Natural history of select agents
The world is awash in microorganisms <ul><li>Mostly they go about their business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many we need </li><...
Some of these bad guys we’ve known for thousands of years <ul><ul><li>Some are new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some used or...
We love to categorize <ul><li>Select agents HHS/FDA/USDA ~ 70 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;potential to pose a severe threat t...
Some researched for bioweapons <ul><li>Bacillus anthracis -anthrax </li></ul><ul><li>Coxiella burnetii -Q fever </li></ul>...
Some other nasty guys out there <ul><li>Ebola virus </li></ul><ul><li>Lassa virus </li></ul><ul><li>Marburg Virus </li></u...
USDA lists agents with tremendous potential economic impact <ul><li>Virulent Newcastle Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Foot and ...
Natural history of select agents <ul><ul><li>Did they always have it in for us? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they do...
Bacillus anthracis
Traits for success in nature make BA dangerous to us <ul><li>Spore forming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerosolizes </li></ul></u...
Cholera-one of the most feared diseases on earth . <ul><li>Caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholera </li></ul>
The natural habitat of Vibrio , isn’t our insides, but estuaries
Monsoons bring changes in salinity and temperature in estuaries
Leading to increased encounters between Vibrio and copepods
Filter feeders come in next
Understanding Vibrio ecology has broader implications
How did Vibrio acquire enterobacteriaciae-like toxin?
The ocean is teeming with phages (1-10 million/ml)
Acanthamoeba are everywhere <ul><li>Soil, freshwater, dirty contact lens, thing the dentist uses to rinse your mouth out ...
Trophozoite feeds on bacteria, algae, yeasts, fungi.
Franciscella tularensis (Ft) is the causative agent of Tularemia.
Several select agents are obligate or facultative intracellular bacteria. <ul><li>Coxiella multiplies strictly inside the...
Emerging Infectious Diseases
Global emergence of a zoonotic pathogen needs 3 steps. <ul><ul><li>Successful transit between a wild reservoir and humans...
Environmental changes aid emergence of new diseases <ul><ul><li>Urban centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bush meat econom...
Known and emerging agents challenge our response capability <ul><li>How do we detect them </li></ul><ul><li>How do we tre...
Detection is built on timescales <ul><li>Detect to intercept -prevent exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Detect to warn -minimize ...
Three methods of detection <ul><li>“ White powder” </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiological surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Widget...
White powder HazMat response <ul><li>>150,000 anthrax hoaxes 2001-2002 </li></ul><ul><li>2008 >50 white powder letters mai...
Epidemiological surveillance <ul><li>Traditional surveillance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background rates of disease. Trends i...
An EPI monitoring system
Early detection is critical
Faster and faster widgets <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Immunoassay </li></ul><ul><li>PCR </li></ul><ul><li>Particle d...
Challenges for widgets <ul><li>Time to an answer </li></ul><ul><li>Resources to run the system </li></ul><ul><li>False pos...
Threats to water systems <ul><li>You guys are lucky! </li></ul>
The path ahead
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Natural History of Select Agents

Presentation on threats of emerging infectious diseases
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Natural History of Select Agents

  • 1. Natural history of select agents
  • 2. The world is awash in microorganisms <ul><li>Mostly they go about their business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many we need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oblivious to most </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A few get crosswise </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Some of these bad guys we’ve known for thousands of years <ul><ul><li>Some are new </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some used or researched as weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select Agents </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. We love to categorize <ul><li>Select agents HHS/FDA/USDA ~ 70 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety” </li></ul><ul><li>CDC regulates labs within the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>EU and most developed countries have their own lists </li></ul>
  • 5. Some researched for bioweapons <ul><li>Bacillus anthracis -anthrax </li></ul><ul><li>Coxiella burnetii -Q fever </li></ul><ul><li>Francisella tularensis -tularemia </li></ul><ul><li>Variola major -small pox </li></ul><ul><li>Yesinia pestis-plague </li></ul><ul><li>Brucella suis -brucellocis </li></ul><ul><li>Botulinum toxin </li></ul><ul><li>Burkholderia mallei -glanders </li></ul><ul><li>Ricin toxin </li></ul>
  • 6. Some other nasty guys out there <ul><li>Ebola virus </li></ul><ul><li>Lassa virus </li></ul><ul><li>Marburg Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Typhus Rickettsia prowazekii </li></ul><ul><li>Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrio cholerae </li></ul><ul><li>Nipah Virus </li></ul>
  • 7. USDA lists agents with tremendous potential economic impact <ul><li>Virulent Newcastle Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Foot and Mouth Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Mad Cow) </li></ul><ul><li>Phakopsora pachyrhizi ( Asian soybean rust) </li></ul><ul><li>Phoma glycinicola (red leaf blotch) </li></ul><ul><li>Puccinia triticina (wheat leaf rust) </li></ul>
  • 8. Natural history of select agents <ul><ul><li>Did they always have it in for us? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they do in their spare time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are new ones coming from? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we detect the ones we know and identify new ones? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any special challenges to water systems? </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Bacillus anthracis
  • 10. Traits for success in nature make BA dangerous to us <ul><li>Spore forming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerosolizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaersolizes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three infection routes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutaneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gastrointestinal </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Cholera-one of the most feared diseases on earth . <ul><li>Caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholera </li></ul>
  • 12. The natural habitat of Vibrio , isn’t our insides, but estuaries
  • 13. Monsoons bring changes in salinity and temperature in estuaries
  • 14. Leading to increased encounters between Vibrio and copepods
  • 15. Filter feeders come in next
  • 16. Understanding Vibrio ecology has broader implications
  • 17. How did Vibrio acquire enterobacteriaciae-like toxin?
  • 18. The ocean is teeming with phages (1-10 million/ml)
  • 19. Acanthamoeba are everywhere <ul><li>Soil, freshwater, dirty contact lens, thing the dentist uses to rinse your mouth out </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle includes two stages, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a feeding “trophozoite” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a dormant cyst. </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Trophozoite feeds on bacteria, algae, yeasts, fungi.
  • 21. Franciscella tularensis (Ft) is the causative agent of Tularemia.
  • 22. Several select agents are obligate or facultative intracellular bacteria. <ul><li>Coxiella multiplies strictly inside the amoeba, </li></ul><ul><li>Brucella, Francisella, and Yersinia are facultative intracellular bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to survive within host cells originated as a defense mechanism against predation. It now is a pathway to pathogenicity. </li></ul>
  • 23. Emerging Infectious Diseases
  • 24. Global emergence of a zoonotic pathogen needs 3 steps. <ul><ul><li>Successful transit between a wild reservoir and humans or domestic animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct transmission between humans. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local epidemics into the global population. </li></ul></ul>Many agents move between animal and humans but fail steps 2 and 3
  • 25. Environmental changes aid emergence of new diseases <ul><ul><li>Urban centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bush meat economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Village, town, city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global travel </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Known and emerging agents challenge our response capability <ul><li>How do we detect them </li></ul><ul><li>How do we treat them </li></ul><ul><li>How do we respond to them </li></ul>
  • 27. Detection is built on timescales <ul><li>Detect to intercept -prevent exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Detect to warn -minimize exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Detect to treat - treat exposed people </li></ul>
  • 28. Three methods of detection <ul><li>“ White powder” </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemiological surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Widgets </li></ul>
  • 29. White powder HazMat response <ul><li>>150,000 anthrax hoaxes 2001-2002 </li></ul><ul><li>2008 >50 white powder letters mailed to JP Morgan Chase bank facilities </li></ul>
  • 30. Epidemiological surveillance <ul><li>Traditional surveillance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Background rates of disease. Trends in mortality and morbidity; disease occurrence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory confirmation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syndromic surveillance in real-time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer/internet based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture and analyze health data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying abnormal conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early detection of outbreaks </li></ul></ul>
  • 31. An EPI monitoring system
  • 32. Early detection is critical
  • 33. Faster and faster widgets <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Immunoassay </li></ul><ul><li>PCR </li></ul><ul><li>Particle detection </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous Systems </li></ul>
  • 34. Challenges for widgets <ul><li>Time to an answer </li></ul><ul><li>Resources to run the system </li></ul><ul><li>False positive-False negative </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>near neighbors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental positives and gunk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response and return to service </li></ul><ul><li>Economic costs of being wrong </li></ul>
  • 35. Threats to water systems <ul><li>You guys are lucky! </li></ul>
  • 36. The path ahead

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