 An earthquake (also known as
a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result
of a sudden release of energy in
the Earth's crus...
 Earthquakes are measured using
observations from seismometers.
The moment magnitude is the most
common scale on which ea...
 Tectonic earthquakes
occur anywhere in the
earth where there is
sufficient stored elastic
strain energy to drive
fractur...
 Most fault surfaces do have such asperities and this
leads to a form of stick-slip behaviour. Once the fault
has locked,...
 It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of
an earthquake's total energy is radiated as
seismic energy. Most of the ...
 There are three main types
of fault, all of which may
cause an interpolate
earthquake: normal,
reverse (thrust) and stri...
 Reverse faults occur in areas where the
crust is being shortened such as at a
convergent boundary. Strike-slip
faults ar...
 Reverse faults, particularly those along convergent plate
boundaries are associated with the most powerful
earthquakes, ...
 This is so because the energy released in an
earthquake, and thus its magnitude, is
proportional to the area of the faul...
 The maximum observed lengths of ruptures
and mapped faults (which may break in a
single rupture) are approximately 1000 ...
 Aerial photo of the
San Andreas Fault in
the Carrizo Plain,
northwest of Los
Angeles
 Where plate boundaries occur within the continental
lithosphere, deformation is spread out over a much larger area
than ...
 All tectonic plates have internal stress
fields caused by their interactions with
neighbouring plates and sedimentary
lo...
 The majority of tectonic earthquakes originate at the ring
of fire in depths not exceeding tens of kilometres.
Earthquak...
 Collapsed Gran
Hotel building in
the San
Salvador metropolis,
after the
shallow 1986 San
Salvador
earthquake during
mid ...
 Earthquakes often occur in volcanic regions
and are caused there, both by tectonic faults
and the movement of magma in v...
 Research work has shown a robust
correlation between small tidally
induced forces and non-volcanic tremor
activity.
 An aftershock is an earthquake that occurs
after a previous earthquake, the
mainshock. An aftershock is in the same
regi...
 Earthquake swarms are sequences of
earthquakes striking in a specific area within a
short period of time. They are diffe...
S.T.D. :- 9 A
SUB :- S.St
Natural disaster earthquake
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Natural disaster earthquake
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Natural disaster earthquake

helpful for students of class 9
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Natural disaster earthquake

  • 1.  An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity,seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.
  • 2.  Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers. The moment magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe. The more numerous earthquakes smaller than magnitude 5 reported by national seismological observatories are measured mostly on the local magnitude scale, also referred to as the Richter magnitude scale. These two scales are numerically similar over their range of validity.
  • 3.  Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane. The sides of a fault move past each other smoothly and a seismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the fault surface that increase the frictional resistance.
  • 4.  Most fault surfaces do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behaviour. Once the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface. This continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy.[2] This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, and cracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake. This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the elastic-rebound theory
  • 5.  It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake's energy is used to power.  The earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth's available elastic potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heat out from the Earth's deep interior.
  • 6.  There are three main types of fault, all of which may cause an interpolate earthquake: normal, reverse (thrust) and strike- slip. Normal and reverse faulting are examples of dip-slip, where the displacement along the fault is in the direction of dip and movement on them involves a vertical component. Normal faults occur mainly in areas where the crust is being extended such as a divergent boundary
  • 7.  Reverse faults occur in areas where the crust is being shortened such as at a convergent boundary. Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other; transform boundaries are a particular type of strike-slip fault. Many earthquakes are caused by movement on faults that have components of both dip-slip and strike-slip; this is known as oblique slip.
  • 8.  Reverse faults, particularly those along convergent plate boundaries are associated with the most powerful earthquakes, mega thrust earthquakes, including almost all of those of magnitude 8 or more. Strike-slip faults, particularly continental transforms, can produce major earthquakes up to about magnitude 8. Earthquakes associated with normal faults are generally less than magnitude 7. For every unit increase in magnitude, there is a roughly thirtyfold increase in the energy released. For instance, an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 releases approximately 30 times more energy than a 5.0 magnitude earthquake and a 7.0 magnitude earthquake releases 900 times (30 × 30) more energy than a 5.0 magnitude of earthquake. An 8.6 magnitude earthquake releases the same amount of energy as 10,000 atomic bombs that were used in World War II.
  • 9.  This is so because the energy released in an earthquake, and thus its magnitude, is proportional to the area of the fault that ruptures. and the stress drop. Therefore, the longer the length and the wider the width of the faulted area, the larger the resulting magnitude. The topmost, brittle part of the Earth's crust, and the cool slabs of the tectonic plates that are descending down into the hot mantle, are the only parts of our planet which can store elastic energy and release it in fault ruptures. Rocks hotter than about 300 degrees Celsius flow in response to stress; they do not rupture in earthquakes.
  • 10.  The maximum observed lengths of ruptures and mapped faults (which may break in a single rupture) are approximately 1000 km. Examples are the earthquakes in Chile, 1960; Alaska, 1957; Sumatra, 2004, all in subduction zones. The longest earthquake ruptures on strike-slip faults, like the San Andreas Fault (1857, 1906), the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey (1939) and the Denali Fault in Alaska (2002), are about half to one third as long as the lengths along subducting plate margins, and those along normal faults are even shorter.
  • 11.  Aerial photo of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain, northwest of Los Angeles
  • 12.  Where plate boundaries occur within the continental lithosphere, deformation is spread out over a much larger area than the plate boundary itself. In the case of the San Andreas fault continental transform, many earthquakes occur away from the plate boundary and are related to strains developed within the broader zone of deformation caused by major irregularities in the fault trace (e.g., the "Big bend" region). The Northridge earthquake was associated with movement on a blind thrust within such a zone. Another example is the strongly oblique convergent plate boundary between the Arabian and Eurasian plates where it runs through the north-western part of the Zagros mountains. The deformation associated with this plate boundary is partitioned into nearly pure thrust sense movements perpendicular to the boundary over a wide zone to the southwest and nearly pure strike-slip motion along the Main Recent Fault close to the actual plate boundary itself. This is demonstrated by earthquake focal mechanisms.
  • 13.  All tectonic plates have internal stress fields caused by their interactions with neighbouring plates and sedimentary loading or unloading . These stresses may be sufficient to cause failure along existing fault planes, giving rise to intraplate earthquakes.
  • 14.  The majority of tectonic earthquakes originate at the ring of fire in depths not exceeding tens of kilometres. Earthquakes occurring at a depth of less than 70 km are classified as 'shallow-focus' earthquakes, while those with a focal-depth between 70 and 300 km are commonly termed 'mid-focus' or 'intermediate-depth' earthquakes. In subduction zones, where older and colder oceanic crust descends beneath another tectonic plate, deep- focus earthquakes may occur at much greater depths (ranging from 300 up to 700 kilometres).[16]These seismically active areas of subduction are known as Wadati-Benioff zones. Deep-focus earthquakes occur at a depth where the sub ducted lithosphere should no longer be brittle, due to the high temperature and pressure. A possible mechanism for the generation of deep-focus earthquakes is faulting caused by olivine undergoing a phase transition into a spinel structure
  • 15.  Collapsed Gran Hotel building in the San Salvador metropolis, after the shallow 1986 San Salvador earthquake during mid civil war El Salvador.
  • 16.  Earthquakes often occur in volcanic regions and are caused there, both by tectonic faults and the movement of magma in volcanoes. Such earthquakes can serve as an early warning of volcanic eruptions, as during the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980. Earthquake swarms can serve as markers for the location of the flowing magma throughout the volcanoes. These swarms can be recorded by seismometers and tiltmeters (a device that measures ground slope) and used as sensors to predict imminent or upcoming eruptions
  • 17.  Research work has shown a robust correlation between small tidally induced forces and non-volcanic tremor activity.
  • 18.  An aftershock is an earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake, the mainshock. An aftershock is in the same region of the main shock but always of a smaller magnitude. If an aftershock is larger than the main shock, the aftershock is redesignated as the main shock and the original main shock is redesignated as a foreshock. Aftershocks are formed as the crust around the displaced fault plane adjusts to the effects of the main shock.
  • 19.  Earthquake swarms are sequences of earthquakes striking in a specific area within a short period of time. They are different from earthquakes followed by a series of aftershocks by the fact that no single earthquake in the sequence is obviously the main shock, therefore none have notable higher magnitudes than the other. An example of an earthquake swarm is the 2004 activity at Yellowstone National Park.[27] In August 2012, a swarm of earthquakes shook Southern California's Imperial Valley, showing the most recorded activity in the area since the 1970s.
  • 20. S.T.D. :- 9 A SUB :- S.St