Media and the Manufacture of consent
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Media and the Manufacture of consent
Democracy and MediaWhat is Democracy?...............................Is media crucial in a democratic society? Why?................................It is because democracy presumes ‘an openstate in which people are allowed toparticipate in decision-making, and are givenaccess to the media, and other informationnetworks through which advocacy occurs’(Hauser cited in Cooper 1991: 42).
The questions are:1. Do we really participate
The Failure of Democratic SystemWhy those incidents happen?
The Failure of Democratic System1. The failure of democratic system2. The absent of choices3. Manufacture of consent4. Pseudo events5. The limitation of objectivity
The Failure of Democratic SystemDemocracy people decideWho are ‘the people’ the majority asreflected through the result of GeneralElectionsHow if the majority of eligible voters do notuse their right to vote? Are the ones chosenin General Election reflected the choice ofmajority of the people?
The Failure of Democratic System Elections Turnout Trend Niemi and Weisberg 2001: 31
Do they really different?
The Absent of Choices JK Nilai Rakyat sudah mahmud syaltoutSemua Parpol tidak tahan lagi @syaltout 17 Jun Sama, Tak dengan bau Klo lihat TV, tampaknya Masalah busuk partai semua parpol busuk, kelibet politik kasus korupsi... Dari NenengPindah Partai (http://antipartaidemokr sampai Nunun... Masihkah Tegar Arief Fadly at.blogspot.com/2012/09 calon dari Parpol dpt /rakyat-sudah-tidak- dipercaya? Okezone tahan-lagi-dengan.html) Senin, 30 Juli 2012 Wednesday, 11 July 2012 JAKARTA, (TubasMedia.Com) – Indonesian Saling bongkarCorruption Watch (ICW) menilai sembilan partai politik (parpol) pemenang Pemilu 2009 kasus, citra parpol cenderung berperilaku koruptif. Indikasi itutercermin dari buruknya pelaporan penggunaan "busuk“ dana subsidi APBN 2010 yang diterima parpol. WASPADA ONLINE
The Absent of ChoicesA further limitation on democracy is the absence of genuine choice or pluralism. Many parties, however they are hardly different “ Even in Britain, where the Labour and Conservative parties have traditionally been distinct ideologically, the 1990s saw a coming together of agendas and q policies on many social, economic and foreign policy matters. In the 1997 general election, ‘New Labour’ unashamedly adopted many of what had previously been viewed (including by most members of the Labour Party itself) as right-wing Conservative policies, such as privatisation of the air traffic control system. In doing so, New Labour proclaimed itself at the ‘radical centre’ of British politics, emulating the Clinton administration’s 1996 re-election strategy of ideological ‘triangulation’ (Morris,1997 cited in McNair 2003: 24).Triangulation in the US, like Labour’s radical centrism, meant taking what waspopular and common-sensical from the freemarket right (such as the reduction of‘big government’), while adhering to the core social democratic values of socialjustice and equality of opportunity.
Manufacture of ConsentDespite the failure of democratic system and the absent ofchoices, there are also media-related downfall, namely themanufacture of consent (Walter Lippmann1954: 245).Remember: The legitimacy of liberal democratic governmentis founded on the consent of the governed (the people).The problem is that the consent of the governed is not theoriginal consent of the people, but the manufactured one.Who manufacture people’s consent? Mostly Media
Manufacture of ConsentPoliticians combined the techniques ofsocial psychology with the immense reach ofmass media.Persuasion or Manipulation?To inform or to direct?
Pseudo-EventsPseudo-events (coined by Daniel Boorstin in 1962) the increasingtendency of news and journalistic media to cover ‘unreal’, unauthentic‘happenings’.(Unauthentic events which deliberately created/managed inorder to convey a certain message and/or to reach a specificgoal)This tendency, he argued, was associated with the rise from thenineteenth century onwards of the popular press and a correspondinglydramatic increase in the demand for news material. ‘As the costs ofprinting and then broadcasting increased, it became financially necessaryto keep the presses always at work and the TV screen always busy.Pressures towards the making of pseudo-events became ever stronger.Newsgathering turned into news making’ (Boorstin 1962: 14).
Pseudo-Events“In a democratic society . . . freedom of speech and of the pressand of broadcasting includes freedom to create pseudo-events.Competing politicians, newsmen and news media contest in thiscreation. They vie with each other in offeringattractive, ‘informative’ accounts and images of the world. They arefree to speculate on the facts, to bring new facts into being, todemand answers to their own contrived questions. Our ‘freemarket of ideas’ is a place where people are confronted bycompeting pseudo-events and are allowed to judge among them.When we speak of ‘informing’ the people this is what we reallymean.” (Boorstin 1962: 35)Triggers:1) The lazyness of reporters Talking news2) The realm of media capitalism
The Limitation of ObjectivityA further criticism of the media’s democratic role focuses on theprofessional journalistic ethic of objectivity. This ethic developedwith the mass media in the late nineteenth and early twentiethcenturies, and has been assailed ever since as fundamentallyunattainable (McNair 2003).For a variety of reasons, it is argued, the media’s political reportageis biased and flawed – subjective, as opposed to objective; partisan,rather than impartial. As Lippmann put it in 1922, “everynewspaper when it reaches the reader is theresult of a whole series of selections as to what items shall beprinted, in what position they shall be printed, how much spaceeach shall occupy, what emphasis each should have. There are noobjective standards here. There are conventions” (1954: 354).
The Flow of Political Interests and Influence in Democratic Landscape (Achmad Supardi) Interest Groups ------------------Spheres of Influence-----------Target of Influence Media Pressure Groups Structural Political (NGOs, Associations) Representatives (Parliament) Lobby groups Media Citizens Political Party Political Party PoliticiansFeedback (Input Feedback and Vote) (Input)
ccccLippmann 1954McNair 2003Niemi, Richard G. and Herbert F. Weisberg. eds. Controversies in VotingBehavior. Washington, D.C: CQ Press, 2001.
Print mediaRadioTVOnline media
What trigger the emergence of individualbroadcasters?What are the impacts of individualbroadcasters for political campaign?What are the effects of individualbroadcasters for government/policy-makers, media, industry, and interest groups?
The Failure of Democratic SystemColin Seymour-Ure Television has become an‘integral part of the environment within whichpolitical life takes place’ (1989: 308)As a really powerful actor, can media do their role ina balance to the rights allocated to them in ademocratic society? The need to observe both‘the democracy” and “the media”