Development of Nanocomposites from
Bacterial Cellulose and Poly(vinyl
Alcohol) using Casting-drying Method
Muhammad Abubak...
Introduction
• Nanocomposites of bacterial cellulose (BC) and
poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by cast-
drying meth...
Experimental Method
Materials & Sampling
• PVA was purchased from Aldrich with 87-89%
hydrolyzed. BC gels were purchased from local
industry i...
Nanocomposite films preparation
• BC gel with the addition of 40% w/w water was shredded
using a home blender (Philips) fo...
Mechanical testing of nanocomposite films
• The initial grip separation, the gauge length and
the crosshead speed were set...
Moisture analysis of Nanocomposite films
• For the analysis of moisture sorption, the sample of 20 ± 2
mm ×10 ± 2 mm was p...
Results and Discussion
Nanocomposites morphology
• Integration of two different materials bring about
the change in the appearance of the resulti...
Optical photograph of the film
Cross-sectional image of the film
Moisture uptake behaviour
In this work, moisture absorption studies were
carried out at 100% RH. Figure shows the
moistur...
Mechanical properties
This is a typical stress-strain curves for PVA film, BC film and BC/PVA
nanocomposite (49 wt% PVA)
...
Conclusion
• The contribution of PVA in nanocomposites was
evaluated by measurement of cross-sectional surface,
moisture u...
of 13

nanocomposite

NANOCOMPOSITE
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Science      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - nanocomposite

  • 1. Development of Nanocomposites from Bacterial Cellulose and Poly(vinyl Alcohol) using Casting-drying Method Muhammad Abubakar 14002140002 University of Management and Technology
  • 2. Introduction • Nanocomposites of bacterial cellulose (BC) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by cast- drying method as an easy way in producing nanocomposite films and to expand the use of BC. • This paper discussed the important role on the physical and mechanical properties of BC/PVA nanocomposites. • The contribution of PVA in nanocomposites was evaluated by measurement of cross-sectional surface, moisture uptake and mechanical properties. • Morphological analysis shows that PVA covered a number of cellulosic fibres and formed denser material as a function of PVA addition.
  • 3. Experimental Method
  • 4. Materials & Sampling • PVA was purchased from Aldrich with 87-89% hydrolyzed. BC gels were purchased from local industry in Cianjur, province of West Java, Indonesia. BC gels were rinsed thoroughly in running tap water until its pH was neutral. • Subsequently, BC gels were boiled in 2% w/w aqueous solution of NaOH for 1 h, in order to remove non-cellulosic compounds. • The gel-like pellicles were then washed again in running tap water to remove remain alkali solution on the BC gel.
  • 5. Nanocomposite films preparation • BC gel with the addition of 40% w/w water was shredded using a home blender (Philips) for 5 min. • This disintegrated BC was placed in plastic beaker and stored in refrigerator for a week to form more homogeneous solution. • An aqueous PVA solution was obtained by dissolving 1.2% w/w of the PVA powder in distilled water at 60 °C under magnetic stirring. • Water was added to compensate for any moisture loss that may have occurred during the heating process.
  • 6. Mechanical testing of nanocomposite films • The initial grip separation, the gauge length and the crosshead speed were set at 50 mm, 25 mm and 1 mm/min, respectively. • Thickness was measured along the test length using a Toyoseiki Digital Micrometer with a 0–25 mm range and accuracy of 0.001 mm. At least five specimens of each sample were measured by computerized calculation and the average value recorded. Prior to mechanical testing, the films were stored at 23 ˚C and 50% RH for 40 h.
  • 7. Moisture analysis of Nanocomposite films • For the analysis of moisture sorption, the sample of 20 ± 2 mm ×10 ± 2 mm was placed in a sealed chamber containing 20 mL distilled water at room temperature. • At predetermined intervals, samples were taken out from the chamber and weighted using 0.1 mg precision analytical balance. • Prior to moisture uptake measurement, the films were stored at controlled room temperature of 23 ˚C and 50% RH for 2 days. The moisture uptake was calculated using the following equation • Moisture uptake = [wt/(wt – wi) ]× 100%
  • 8. Results and Discussion
  • 9. Nanocomposites morphology • Integration of two different materials bring about the change in the appearance of the resulting nanocomposite films. Cast-drying films exhibit different surface roughness properties, at air- contact and tray-contact surfaces, respectively. • Air-contact surface shows coarser than that of tray-contact, which is common in the preparation of films by the casting method. • One-directional evaporation from air-contact surface might be the cause of this difference. This similar condition occured in starch/PVA/glycerol film prepared by solution casting method.
  • 10. Optical photograph of the film Cross-sectional image of the film
  • 11. Moisture uptake behaviour In this work, moisture absorption studies were carried out at 100% RH. Figure shows the moisture uptake of the BC/PVA nanocomposites with various fibre loading as a function of time. At the initial stage (from 1 to 20 h), moisture uptake of PVA and nanocomposite films increased sharply. However, after 20 h, PVA and nanocomposites show slowly moisture absorption and saturation phase reached within 96 h. Reducing in moisture uptake is proportional to the increasing of BC loading indicating that the existence of BC fibres inhibits moisture absorption due to the decreasing of interfacial adhesion between fibre and matrix as confirmed previously.
  • 12. Mechanical properties This is a typical stress-strain curves for PVA film, BC film and BC/PVA nanocomposite (49 wt% PVA) The figure clearly shows the elasticity of PVA with necking and cold drawing regime and rigidity of BC film. The resulted nanocomposite films properties just about similar with that of BC fibers, mainly due to the high concentration of BC nano- fibers in the film matrix. BC film exhibits high modulus and tensile strength as a result of hydrogen bonding strength in nanocellulose network.
  • 13. Conclusion • The contribution of PVA in nanocomposites was evaluated by measurement of cross-sectional surface, moisture uptake and mechanical properties. Morphological analysis shows that PVA covered a number of cellulosic fibres and formed denser material as a function of PVA addition. The presence of BC fibres in the PVA matrix enhanced the tensile strength and the elastic modulus of pure PVA about two to three times, but it decreased the toughness of pure PVA. Increasing BC concentration is proportional to reducing moisture uptake of BC/PVA nanocomposites indicating that the existence of BC fiber bres inhibits moisture absorption.

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