Weather and Climate:
Not same
WEATHER IS:
• Short term
• Limited area
• Can change rapidly
• Difficult to predict
WEATHER is what’s
happening outside yo...
CLIMATE IS:
• Long term
• Wide area
• Seasonal
changes
• Measured over
long spans of
time
CLIMATE is average of
many years...
Climate is affected by many factors
ABIOTIC FACTORS:
Latitude
Altitude
Ocean Currents
Topography
Solar Radiation
Evaporati...
Greenhouse Gases are essential to our climate
http://www.larryjzimmerman.com/wproblems/warming/greenhouse.gif
Planets with very little
greenhouse effect are either very
cold…
Pluto’s average temperature is –370° F
http://www.windows...
On Mars, there is about a 300 degree F difference between
high and low temperatures
…or they have huge temperature
swings ...
Planets with abundant greenhouse
gases are very hot
Average temperature on Venus is about 855° F!
…which is just right…
…for the moment, anyway.
…and then there’s Earth….
•Water vapor
•Carbon dioxide
•Methane
•Nitrous oxide
Greenhouse gases in Atmosphere
With no greenhouse gases at all in its
atmosphere, scientists estimate that Earth’s
average atmospheric temperature would ...
Greenhouse gas content of
atmosphere is being altered
by human activity.
Result of this change is global
warming.
Evidence of Climate
Change comes from many
different sources.
Glaciers are melting away
worldwide
Agassiz Glacier,
Montana, in
1913…
Pasterze Glacier,
Austria, in
1875…
…and in 2005
…a...
Ice cores yield information and
actual samples of Earth’s past
atmosphere
www.daviesand.com/
Tree ring data show a warming
trend
www.accesstoenergy.com
Climate Change seems to be
accelerating
Each of the 48 continental states experienced above-normal
annual temperatures in ...
More Greenhouse Gases Mean Warmer Earth
Who creates Greenhouse Gases?
Carbon Dioxide
Earth earlier much
warmer.
High levels of Carbon
Dioxide in atmosphere
fueled lush growth
Some CO2 stored a...
Carbon Dioxide in Earth’s
atmosphere risen by 30%
since industrial revolution.
Most of increase is due to
combustion of fo...
Methane
Methane is released by
Coal mining
Landfills
Agriculture
Digestive processes of milk
cows
Nitrous Oxide
Nitrous Oxide produced by
fossil fuels used
1. Transport vehicles
2. Heating and electricity
3. Agriculture.
Climate Change
Climate Change
What is Happening
• More heat than required
• Unnatural increase in gas
composition
Earth System
It has:
• Water Cycle
• Carbon Cycle
• CO2 Sources and Sinks
Activity
• Nitrogen Cycle
–Travelling Nitrogen A...
Earth System
Air Water Life Land Ice
Parts of Earth System
• Atmosphere (air) extends from the Earth surface for several h...
Earth System: All connected
Air
Water
Life
Land
Ice
Climate change affects the
Earth system.
Changes in the Earth system affect
climate too.
Cycles of Earth system in which elements
and molecules cycle between living and
nonliving parts of planet.
These are calle...
WATER CYCLE
& CLIMATE CHANGE
Water Cycle?
Movement and storage of water
within Earth System.
Water cycle:
•Water at surface
•Water underground
•Water v...
Evidence:
•Changes in
Climate cause
changes in
Water Cycle.
•Changes in
Water Cycle
can cause
further change
in Climate.
Warming Evaporation Increase  Warming
• Warming climate leads
to increased
evaporation rate.
• More water vapor in
atmos...
Clouds  Complicated Climate …
Warming clouds:
High cirrus clouds
keep sunlight from
radiating away from
Earth into space....
Projected precipitation change by 2100
• Blue/green: wetter
• Yellow/red: drier
• Top image -
precipitation change
during ...
Where will there be more precipitation?
Where will there be less precipitation?
Climate Change 
more rain in some places, less rain in others
• Precipitation patterns
are changing in
response to climat...
Carbon Cycle?
• Movement and storage of
carbon (C) through
atmosphere, hydrosphere,
biosphere and geosphere
of Earth syste...
Carbon Cycle  Climate?
• Greenhouse gases
– Carbon dioxide (CO2)
• Released from burning fossil fuels, from respiration,
...
Fast and Slow Carbon Cycles
• “Fast carbon cycle” includes primarily carbon
moving between the atmosphere, biosphere,
and ...
Recent Changes in Carbon Cycle:
Carbon Dioxide in Atmosphere
Image: NASA http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/
Recent Changes to Carbon
Cycle:
Deforestation
• Forests act as carbon
sinks, taking carbon
out of atmosphere via
photosynt...
• Plant productivity (uptake of carbon by plants) increased by 6%
worldwide from 1982-1999 (increase=green, decrease=orang...
• Carbon dioxide, dissolved into ocean,
forms carbonic acid, lowering the pH of
seawater.
• Since start of Industrial Revo...
Are plants a source or sink of
carbon dioxide?
A. Source
B. Sink
C. Both
D. Neither
Image: L.Gardiner
NITROGEN CYCLE
& CLIMATE CHANGE
Nitrogen Cycle?
• Movement and storage of
Nitrogen (N) through
atmosphere, hydrosphere,
biosphere and geosphere
of Earth S...
Nitrogen in Air
• Nitrogen (N2)
– 80% of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas.
• Nitric oxide (NO)
– Pollutant released from bur...
Question:
Which is a greenhouse gas?
A. Nitric oxide (NO)
B. Nitrous oxide (N2O)
C. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
D. Nitrogen (N2)
Where does Nitrous Oxide come from?
US DOE Pub. DOE/EIA-0573(2008)
Another Global Challenge:
Nitrogen Fertilizers and Waterways
Image:NOAA
Climate change is everyone’s
problem.
No agency, government, or
scientist can “fix it” for us. We are
all in this together...
•Install programmable thermostats.
•Check and repair weather stripping on doors and
windows.
•Adjust your clothing instead...
Conserve Hot Water
•Take shorter showers/baths.
•Install low flow shower heads.
•Insulate hot water pipes.
•Wash laundry i...
•Plan ahead – do several errands in a single trip.
•Walk or bike. It’s healthier anyway.
•Clean out the junk in the trunk....
•Unplug chargers for cell phones and
other appliances when not in use.
•Habituate turning lights and
appliances off.
•Clea...
•Recycle and buy recycled products.
•Choose products that have less packaging.
•Reuse, repair, or donate.
•Don’t buy it un...
There’s no place like home…
…and there may never be again. Do your part.
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE
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NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE

A training module to introduce College Lecturers and School Teachers to the subject of Climate Education and Live Projects that they can do in their institution and elsewhere
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - NATIONAL SERVICE SCHEME AND NATIONAL GREEN CORPS CLIMATE EDUCATION MODULE

  • 1. Weather and Climate: Not same
  • 2. WEATHER IS: • Short term • Limited area • Can change rapidly • Difficult to predict WEATHER is what’s happening outside your window right now.
  • 3. CLIMATE IS: • Long term • Wide area • Seasonal changes • Measured over long spans of time CLIMATE is average of many years of weather observation 30yrs or so atleast
  • 4. Climate is affected by many factors ABIOTIC FACTORS: Latitude Altitude Ocean Currents Topography Solar Radiation Evaporation Orbital Variations Volcanic Activity BIOTIC FACTORS: Transpiration Respiration Photosynthesis Decomposition Digestion
  • 5. Greenhouse Gases are essential to our climate http://www.larryjzimmerman.com/wproblems/warming/greenhouse.gif
  • 6. Planets with very little greenhouse effect are either very cold… Pluto’s average temperature is –370° F http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/pluto/statistics.html
  • 7. On Mars, there is about a 300 degree F difference between high and low temperatures …or they have huge temperature swings from day to night. (http://quest.nasa.gov/aero/planetary/mars.html )
  • 8. Planets with abundant greenhouse gases are very hot Average temperature on Venus is about 855° F!
  • 9. …which is just right… …for the moment, anyway. …and then there’s Earth….
  • 10. •Water vapor •Carbon dioxide •Methane •Nitrous oxide Greenhouse gases in Atmosphere
  • 11. With no greenhouse gases at all in its atmosphere, scientists estimate that Earth’s average atmospheric temperature would be about -18° C, or about 0°F http://plaza.ufl.edu/knhuang/project2/cause.html
  • 12. Greenhouse gas content of atmosphere is being altered by human activity. Result of this change is global warming.
  • 13. Evidence of Climate Change comes from many different sources.
  • 14. Glaciers are melting away worldwide Agassiz Glacier, Montana, in 1913… Pasterze Glacier, Austria, in 1875… …and in 2005 …and in 2004
  • 15. Ice cores yield information and actual samples of Earth’s past atmosphere www.daviesand.com/
  • 16. Tree ring data show a warming trend www.accesstoenergy.com
  • 17. Climate Change seems to be accelerating Each of the 48 continental states experienced above-normal annual temperatures in 2006. For majority of states, 2006 ranked among 10 hottest years since 1895. ( NOAA)
  • 18. More Greenhouse Gases Mean Warmer Earth
  • 19. Who creates Greenhouse Gases?
  • 20. Carbon Dioxide Earth earlier much warmer. High levels of Carbon Dioxide in atmosphere fueled lush growth Some CO2 stored as fossil fuels.
  • 21. Carbon Dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere risen by 30% since industrial revolution. Most of increase is due to combustion of fossil fuels This releases long-stored CO2 back into atmosphere.
  • 22. Methane Methane is released by Coal mining Landfills Agriculture Digestive processes of milk cows
  • 23. Nitrous Oxide Nitrous Oxide produced by fossil fuels used 1. Transport vehicles 2. Heating and electricity 3. Agriculture.
  • 24. Climate Change
  • 25. Climate Change
  • 26. What is Happening • More heat than required • Unnatural increase in gas composition
  • 27. Earth System It has: • Water Cycle • Carbon Cycle • CO2 Sources and Sinks Activity • Nitrogen Cycle –Travelling Nitrogen Activity
  • 28. Earth System Air Water Life Land Ice Parts of Earth System • Atmosphere (air) extends from the Earth surface for several hundred km. • Hydrosphere (water) includes the ocean, rivers, lakes, groundwater, vapor. • Biosphere (life) includes bacteria, plants, and animals. • Geosphere (land) includes minerals, rocks, molten rock, sediments, soils. • Cryosphere (ice) includes snow, glaciers, and sea ice.
  • 29. Earth System: All connected Air Water Life Land Ice
  • 30. Climate change affects the Earth system. Changes in the Earth system affect climate too.
  • 31. Cycles of Earth system in which elements and molecules cycle between living and nonliving parts of planet. These are called biogeochemical cycles. We will explore: • Water cycle • Carbon cycle • Nitrogen cycle
  • 32. WATER CYCLE & CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 33. Water Cycle? Movement and storage of water within Earth System. Water cycle: •Water at surface •Water underground •Water vapor in atmosphere •Snow and ice (Water System) Courtesy of UCAR
  • 34. Evidence: •Changes in Climate cause changes in Water Cycle. •Changes in Water Cycle can cause further change in Climate.
  • 35. Warming Evaporation Increase  Warming • Warming climate leads to increased evaporation rate. • More water vapor in atmosphere. • Water vapor is greenhouse gas it causes even more warming. (This is known as a positive feedback loop) Still from a NASA visualization of water vapor distribution. http://www.nasa.gov/mov/291251main_L3_H2O_Final_576.mov
  • 36. Clouds  Complicated Climate … Warming clouds: High cirrus clouds keep sunlight from radiating away from Earth into space. Cooling clouds: Low level stratocumulus clouds block sunlight from getting to Earth’s surface
  • 37. Projected precipitation change by 2100 • Blue/green: wetter • Yellow/red: drier • Top image - precipitation change during December, January, and February. • Bottom - precipitation change during June, July, and August. IPCC 2007
  • 38. Where will there be more precipitation?
  • 39. Where will there be less precipitation?
  • 40. Climate Change  more rain in some places, less rain in others • Precipitation patterns are changing in response to climate change. • Areas prone to drought are expected to become drier. • Wet areas will receive more precipitation. Sandbags contain a Midwest flood (top). Arid region of North Africa is expected to become more arid (bottom). Images: UCAR
  • 41. Carbon Cycle? • Movement and storage of carbon (C) through atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere of Earth system • Carbon cycle is divided into “fast carbon cycle” and “slow carbon cycle”.
  • 42. Carbon Cycle  Climate? • Greenhouse gases – Carbon dioxide (CO2) • Released from burning fossil fuels, from respiration, and volcanoes • Taken out of atmosphere by plants during photosynthesis – Methane (CH4) • Released from farm animals, manure, landfills, and part of natural gas deposits • Methane is about 25 times more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2 • Used as an energy source: burning it releases CO2
  • 43. Fast and Slow Carbon Cycles • “Fast carbon cycle” includes primarily carbon moving between the atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. • Most carbon is in deep storage (as limestone, coal, oil, and gas) moving through Earth System on long period – “slow carbon cycle”. • Today, burning fossil fuels releases deep storage carbon into “fast carbon cycle”.
  • 44. Recent Changes in Carbon Cycle: Carbon Dioxide in Atmosphere Image: NASA http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/
  • 45. Recent Changes to Carbon Cycle: Deforestation • Forests act as carbon sinks, taking carbon out of atmosphere via photosynthesis • In Brazil, population boom created by inexpensive land for farming caused land use change Landsat images 1975-2001 showing clear cutting of tropical forests in Rondonia, Brazil. Image: NASA/GSFC
  • 46. • Plant productivity (uptake of carbon by plants) increased by 6% worldwide from 1982-1999 (increase=green, decrease=orange) • Higher productivity in areas where climate became warmer, wetter, and/or sunnier (less clouds). Recent Changes to the Carbon Cycle: Increase in Plant Productivity Image:NASA/RobertSimmon
  • 47. • Carbon dioxide, dissolved into ocean, forms carbonic acid, lowering the pH of seawater. • Since start of Industrial Revolution, pH of seawater has dropped about 0.1. In next century it is expected to drop another 0.1-0.35. • More acidic waters make it difficult for marine life such as corals to build their CaCO3 skeletons. • This can impact marine ecosystems. Recent Changes to the Carbon Cycle: Ocean Acidification NOAA sensor collecting data about ocean acidification in coral reef environments. Image: Bernadette Charpentier
  • 48. Are plants a source or sink of carbon dioxide? A. Source B. Sink C. Both D. Neither Image: L.Gardiner
  • 49. NITROGEN CYCLE & CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 50. Nitrogen Cycle? • Movement and storage of Nitrogen (N) through atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and geosphere of Earth System.
  • 51. Nitrogen in Air • Nitrogen (N2) – 80% of the atmosphere is nitrogen gas. • Nitric oxide (NO) – Pollutant released from burning fossil fuels that is part of smog and contributes to acid rain. • Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) – Pollutant released from fossil fuels, part of smog and contributes to ground level ozone. • Nitrous oxide (N2O) – Greenhouse gas from burning fossil fuels, from farm animals, and fertilizers. – There is less N2O in the atmosphere but it has nearly 300 times the warming effect as CO2.
  • 52. Question: Which is a greenhouse gas? A. Nitric oxide (NO) B. Nitrous oxide (N2O) C. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) D. Nitrogen (N2)
  • 53. Where does Nitrous Oxide come from? US DOE Pub. DOE/EIA-0573(2008)
  • 54. Another Global Challenge: Nitrogen Fertilizers and Waterways Image:NOAA
  • 55. Climate change is everyone’s problem. No agency, government, or scientist can “fix it” for us. We are all in this together. We got here because of our lifestyle. So our lifestyle has to change. Here’s what you can do… What can be done?
  • 56. •Install programmable thermostats. •Check and repair weather stripping on doors and windows. •Adjust your clothing instead of thermostat. •Keep furnace and AC filters clean. •Consider closing off unused rooms. •Install insulated drapes. •Plant deciduous trees on sunny side of home. Heating and Cooling What other ways can you conserve heat and AC?
  • 57. Conserve Hot Water •Take shorter showers/baths. •Install low flow shower heads. •Insulate hot water pipes. •Wash laundry in cold water. •Fix leaky faucets What other ways can you cut down on hot water use? In the average home, 17% of energy is used to heat water. http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/uses/residence.html
  • 58. •Plan ahead – do several errands in a single trip. •Walk or bike. It’s healthier anyway. •Clean out the junk in the trunk. Lighter cars get better mileage. •Make sure your engine is properly tuned. • Keep your tires properly inflated. •Carpool or ride school bus. •Support public transportation. •Consider a smaller car or a hybrid for your next vehicle. Conserve in the Car What other ways can you use less gas?
  • 59. •Unplug chargers for cell phones and other appliances when not in use. •Habituate turning lights and appliances off. •Clean coils on back of fridge monthly. •Change to LEDs. •Make your next computer a laptop. •Install timers or motion sensors on outdoor lights. Conserve Electricity What other ways can you conserve electricity?
  • 60. •Recycle and buy recycled products. •Choose products that have less packaging. •Reuse, repair, or donate. •Don’t buy it unless you really need it. •Carry cloth bags when shopping. •Use a refillable travel mug or water bottle. •Give your time instead of material gifts, or donate to a charity in recipient’s name. Reduce waste What other ways can you cut down on waste?
  • 61. There’s no place like home… …and there may never be again. Do your part.