Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 1
INTRODUCTION
Another type of Zero-Emission Vehicle is the fuel cell powered vehicle. Wh...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 2
Fig-1: fuel cell power supply
The following are the major different types fuel cells:
...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 3
 Molten Carbonate - Promises high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies and the ability to
...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 4
NANOTECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 5
until the manufacture of products becomes as cheap as the copying not only will allow
m...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 6
and various engineering fields. It epitomizes the concept of the whole being greater th...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 7
ROLE OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
Itis fair to ask what the role of mech...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 8
and requires mechanical engineering knowledge and expertise to further its development....
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 9
One of the biggest challenges in nanotechnology is manufacturing. Assembling large
quan...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 10
5. NANO-COMPOSITES
Nano-composites are materials that incorporate nano-sizedparticles ...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 11
Applications of nano-composite plastics are diversified suchas thin-film capacitors fo...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 12
6. FUEL AND NANOTECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology can address the shortage of fossil fuels suc...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 13
6.2 FUEL CELLS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY
6.2.1 How can nanotechnology improve fuel cells?
Cat...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 14
6.3 NANOTECHNOLOGY BATTERY (NANO BATTERY)
How can nanotechnology improve batteries?
Us...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 15
Hydrogen & fuel cell vehicles:
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, ...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 16
NICKEL HYDROGEN:-
Fig-11: Nickel hydrogen in vehicle
Another way to get hydrogen to th...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 17
Fig-13: Battery unit working
The only real problem is the pressure that's involved, an...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 18
emissions created at a single point of production are often easier to control than tho...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 19
Efficiency of fuel cell:
Pollution reduction is one of the primary goals of the fuel c...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 20
CONCLUSION: -
We have success fully studied the various technicalities and the experim...
Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 21
REFERENCE
1) Bansel.N.K.,M.kaleeman, and M.Miller, Renewable Energy sources and conver...
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NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FUEL CELL

How fuel cell give power to car with the help of nanotechnology
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FUEL CELL

  • 1. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 1 INTRODUCTION Another type of Zero-Emission Vehicle is the fuel cell powered vehicle. When the fuel cells are fueled with pure hydrogen, they are considered to be zero emission vehicles. Fuel cells have been used on spacecraft for many years to power electric equipment. These are fueled with liquid hydrogen from the spacecraft's rocket fuel tanks. What Is a Fuel Cell? A fuel cell produces electricity directly from the reaction between hydrogen (derived from a hydrogen-containing fuel or produced from the electrolysis of water) and oxygen from the air. Like an internal combustion engine in a conventional car, it turns fuel into power by causing it to release energy. In an internal combustion engine, the fuel burns in tiny explosions that push the pistons up and down. When the fuel burns, it is being oxidized. In a fuel cell, the fuel is also oxidized, but the resulting energy takes the form of electricity. Why fuel cells for vehicles? The advantages of fuel cells for transport are both environmental and economic. The only emissions from a fuel cell vehicle come from generation of hydrogen. The emissions are hardly measurable, making fuel cell vehicle virtually equivalent to zero emission vehicle. Fuel cell cars will have similar range and performance to car with internal combustion engines, but the superior energy efficiency of fuelcell engine will bring a significant reduction in carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, for every mile travelled. If fuelled directly by hydrogen, there will be no carbon dioxide emissions at all. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Car: If the fuel cell is powered with pure hydrogen, it has the potential to be up to 80-percent efficient. That is, it converts 80 percent of the energy content of the hydrogen into electrical energy. But, as we learned in the previous section, hydrogen is difficult to store in a car. When we add a reformerto convert methanol to hydrogen, the overall efficiency drops to about 30 to 40 percent. We still need to convert the electrical energy into mechanical work. This is accomplished by the electric motor and inverter. A reasonable number for the efficiency of the motor/inverter is about 80 percent. So we have 30- to 40-percent efficiency at converting methanol to electricity, and 80- percent efficiency converting electricity to mechanical power. That gives an overall efficiency of about 24 to 32 percent.
  • 2. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 2 Fig-1: fuel cell power supply The following are the major different types fuel cells:  Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM -- sometimes also called "polymer electrolyte membrane") - Considered the leading fuel cell type for passengercar application;operates at relatively low temperatures and has a high power density. Fig-2: Proton Exchange Member  Phosphoric Acid- The most commercially developed fuel cell; generates electricity at more than 40 percent efficiency. Fig-3: Phosphoric acid in fuel cell
  • 3. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 3  Molten Carbonate - Promises high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies and the ability to utilize coal-based fuels. Fig-4: Molten carbonate in fuel cell  Solid Oxide - Can reach 60 percent power-generating efficiencies and be employed for large, high powered applications such as industrial generating stations. Fig-5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
  • 4. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 4 NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, highly advanced products. Nanotechnology is often referred to as a general-purpose technology. That’s because in its mature form it will have significantimpact on almost all industries and all areas of society. It offers better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer, and smarter products for the home, for communications, for medicine, for transportation, for agriculture, and for industry in general. Like electricity or computersbeforeit,nanotechwill offer greatly improved efficiency in almost every facet of life. Butasageneral-purpose technology, it will be dual-use, meaning it will have many commercial uses and it also will have many military uses -- making far more powerful weapons and tools of surveillance. Thus it represents not only wonderful benefits for humanity, but also grave risks. Figure-6: Nanotechnology A key understanding of nanotechnology is that it offers not just better products, but a vastly improved means of production. A computer can make copies of data files -- essentially as many copies as you want at little or no cost. It may be only a matter of time
  • 5. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 5 until the manufacture of products becomes as cheap as the copying not only will allow making many high-quality products at very low cost, but it will allow making new nanofactories at the same low cost and at the speed. This unique (outside of biology, which is) ability to reproduce its own same rapid means of production is why nanotech is said to be an exponential technology. It represents a manufacturing system that will be able to make more manufacturing systems factories that can build factories -- rapidly, cheaply, and cleanly. The means of production will be able to reproduce exponentially, so in just a few weeks a few nanofactories conceivably could become billions. It is a revolutionary, transformative, powerful, and potentially very dangerous -- or beneficial – technology. Fig-7: Carbon Nanotube It is important to recognize some unique features about nanotechnology. First, it is the amalgamation of knowledge from chemistry, physics, biology, materials science,
  • 6. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 6 and various engineering fields. It epitomizes the concept of the whole being greater than the sum of the parts. Second, nanoscale science and engineering span different scales. Nanostructures and nanoscale phenomena are generally embedded in micro- and macrostructures, and their interactions are important. The connection between scales— nano to micro to macro also critical aspect of integration .In addition, it is often difficult to isolate nanoscale phenomena as we do at customary scales. That is, thermal, electronic, mechanical, and chemical effects are often related to each other. By changing one, it is possible to influence the others. This, of course, emphasizes the need.
  • 7. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 7 ROLE OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN NANOTECHNOLOGY Itis fair to ask what the role of mechanical engineering in nanotechnology will be. In factquite a bit of nano scale science and engineering is already performed by mechanical engineers. For example, mechanical engineershave been essential in developing instruments such as nano indenters and atomic force microscopes, which are used for mechanical testing, nano scale imaging, and metrology. Issues of feedback control of such systems are unique because of the nano scale precision required in positioning and the ability to measure forces down to pico-newton levels. Figure-8: Nanotechnology in mechanical component Mechanical engineering issues extend to instruments for nanoparticle and aerosol detection and characterization, as well as to various forms of nano-scale imaging. Magnetic data storage technology already has many features that fall well into the nano-meter size range,
  • 8. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 8 and requires mechanical engineering knowledge and expertise to further its development. It is important to recognize some unique features about nanotechnology. First, it is the amalgamation of knowledge from chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and various engineering fields. It epitomizes the concept of the whole being greater than the sum of the parts. Second, nanoscale science and engineering span different scales. Nanostructures and nanoscale phenomena are generally embedded in micro- and macrostructures, and their interactions are important. The connection between scales—nano to micro to macro—is also a critical aspect of integration. In addition, it is often difficult to isolate nanoscale phenomena as we do at customary scales. That is, thermal, electronic, mechanical, and chemical effects are often related to each other. By changing one, it is possible to influence the others. This, of course, emphasizes the need for interdisciplinary knowledge. There are many concepts in mechanical engineering that are critical in the development of nanotechnology. It is incumbent upon mechanical engineers to provide depth in these areas. One of the most important issues related to nanotechnology is systems integration and packaging. Researchers have been able to study individual nanostructures and have even synthesized building blocks such as nanoparticles and nanowires. But how do we integrate these building blocks in a rational manner to make a functional device or a system? This step requires design based on the understanding of nanoscale science, and on new manufacturing techniques Figure-9: Nanostructure in a rotational and rapid manner
  • 9. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 9 One of the biggest challenges in nanotechnology is manufacturing. Assembling large quantities of nanostructures in a rational and rapid manner requires tooling, imaging systems, and instrumentation, sensors, and control systems. After nanostructures are assembled into functional devices, they need to be packaged so that they can interact with their environment and yet retain the nanones that provides the unique function and performance. These concerns are similar to those found in conventional manufacturing, though there is a call for a level of precision that is not required by macro-scale designers.
  • 10. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 10 5. NANO-COMPOSITES Nano-composites are materials that incorporate nano-sizedparticles into a matrix of standard material such as polymers.Adding nanoparticles can generate andrastic improvement inproperties that include mechanical strength, toughness andelectrical or thermal conductivity. The effectiveness of thenanoparticles is such that the amount of material added isnormally only 0.5-5.0% by weight. They have properties thatare superior to conventional micro-scale composites and canbe synthesized using simple and inexpensive techniques. [8] A few nano-composites have already reached the market place, while a few others are on the verge, and manycontinue to remain in the laboratories of various researchinstitutions and companies. The global nano-compositesmarket is projected to reach 989 million pounds by the end ofthe 2010, as stated in a report published by Global IndustryAnalysts, Inc.Nano-composites comprising nanoparticles such as Nanoclays(70% of volume) or nano-carbon fillers, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers and graphite platelets are expectedto be a major growth segment for the plastics industry. 5.1 HOW NANO-COMPOSITES WORK Nanoparticles have an extremely high surface-to-volume ratiowhich dramatically changes their properties when comparedwith their bulk sized equivalents. It also changes the way inwhich the nanoparticles bond with the bulk material. Theresult is that the composite can be many times improved withrespect to the component parts. 5.2 WHY NANO-COMPOSITES? Polymers reinforced with as little as 2% to 6% of thesenanoparticles via melt compounding or in-situ polymerization exhibit dramatic improvements in properties such as thermo- mechanical,light weight, dimensional stability, barrier properties, flame retardency, heat resistance and electricalconductivity. 5.3 CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITES
  • 11. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 11 Applications of nano-composite plastics are diversified suchas thin-film capacitors for computer chips; solid polymerelectrolytes for batteries, automotive engine parts and fueltanks; impellers and blades, oxygen and gas barriers, foodpackaging etc. with automotive and packaging accounting fora majority of the consumption. [9] The automotive segment isprojected to generate the fastest demand for nano-compositesif the cost/performance ratio is acceptable. Some automotiveproduction examples of nano-composites include thefollowing: Step assist - First commercial application on the2002 GMC Safari and Chevrolet Astro van; Body SideMolding of the 2004 Chevrolet Impala bed for GM's2005 Hummer H2 (seven pounds of molded-in-colourrnano-composites);Fuel tanks (Increased resistance to permeation);under-hood (timing gage cover (Toyota) and engine cover(Mitsubishi).
  • 12. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 12 6. FUEL AND NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology can address the shortage of fossil fuels such as diesel and gasoline by:  Making the production of fuels from low grade raw materials economical  Increasing the mileage of engines  Making the production of fuels from normal raw materials more efficient Nanotechnology can do all this by increasing the effectiveness of catalysts. Catalysts can reduce the temperature required to convert raw materials into fuel or increase the percentage of fuel burned at a given temperature. Catalysts made from nano-particles have a greater surface area to interact with the reacting chemicals than catalysts made from larger particles. The larger surface area allows more chemicals to interact with the catalyst simultaneously, which makes the catalyst more effective. This increased effectiveness can make a process such as the production of diesel fuel from coal more economical, and enable the production of fuel from currently unusable raw materials such as low grade crude oil. Nanotechnology, in the form of genetic engineering, can also improve the performance of enzymes used in the conversion of cellulose into ethanol. Currently ethanol added to gasoline in the United States is made from corn, which is driving up the price of corn. The plan is to use engineered enzymes to break down cellulose into sugar, is fermented to turn the sugar into ethanol. This will allow material that often goes to waste, such as wood chips and grass to be turned into ethanol. 6.1 FUEL: NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS UNDER DEVELOPMENT  Conversion of coal to diesel and gasoline  Reducing the cost of converting crude from oil sands to fuel  Increasing mileage of diesel engines Nano-sphere based catalyst that reduces the cost of producing biodiesel Modifying enzyme’s to convert cellulous into sugar, making the production of ethanol from cellulous material cost effective. Modifying crops to allow cellulous material, such as corn stalks to produce enzymes that are triggered at elevated temperatures to convert the cellulous to sugar, simplify the production of ethanol. Modifying bacteria to cause the production of enzymes that will convert cellulous material to ethanol in one step, rather than converting cellulous to sugar which is than fermented into ethanol.
  • 13. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 13 6.2 FUEL CELLS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY 6.2.1 How can nanotechnology improve fuel cells? Catalysts are used with fuels such as hydrogen or methanol to produce hydrogen ions. Platinum, which is very expensive, is the catalyst typically used in this process. Companies are using nano-particles of platinum to reduce the amount of platinum needed, or using nano- particles of other materials to replace platinum entirely and thereby lower costs. Fuel cells contain membranes that allow hydrogen ions to pass through the cell but do not allow other atoms or ions, such as oxygen, to pass through. Companies are using nanotechnology to create more efficient membranes; this will allow them to build lighter weight and longer lasting fuel cells. Small fuel cells are being developed that can be used to replace batteries in handheld devices such as PDAs or laptop computers. Most companies working on this type of fuel cell are using methanol as a fuel and are calling them direct methanol fuel cell(DMFC). DMFC's are designed to last longer than conventional batteries. In addition, rather than plugging your device into an electrical outlet and waiting for the battery to recharge, with a DMFC you simply insert a new cartridge of methanol into the device and you're ready to go. Fuel cells that can replace batteries in electric cars are also under development. Hydrogen is the fuel most researchers propose for use in fuel cell powered cars. In addition to the improvements to catalysts and membranes discussed above, it is necessary to develop a lightweight and safe hydrogen fuel tank to hold the fuel and build a network of refuelling stations. To build these tanks, researchers are trying to develop lightweight nano-materials that will absorb the hydrogen and only release it when needed. The Department of Energy is estimating that widespread usage of hydrogen powered cars will not occur until approximately 2020. 6.2.2 FUEL CELLS: NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS  Increasing catalyst surface area and efficiency by depositing platinum on porous alumina  Increasing storage capacity for hydrogen fuel tanks using graphene.  Replacing platinum catalysts with less expensive nano-materials  Increasing the reactivity of platinum, by adjusting the atomic spacing, to significantly reduce the amount of platinum needed in a fuel cell.  Using hydrogen fuel cells to power cars
  • 14. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 14 6.3 NANOTECHNOLOGY BATTERY (NANO BATTERY) How can nanotechnology improve batteries? Using nanotechnology in the manufacture of batteries offers the following benefits:  Reducing the possibility of batteries catching fire by providing less flammable electrode material.  Increasing the available power from a battery and decreasing the time required to recharge a battery. These benefits are achieved by coating the surface of an electrode with nano-particles. This increases the surface area of the electrode thereby allowing more current to flow between the electrode and the chemicals inside the battery. This technique could increase the efficiency of hybrid vehicles by significantly reducing the weight of the batteries needed to provide adequate power.  Increasing the shelf life of a battery by using nano-materials to separate liquids in the battery from the solid electrodes when there is no draw on the battery. This separation prevents the low level discharge that occurs in a conventional battery, which increases the shelf life of the battery dramatically. 6.3.1 BATTERIES: NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS UNDER DEVELOPMENT  Battery anodes with silicon nano-wires that can increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries.  Battery small enough to be implanted in the eye and power artificial retina  Long shelf life battery uses separate liquid electrolytes from the solid electrode until power is needed.  Lithium ion batteries with nanoparticle (Nano-phosphate™) electrodes that meet the safety requirements for electric cars while improving the performance. Battery anodes using silicon nanoparticles coating a titanium disilicide lattice may improve the charge/discharge rate of Li-ion batteries as well as the battery lifetime. Thermo cells using nano-tube’sthat generate electricity.
  • 15. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 15 Hydrogen & fuel cell vehicles: Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, but it currently is not be a practical transportation fuel by itself because of storage problems. Hydrogen is normally a gas at room temperature, and storage as a gas requires large containers. Storing it as a liquid requires super-cold temperatures. And because hydrogen is the simplest element, it can even "leak" through the strongest container walls. . Fig-10: Hydrogen act as a store of energy One of the most widely suggested sources of electricity for a hybrid electric vehicle is a fuel cell powered by hydrogen. By chemically combining hydrogen and oxygen, rather than "burning a fuel," electricity is created. Water vapor is the by-product. The fuel cell power system involves three basic steps. First, methanol, natural gas, gasoline or another fuel containing hydrogen is broken down into its component parts to produce hydrogen. This hydrogen is then electrochemically used by the fuel cell. Fuel cells operate somewhat like a battery. Hydrogen and air are fed to the anode and cathode, respectively, of each cell. These cells are stacked to make up the fuel cell stack. As the hydrogen diffuses through the anode, electrons are stripped off,creating directcurrent electricity. This electricity can be used directly in a DC electric motor, or it can be converted to alternating current. . The other way to provide hydrogen gas to the fuel cell is to store it on the vehicle in liquid form. To make hydrogen liquid, it is chilled and compressed. Liquid hydrogen is very, very cold--more than 423.2 degrees fahrenheit below zero! This super-cold liquid hydrogen is the kind used in space rockets. The containers are able to hold pressure, but they are also insulated to keep the liquid hydrogen from warming up. Warming the liquid, or lowering the pressure, releases gas (like boiling water), and the gas can go to the fuel cell.
  • 16. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 16 NICKEL HYDROGEN:- Fig-11: Nickel hydrogen in vehicle Another way to get hydrogen to the fuel cell is to use a "reformer". A reformer is a device that removes the hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels, like methanol or gasoline. . A reformer turns hydrocarbon or alcohol fuels into hydrogen, which is then fed to the fuel cell. Unfortunately, reformersare not perfect. They generate heat and produce other gases besides hydrogen. They use variousdevicestotryto cleanup the hydrogen, but even so, the hydrogen that comes out of them is not pure, and this lowers the efficiency of the fuel cell When a fuel other than hydrogen is used, the fuel cell is no longer zero-emission, but it Fig-12: Fuel cell and hydrogen combiner Use of battery unit:- Small test batteries made under the technology department are stored in one unit to form a single module model of ten batteries.This unit is then used to power the vehicle through the power train and motor as well as the controller which are installed accordingly and this method proves useful in special cases where the fuel cell stack is not work properly due to technical difficulties.
  • 17. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 17 Fig-13: Battery unit working The only real problem is the pressure that's involved, and that's not a problem with proper tanking systems and in all these test cases the hydrogen tank did not explode, in spite of being under pressure. The tanks are designed to blow up, not out. If, for example, that tank back there exploded 90% of the debris would fall within the fence around it. Hydrogen is a very clean fuel, it would ignite easier than gasoline, but the likelihood of it igniting is still slim. If it did ignite, the flame doesn't put out much heat. Gasoline fires usually consume. Fuel cell design issues: At the same time many other variables must be juggled, including temperature throughout the cell (which changes and can sometimes destroy a cell through thermal loading), reactant and product levels at various cells. Materials must be chosen to do various tasks which none fill completely. In vehicle usage, many problems are amplified. For instance, cars must be required to start in any weather conditions a person can reasonably expect to encounter: about 80% of the world's car park is legally subject to the requirement of being able to start from sub-zero temperatures. Fuel cells have no difficulty operating in the hottest locations, Operational Performance: Fuel cell vehicles are being developed to meet the performance expectations of today's consumers. These vehicles are expected to be extremely quiet and have very little vibration. Safety: The goal is to develop fuel cell vehicles with levels of safety and comfort that are comparable to those of conventional vehicles. If used, high-pressure hydrogen tanks will be designed for maximum safety to avoid rupture. Additionally, manufacturers are perfecting sensors that will immediately detect impact in the case of collision and additional sensors that will detect any leakage from the hydrogen tanks. In both cases, the sensors will instantly shut the valves on the tanks. Benefits: Using pure hydrogen to power fuel cell vehicles offers the distinct advantage of zero emissions, but only on the vehicle, not at the hydrogen production source. However,
  • 18. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 18 emissions created at a single point of production are often easier to control than those produced by a moving vehicle. A fuel cell vehicle that runs on pure hydrogen produces only water vapor—using any other fuel will produce some carbon dioxide and other emissions, but far less than what is produced by a conventional vehicle. Fuel cell vehicles are expected to achieve overall energy conversion throughput efficiencies around twice that of today's typical gasoline internal combustion engines. The fuel cell system is being targeted to achieve 60% efficiency by 2010. Fuel cell vehicles can run on any hydrogen-rich liquid or gas, as long as it is suitably processed. Gasoline is one possibility, but in addition to pure hydrogen, alternative fuels such as ethanol, methanol, natural gas, and propane can also be used. Why fuel cells for vehicles? The advantages of fuel cells for transport are both environmental and economic. The only emissions from a fuel cell vehicle come from generation of hydrogen. The emissions are hardly measurable, making fuel cell vehicle virtually equivalent to zero emission vehicle. Fuel cell cars will have similar range and performance to car with internal combustion engines, but the superior energy efficiency of fuel cell engine will bring a significant reduction in carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, for every mile travelled. If fuelled directly by hydrogen, there will be no carbon dioxide emissions at all. Portable fuel cells: Fuel cells can compete with batteries and generators for portable use, from a few kilowatts to power a mobile home down to a few watts to power a laptop computer. Prototypes have been publicly shown of this type of technology and fuel cell powered mobile phones and laptops are being exhibited at the World Expo 2005 in Japan. NEW BICYCLE POWERED BY FUEL CELL: Manhattan Scientifics Inc. has developed a fuel-cell-powered mountain bike that uses hydrogen and air as fuel and emits only water vapor as a waste product. According to its developers, the "Hydro-cycle" has a top range of 40 to 60 miles (70-100 km) along a flat surface and can achieve a top speed of 18 mph (30 km/h). Because a fuel cell stack powers its electric motor, the Hydro cycle is extremely quiet and does not need to be recharged like existing electric bicycles; it only needs to be refueled. This would come as a welcome advancement for electric-bike riders frustrated with waiting hours to recharge their battery- powered bicycles
  • 19. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 19 Efficiency of fuel cell: Pollution reduction is one of the primary goals of the fuel cell. By comparing a fuel-cell- powered car to a gasoline-engine-powered car and a battery-powered car, you can see how fuel cells might improve the efficiency of cars today. Since all three types of cars have many of the same components (tires, transmissions, etc.), we'll ignore that part of the car and compare efficiencies up to the point where mechanical power is generated. Let's start with the fuel-cell car. (All of these efficiencies are approximations, but they should be close enough to make a rough comparison.) Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Car: If the fuel cell is powered with pure hydrogen, it has the potential to be up to 80-percent efficient. That is, it converts 80 percent of the energy content of the hydrogen into electrical energy. But, as we learned in the previous section, hydrogen is difficult to store in a car. When we add a reformer to convert methanol to hydrogen, the overall efficiency drops to about 30 to 40 percent. We still need to convert the electrical energy into mechanical work. This is accomplished by the electric motor and inverter. A reasonable number for the efficiency of the motor/inverter is about 80 percent. So we have 30- to 40-percent efficiency at converting methanol to electricity, and 80- percent efficiency converting electricity to mechanical power. That gives an overall efficiency of about 24 to 32 per
  • 20. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 20 CONCLUSION: - We have success fully studied the various technicalities and the experimental procedures carried out by the various automobile companies and their respective research and developmentdepartments in depth which do provide a ray of hope.The practical implementation being’sdependency on oil reserves and their rising costs and their by stabilize the economy for the common man and hence make the environment pollution free which is the ultimate goal “Save environment save world”
  • 21. Nanotechnology in Fuel Cell Page 21 REFERENCE 1) Bansel.N.K.,M.kaleeman, and M.Miller, Renewable Energy sources and conversion Technology, Tata McGrawhill, New Delhi 2) Engineering Chemistry by Sakshi Chawala 3) J.C. tarafdar and Ramesh Raliya Nanotechnology, Scientific Publication 4) Nanotechnology wikibook