CHAPTER 2
Determining Moral Behavior
Lecture slides prepared by Lisa J. Taylor
Principles
 Our principles of right and wrong form a
framework for the way we live our lives.
 Where do these principles...
Example of
an Ethical
Dilemma
• Greg Smith – Goldman Sachs
• 2012
• Equities Director and 12-year employee
• Quit very pub...
Another
Example of
an Ethical
Dilemma
Detective Russell Poole - LAPD
 1998
 Robbery-Homicide Division investigator
 Tas...
Ethical Systems
Systematic ordering of moral principles that:
• Form the basis for moral judgments
• Are the source of mor...
Ethical Systems
Described by Baelz as:
• Prescriptive
Not just abstract principles of good and bad, but have
substantial i...
Ethical Pyramid
r
Moral
Judgment
Moral Rules
Ethical System
Deontological Ethical Systems
•Some acts are inherently good.
•Others are inherently bad.
•The consequences of the act are...
Teleological Ethical Systems
Good is defined by results.
• An act is “good” or “bad” depending on
• the results it brings ...
Ethical Formalism
(A deontological system)
According to German philosopher
Immanuel Kant:
• Good will (motivation) is the ...
Second
Mile
Foundation
• Founded in 1977 by Jerry
Sandusky, former Penn State
assistant football coach
• Youth programs se...
The Categorical Imperative
1. Act only on that maxim through which you can
at the same time will that it should become a
u...
Ethical Formalism:
Imperatives
Hypothetical Imperatives
• Drive us to achieve certain
ends.
• Are consequential in
nature....
Criticisms of Ethical Formalism
Semantics is critical in ethical formalism and could lead to
confusion or abuse. (Example:...
Utilitarianism
(A teleological ethical system)
Jeremy Bentham
• An action’s morality depends on how much it contributes
to...
Abu Ghraib
Prison
• Joe Darby – Military reservist
• Member of 372nd
military police unit deployed to
Iraq
• January 2004 ...
Thinking
Point
On April 20th
, 2010 a British Petroleum
offshore rig exploded killing 11 employees
and causing one of the ...
Criticisms of Utilitarianism
• It assumes that consequences can be
accurately predicted.
• All “pleasures” or benefits are...
Religion
As a basis for ethical system, must provide
judgment of good & evil.
Depends on:
 Religious Source (Bible)
 Rel...
Criticisms of Religion
• People hold different opinions about which
religion is the “true” religion.
• People within a rel...
Natural Law
• Morality is a force of nature, like gravity.
• What is good is what is natural?
• Basic human inclinations a...
Criticisms of Natural Law
How can we determine what is natural
law versus man-made law?
What are the “natural” laws of mor...
The Ethics of Virtue
Aristotle
• True virtue is the median between extremes of
character: the golden mean.
• People develo...
Six Pillars (Josephson
Institute)
1. Trustworthiness: Honesty, sincerity, loyalty
2. Respect: Golden Rule
3. Responsibilit...
Criticisms of Ethics of Virtue
 Basically assumes a good person
will make a good decision.
 Little help for people facin...
The Ethics of Care
• Western ethical systems focus on issues
like rights, laws, and universalism.
• Ethics of care—nurtura...
Criticisms of Ethics of Care
• Assumes needs are not in competition.
• Does not provide a clear “formula” for
what is righ...
Egoism
The Ethics of Virtue
What benefits the individual is good . . .
regardless of its effect on others.
Psychological E...
Criticisms of Egoism
 Violates universalism.
 Logically inconsistent (for everyone to try
and maximize self interest).
...
Other Methods of Ethical
Decision Making
The imperative principle directs a decision
maker to act according to a specific,...
General Principles of Decision
Making
1. Obtain all facts (including the effects of
prospective decisions).
2. Evaluate wh...
Relativism
Ethical Relativism
Moral systems are products
of an individual or group.
If people believe different
things are...
Absolutism
• Idea that what is wrong is always wrong and
what is right is always right; e.g., you should
never lie.
• Univ...
Situational Ethics
• There are basic principles of right and wrong.
• They can be applied to ethical dilemmas and
moral is...
Summary of Ethical
Systems
Ethical formalism: What is good is that which conforms to the
categorical imperative.
Utilitari...
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Pollock ethics 8e_ch02

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Pollock ethics 8e_ch02

  • 1. CHAPTER 2 Determining Moral Behavior Lecture slides prepared by Lisa J. Taylor
  • 2. Principles  Our principles of right and wrong form a framework for the way we live our lives.  Where do these principles come from?
  • 3. Example of an Ethical Dilemma • Greg Smith – Goldman Sachs • 2012 • Equities Director and 12-year employee • Quit very publicly by publishing an opinion editorial in the New York Times entitled, “Why I Am Leaving Goldman Sachs” • Stated culture was always a vital part of Goldman Sachs’ success—but then stated how organizational ethos and a value system of protecting client interests had degenerated to profit at the expense of the client • He said, “Weed out the morally bankrupt people, no matter how much money they make for the firm. And get the culture right again, so people want to work here for the right reasons.”
  • 4. Another Example of an Ethical Dilemma Detective Russell Poole - LAPD  1998  Robbery-Homicide Division investigator  Tasked with investigating the alleged beating of Ismael Jimenez, reputed gang member  Uncovered a pattern of complaints of violence by the anti-gang task force in the Ramparts Division  40-page report drafted outlining findings (complaints, alleged assaults, etc. of the Ramparts officers  Told to limit investigation to only the Jimenez case  Supervisor replaced report with 2-page report and asked Poole to sign it
  • 5. Ethical Systems Systematic ordering of moral principles that: • Form the basis for moral judgments • Are the source of moral beliefs • Are beyond argument • Are internally consistent • Possess a type of “moral common sense”
  • 6. Ethical Systems Described by Baelz as: • Prescriptive Not just abstract principles of good and bad, but have substantial impact on what we do • Authoritative Usually beyond question • Logically impartial or universal Same rule applies in all cases and for everyone • Not self-serving For everyone, not just the individual
  • 7. Ethical Pyramid r Moral Judgment Moral Rules Ethical System
  • 8. Deontological Ethical Systems •Some acts are inherently good. •Others are inherently bad. •The consequences of the act are irrelevant. Example: Charity is a moral act. Giving money to a poor person is a good act. If the poor person buys drugs with the money, the original act of charity is still moral. Good is defined by the inherent nature of an act.
  • 9. Teleological Ethical Systems Good is defined by results. • An act is “good” or “bad” depending on • the results it brings about. • The consequences of the act are what is judged. Example: Giving money to a poor person might not be moral if they used it for drugs (if drug use is immoral).
  • 10. Ethical Formalism (A deontological system) According to German philosopher Immanuel Kant: • Good will (motivation) is the only thing that is intrinsically good. • Duty is required behavior. It is self-imposed and necessary to morality.
  • 11. Second Mile Foundation • Founded in 1977 by Jerry Sandusky, former Penn State assistant football coach • Youth programs serve approximately 100K children annually • Revenue in 2009 was approximately $3M • Since November 2011, the organization has been preparing to close after Sandusky was charged and convicted of child abuse
  • 12. The Categorical Imperative 1. Act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law. 2. Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of any other, never simply as a means but always at the same time as an end. 3. Act as if you were, through your maxims, a lawmaking member of a kingdom of ends.
  • 13. Ethical Formalism: Imperatives Hypothetical Imperatives • Drive us to achieve certain ends. • Are consequential in nature. • Are neither “moral” nor “immoral.” • If you want to get a good grade, then you must study. Categorical Imperatives • Are absolute. • Are based on good will. • Determine morality. • You must not lie.
  • 14. Criticisms of Ethical Formalism Semantics is critical in ethical formalism and could lead to confusion or abuse. (Example: Kant distinguishes “lies” from “untruths.”) It might not apply to extreme circumstances. If an action is “wrong,” it is always wrong, regardless of the good consequences that might result. It does not provide guidance for resolving conflicting duties. The priority of motive and intent over result is problematic in some instances.
  • 15. Utilitarianism (A teleological ethical system) Jeremy Bentham • An action’s morality depends on how much it contributes to the overall good of society. • Humans are hedonistic. • They seek to maximize pleasure and avoid pain. • Good = the greatest good for the greatest number
  • 16. Abu Ghraib Prison • Joe Darby – Military reservist • Member of 372nd military police unit deployed to Iraq • January 2004 – Darby asked Specialist Charles Graner for some pictures of the surrounding countryside • Graner provided a CD of torture photos taken in the Abu Ghraib prison by Graner and others • Darby didn’t give photos to his commanding officer, but to the Criminal Intelligence Division (CID) • Darby was told his name would be kept confidential—but it wasn’t • Darby and his family feared for their lives and were ultimately taken into protective custody • Darby later received the John F. Kennedy Profile in Courage Award • Cited that he has always “had a moral sense of right and wrong.”
  • 17. Thinking Point On April 20th , 2010 a British Petroleum offshore rig exploded killing 11 employees and causing one of the largest oil spills in modern history. Investigators soon located the faulty alarm systems. The alarms did not alert because they had been intentionally disconnected close to a year ago. BP had the alarms turned off in order to allow employees to sleep without being interrupted by false alarms thus creating a better functioning workforce. If the alarms were enabled, the rig would have automatically entered shut down mode, virtually eliminating the oil spill. •Was BP’s original “act” inherently good? Bad? •Did they have a duty to act one way or the other?
  • 18. Criticisms of Utilitarianism • It assumes that consequences can be accurately predicted. • All “pleasures” or benefits are not equal (is financial success = integrity?). • The rights of the few might be sacrificed for the “greatest number.”
  • 19. Religion As a basis for ethical system, must provide judgment of good & evil. Depends on:  Religious Source (Bible)  Religious Authorities  Faith
  • 20. Criticisms of Religion • People hold different opinions about which religion is the “true” religion. • People within a religion often disagree on how to interpret its principles. • Religious controversies are often difficult to resolve.
  • 21. Natural Law • Morality is a force of nature, like gravity. • What is good is what is natural? • Basic human inclinations are natural: self protection, survival. • The idea of the social contract has a basis in nature. Philosophers like Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were influenced by natural law theory. Their ideas are reflected in our system of government.
  • 22. Criticisms of Natural Law How can we determine what is natural law versus man-made law? What are the “natural” laws of morality?
  • 23. The Ethics of Virtue Aristotle • True virtue is the median between extremes of character: the golden mean. • People develop moral virtues through practice, just like any other strength. • Eudaimonia: living the “good life”
  • 24. Six Pillars (Josephson Institute) 1. Trustworthiness: Honesty, sincerity, loyalty 2. Respect: Golden Rule 3. Responsibility: Being accountable 4. Fairness: Equality, impartiality, and due process 5. Caring: Altruism and benevolence 6. Citizenship: Duties of citizenship
  • 25. Criticisms of Ethics of Virtue  Basically assumes a good person will make a good decision.  Little help for people facing dilemmas.
  • 26. The Ethics of Care • Western ethical systems focus on issues like rights, laws, and universalism. • Ethics of care—nurturance, meeting needs • Identifies the needs of all individuals in any ethical situation and attempts to maximize them
  • 27. Criticisms of Ethics of Care • Assumes needs are not in competition. • Does not provide a clear “formula” for what is right. • More recent and less discussed ethical system.
  • 28. Egoism The Ethics of Virtue What benefits the individual is good . . . regardless of its effect on others. Psychological Egoism: People behave in their own best interests. (Not an ethical system—an observation.) Ethical Egoism: People should behave in their own self interests.
  • 29. Criticisms of Egoism  Violates universalism.  Logically inconsistent (for everyone to try and maximize self interest).  Enlightened egoism is not too different from categorical imperative or golden rule.
  • 30. Other Methods of Ethical Decision Making The imperative principle directs a decision maker to act according to a specific, unbending rule. The utilitarian principle determines the ethics of conduct by the good or bad consequences of the action. The generalization principle is based on this question: “What would happen if all similar persons acted this way under similar circumstances?”
  • 31. General Principles of Decision Making 1. Obtain all facts (including the effects of prospective decisions). 2. Evaluate whether you’d be comfortable with your decision appearing on the front page (in public view). 3. Consider one’s principles to be like a formula – applicable in all situations.
  • 32. Relativism Ethical Relativism Moral systems are products of an individual or group. If people believe different things are good and bad, how can you define what is good? Cultural Relativism “Good” depends on the norms of each society. What is acceptable in one society might not be in another. Who is to say which society is right? However, FATAL FLAW in relativism is: why should anyone obey their cultural norms since they may be right in another place or another time?
  • 33. Absolutism • Idea that what is wrong is always wrong and what is right is always right; e.g., you should never lie. • Universalism: if you want to do something, you should be able to agree that everyone can do it. Even under Absolutist Ethics, there is Principle of Forfeiture: People who violate the rights of others forfeit their own rights.
  • 34. Situational Ethics • There are basic principles of right and wrong. • They can be applied to ethical dilemmas and moral issues. • They may call for different results in different situations. 1. Treat each person with the utmost respect and care. 2. Do one’s duty or duties in such a way that one does not violate the first principle. A compromise between relativism and absolutism
  • 35. Summary of Ethical Systems Ethical formalism: What is good is that which conforms to the categorical imperative. Utilitarianism: What is good is that which results in the greatest utility for the greatest number. Religion: What is good is that which conforms to God’s will. Natural law: What is good is that which is natural. Ethics of virtue: What is good is that which conforms to the Golden Mean. Ethics of care: What is good is that which meets the needs of those concerned. Egoism: What is good is that which benefits me.

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