation in the Military Service is much shorter than that in the Civil posts;more so, certain intakes are tenure-based, e.g. the contractfor Short-Service Commission is merely 8 years)  Dependents of armed forces personnel killed-in-action  Repatriates  Reservation in special schools of Government Undertakings/ PSUs, for the children of their own employees (e.g. Army schools, PSU schools, etc.)  Paid pathway reservations in places of worship (e.g., Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, Tiruthani Murugan (Balaji) temple)
  • 14. POLITICAL SCIENCE 14 WHAT THE CONSTITUTION SAYS India’s constitution guarantees “equal rights.” Article 14 says that “The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.” Article 15 prohibits discrimination against any citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, etc. Article 16 guarantees equality of opportunity in matters of public employment, etc. At the same time, the constitution provides for a “reservation system.” Article 46 says “The state shall promote with special care the education and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular of the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes, and shall protectthem from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.” India’s reservation system contradicts it’s own constitution’s promise of “equal rights”
  • 15. POLITICAL SCIENCE 15 UNFAIR,UNEQUAL SYSTEM Since the introduction of reservation system in India, a lot of controversy has been attached to it. There are people who are in favor or quota system and considerit a positive step towards making education accessible among the masses without any discrimination. The students of these castes and groups have always had difficulties in attaining education with normal people in normal institutes which is why they lag behind. They have an equal right for education and quota system is a medium which gives them a fair chance to stand in the queue and prove their worth and talent against students of upper castes and majority.Allocating quotas is a form of discrimination which is contrary to the right to equality. People who opposequotasystem state that they believe in merit and reservation is killing merit and true deserving candidates. Because a certain percentage of seats are already allotted to candidates who do not even meet the criteria, it creates a disadvantage for the deserving candidates who have worked hard all year and scored good marks but could not get admission because of shortage of seats. This has a ripple effect in the entire education system and the economy. If the actually potential candidates would not be given a fair chance to attain higher education, then quality graduates would not be produced in the market that could compete on international level. A poolof talented candidates may also leave the country and go to other countries for higher studies. The debate against or in favor of reservation or quota system is ongoing. Each group has their own fears and reservations which derives them in favor or against this system. It has also been politicize and sensationalized by the media and politicians. Everyone has their vested interests in it. But the future of the youth and upcoming generations is at stake. Exposing the students of underprivileged group to a highly competitive higher education system is unfair to them. They should be provided a fair chance for competing against normal students by setting up an educational infrastructure which accommodates them. Schools and colleges should be established for them that have regional accreditation. They should meet the criteria of quality education. This would prepare them for a fair chance at higher education.
  • 16. POLITICAL SCIENCE 16 The only argument that momentarily arrests our attention is the equalisation concept.In our opinion it violates the equal opportunity guarantee of the Constitution.In developing country like India, backward areas or bad pockets are no monopoly of any State or even a single region in a State. The scientific solution to this problem is to impart special coaching to students from the schoollevel and really lift them up to the expected standard. In the Indian scenario, it resembles the story of “The Wolf and the Lamb” in Aesops Fables.“If you were not born at that time”, said the Wolf, “it must have been your father”, and proceeded to gobble up the Lamb. The fundamental law is forgotten that … “none should be punished for the supposedor actual sins of the ancestors.” For how long the sins (i.e. the discrimination practised by them) of the generations of the forefathers in the higher castes should be expiated by the future generations.
  • 17. POLITICAL SCIENCE 17 JUDICIAL INTERPRETATION Whereas it is true that 60 years ago almost all the families of certain communities were backward but presently backwardness and poverty are not restricted to communities. Mandate provided by express words of Constitution through Article 16,46 and 335 has been ignored.There were many suits filed because of this policy.Some of them were 1)M.R. Balaji v. State of Mysore, AIR 1963 SC 649. 2)T. Devdasan v. Union of India, AIR 1964 SC 179. 3)State of Kerala v. N.M. Thomas, AIR 1976 SC 490. 4)A.B.S.K. Sangh v. Union of India, AIR 1981 SC 298. 5)M.Nagaraj v. Union of India, (2006)8 SCC 212. In a fee disparity case “D.P. JoshiVs State of Madhya Bharat” (AIR 1955 SC 334), No capitation fee was collected for bonafide resident of M.B students and all other students who were not having domicile of Madhya Bharat were charged capitation fees which was Rs. 1300 for nominees and Rs. 1500 for other state students.This rule was violative of Art. 14 and 15. S.C held that this rule was not discriminatory. Article 15(4) of our constitution empowers the government to make special provisions for advancement of backward classes. Similarly Article 16 provides for equality of opportunity in matters of employment or appointment to any postunder the State. “Clause 2 of article 16 lays down that no citizen on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them be discriminated in respect of any employment or office under the State.” However clause 4 of the same article provides for an exception by conferring a certain kind of power on the government: “it empowers the state to make special provision for the reservation of appointments of posts in favour of any backward class of citizens which in the opinion of the state are not adequately represented in the services”
  • 18. POLITICAL SCIENCE 18 Thus two conditions have to be satisfied:  The class of citizens is backward  The said class is not adequately represented. In a case Balajiv/s State of Mysore (AIR 1963 SC649) it was held that ‘casteof a personcannot be the sole criteria for ascertaining whether a particular caste is backward or not. Determinants such as poverty, occupation, place of habitation may all be relevant factors to be taken into consideration. The court further held that it does not mean that if once a caste is considered to be backward it will continue to be backward for all other times. The government should review the test and if a class reaches the state of progress where reservation is not necessary it should delete that class from the list of backward classes.’ What is surprising is that our constitution clearly is a reservation-friendly constitution but nowhere in the constitution is the term ‘backward classes defined. What actually constitutes a backward class? What are the determinants of a backward class? These questions remain unanswered and it is only with the help of judicial pronouncements that they have been given some meaning. Question arises how can reservations be made for something that has not been defined?
  • 19. POLITICAL SCIENCE 19 VOTE BANK POLITICS According to Article 334 of the Constitution lays down that the provisions of the Constitution relating to the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes and the representation of the Anglo-Indian community by nomination in the House of the People and the Legislative Assemblies of the States shall cease to have effect on the expiration of the period of sixty years from the commencement of the Constitution. In other words, these provisions will cease to have effect on the 25th January 2010, if not extended further. The Ninety-fifth Amendment of the Constitution of India, officially known as The Constitution (Ninety-fifth Amendment) Act, 2009, extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and representation of the Anglo- Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies for another ten years, i.e. up to 26 January 2020.Article 334 of the Constitution had originally required the reservation of seats to cease in 1960, but this was extended to 1970 by the 8th Amendment. The period of reservation was extended to 1980, 1990,2000 and 2010 by the 23rd, 45th, 62nd and 79th Amendments respectively. The 95th Amendment extended the period of reservation to 2020. The politicians are not ready to enforce this article strictly as it may result in a loss of vote banks for them. The political laloos and babus think of the reservation policy mainly because most of the upper-castes do not take real interest in the political process of voting. In view of this either some-one else misuse their votes or the voting right is simply wasted.Thus their votes depend on the middle and lower castes.No political party is ready to stop this system. In simple words, this means that reservation is a bait to lure the consolidated votes of backward classes whose numbers are too big to be ignored. Our preamble of the Indian Constitution says that India is “sovereign, socialist,secular,democratic,republic”,then how can the caste system prevail and consequently reservations? Today,this evil system persists and plays a vital role in the society as the major weapon for vote bank politics.The whole perspective of Mandal Commission regarding reservations are gradually being extended and expanded to sections of people,demanding reservations within reservations.The initial condition of reservation was acceptable since at the time of Independence these SC/ST communities
  • 20. POLITICAL SCIENCE 20 were weaker and exploited,but after so many years of Independence the same criteria of caste does not make sense.This has just been used as political puppet.Itis purely for political mileage. I am not against a low caste/tribe individual taking good professionbut as professional education, only right candidate should move up. If one really evaluate the requirements, the marks in exam reflects a student’s grit and determination in doing his work/career. If admissions are to be done for lower marks, because of caste certificates, will the system turn-out better dedicated doctors. Even in IITs, there are many candidates who leave the curriculum in the middle since they could not withstand the arduous learning process. Insuch a case why waste the opportunity of those who are really eligible for professional studies. No Indian youth, whatever be his caste, will be barred from entry on the basis of merit, to any of our prestigious centers of learning if the Government seriously considers a qualitative improvement right from the primary schoolstage. Let us go to the roots: once you take care of the roots, the plant will be healthy and will have durable, intrinsic worth. Let the Government take care of the child at the start and he or she can compete on his own terms.
  • 21. POLITICAL SCIENCE 21 CONSEQUENCES OF RESERVATION  In the Higher Education institutes and Government Bodies reserved category people are given the relaxations, which results in admission of people who have lower aggregate percentage of marks bothin academics & competitive exams.  The Financial and social status of the reserved category people is increasing, and well supported bythe government.  People mainly the students of various education institutes were started protesting against the Mandal Commission in form of closed roads, highways, transportation services, government services, schools, and businesses of India. About 150 students were attempted self-immolation throughout India.  The population of reserved category community has increased through the years since 1990, though the government still has not made any policy and official statistics of Indian population based on caste, which are still pending to be released to the public. The combined population of Indians is increasing as always.  Several Unreserved or General category communities has started demanding reservation for them, these communities which include (Gujars, Jats of State of Haryana, Seers, etc.). Jats have got Backward status now despite being economically and politically dominant in Haryana.  Some philosophers believe that Indian has lost its pacefor the development due to the reservation in India, since more capable persons were not offered the places which they deserved on the bases of acts done in past.  Some think that reservation in India is not good for society since the people were still remain divided among themselves due to the increase and decrease of Financial and Social status in the society.  Reservation policy which was designed to be a temporary supporthas turned out to be permanent crutches and is the biggest obstacle in achieving the cherished goal of equality.  There are people from other communities who are deprived of jobs despite of the merit and qualifications they possess. Theymight not be economically or socially well off. In such a scenario, what is the fate of the Constitutional guarantees
  • 22. POLITICAL SCIENCE 22 provided to them. How long can they be deprived of their rights in order to promote the interests of other communities.  Caste disparities which were forgotten in the struggle for Independence came back with a bang due to reservation policy, judgments of the Supreme Court and the reports of the various Commissions This policy has strengthened the caste system instead of removing the inequalities prevalent in the society due to the caste system.  People strive to be declared as backward just to avail the benefits of the reservation policies. So, instead of promoting equality it has started a new battle between various communities to be declared as backward and to avail the endless benefits which follow.  Also the reservation system in India is creating a workforce which is not capable enough to compete at the global level. India needs people for growth and development but reservation is adding undeserving candidates as well. So I think reservation system should be demolished and if the government really wants to uplift the underprivileged sections of the society then a well-balanced policies should be formulated.  People have started misusing it. There are many examples of people making false documents just to get a seat in a college or a job. This leaves the more eligible candidate to give their seat to a personbelonging to a reserve category.
  • 23. POLITICAL SCIENCE 23 CAN MERIT REPLACE CASTE? When we think of a an alternative to the caste based reservation system, merit pops up in our mind. Todaywhen a student applies for an admission in any university, the admission forms are filled with questions like ‘Are you SC/ST or OBC or General Category?’ How does it matter which category does he belong to, what matters is his merit. A category cannot decide whether he is eligible for admission or not. There many economically worse off children belonging to the forward classes but they cannot get the fruits of such reservation merely by virtue of belonging to the ‘general’ category. Sometimes these children belonging to the backward classes do not even deserve and still possessthe necessary merit as against a child who studied very hard for months to get a seat, thereby snatching away that seat just because he comes from a particular religion or caste for which our government provides reservation. Many students don’tmake it to the institutes because of the economic reasons and those who do not fall in the reservation criteria donnot get a fair opportunity too. But for a person to achieve merit he needs to be educated properly.But most of the classes do not have the financial aid to get educated properly. The boys and girls who reach the top have not becomebrilliant overnight; the foundation of the legend power of these extraordinary brilliant students would have been laid right from the primary school stage.Years of sustained effort could alone raise them to the pinnacles of excellence. Can the government provide such kind of education right from below for every citizen — the SCs, STs backward classes, other backward classes and bulk of the pooramong the so called ‘forward communities’? Then there will be no need for any reservation. Thus caste should be replaced by the financial status of the people and not by merit.
  • 24. POLITICAL SCIENCE 24 SUGGESTIONS To remove this evil it suggested the following:  Make education mandatory and free for all till age of 15  Proposereservation based on economic status  Provide opportunity to students to earn while they study. Instead of introducing reservations for these backward classes what is required is to bring about revolutionary changes in our education system at the grass-rootlevel. When proper education is not provided to children belonging to such categories during the primary stage itself then on what basis are the reservations provided at a subsequent stage. Reservations on the basis of caste and not on the basis of condition are bad and unacceptable. Fair and just reservations to uplift the people with poorconditions of life, those who don’thave meals to eat, clothes to wear and no home to live in. They shall be made on the basis of factors such as gender as women are more disadvantaged than men since primitive times, domicile, family education, family employment, family property, family income and if any disabilities and traumas. The process ofreservation should be such that it filters the truly economically deprived individuals and bring them all to justice. We don’tneed reservations based on castes or religion but only to actually provide aid to those who have minimal resources; and merit should be given equal and due importance in admission procedures as well employment opportunities. This way we would be successfulin removing caste discrimination and unite the economically rich together in helping the economically poor, irrespective of their castes. The Government can tie up with the coaching centers bearing part of the tuition fees for the student’s frown weaker sections. Once they are empowered to compete along with their peers from the socially upward class the social divide would become meaningless. There is need for a national consensus on the burning issue of reservation as it affects all sections of the people — castewise, classwise — and because of the
  • 25. POLITICAL SCIENCE 25 inescapable need for preserving merit at a time when India’s position in world economy and science and technology is increasingly being recognized. Avoidance of fragmentary approachwithin our country and focus on merit- based selection constitutes definite advantage of this approachis also suggested.Emphasis should be given to uniform primary and secondary education so that groups under- represented in higher education institutes and workplaces become natural competitors.Government should announce long term plan to phase out regional reservation.
  • 26. POLITICAL SCIENCE 26 CONCLUSION Reservation is not a complete or even a real solution of the problems of Scheduled Castes or the Backward Classes. What is more important is their economic and educational upliftment which can be achieved only by increasing merit and not merely by providing for reservations.Without merit which comes in the form of education they are not in a position to utilize the opportunity being given to them under the scheme of affirmative action. Reservation should be provided when even after equal merit they are unable to enter into services due to some kind of discrimination or disability.Reservation as a means of affirmative action has outlived its importance as the goals framed during the debates in Constituent Assembly have still not been achieved even after 67 years of independence. There was a quota system in US as well, but it was abolished long ago. But it does not mean that they are not working for the underprivileged in their society. Foradmission and appointment purposes, nowthey have point systems in which people from backward regions are given some extra points but, not a certain number of seats. So, though the government is helping the needy, but it is not at all discriminating or snatching away the rights of eligible candidates. Also from time to time such reforms or laws must be evaluated by experts and their impact on the development of under privileged and overall society must be assessed. Also, calculate the way these are changing the per capita income, number of people below poverty line etc. Politicians should stop using reservation system as a gimmick to have a permanent vote bank. Education should not be a part of politics. Instead nurture the saplings right from childhood for their bright future and then there won’t be any need of so called reservation system in India. LET YOUR SKILLS BE THE VOICE OF YOUR RIGHTS
  • 27. POLITICAL SCIENCE 27 BIBLIOGRAPHY INTERNET SOURCES www.wikipedia.com www.slideshare.net www.quora.com http://www.shareyouressays.com/ http://www.youthkiawaaz.com/ http://edition.cnn.com/ BOOK SOURCES The Constitution of India