Dr. Yogesh V. Ushir
M. Pharm. (Pharmacognosy), Ph.D.
Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation,
Chemical Constitue...
Antileprotics
a substance or other agent that is effective in treating leprosy
Leprosy is a slowly progressing bacterial...
Chaulmoogra oil
•Syn.- Hydnocarpus oil, Gynocardia oil, Kadu
Kawath (Marathi), कालमोगरा Calmogara or Jangli
Badam (Hindi)
...
Chaulmoogra oil (Continue…)
Morphology-
Physical Standards-
characteristic Description
Color Yellow to brown liquid
Odor C...
Chaulmoogra oil (Continue…)
Chemical Constituents-
Contains esters of cyclic unsaturated fatty acids as
chaulmoogric acid...
Antidiabetics
The substances used in treatment of diabetes (i.e. Diabetes
mellitus).
Diabetes is the inability of the bo...
Gymnema sylvestre
•Syn.- Gudmar, madhu nashini
cowplant, Australian cowplant,
gurmari, gurmarbooti, gurmar,
meshasringa (म...
Gymnema sylvestre(Continue…)
Morphology-
Physical Standards-
characteristic Description
Color Green
Odor Pleasant and arom...
Gymnema sylvestre(Continue…)
Chemical Constituents-
Contain hentriacontane, pentriacontane,
phytin, α and β-chlorophylls,...
Pterocarpus
•Syn.- indian kino tree, bijasal, Malabar Kino,
Asana, rakta-chandan
•Bio. Source- it is dried juice obtained ...
Pterocarpus(Continue…)
Morphology-
Characteristic Description
Color Ruby red
Odor odorless
Taste Astringent
Size 3-5 x 10 ...
Pterocarpus(Continue…)
Chemical Constituents-
Contain 70-80% of kinotannic acid, kino-red, kinoin, pyrocatechin, resin an...
Diuretics
Are the drugs which increases the flow of urine
Are therapeutically important, produce a loss of both water
an...
Diuretics (Continue….)
Diuretics may be grouped as;
Cardiac diuretics
Purine diuretics
Osmotic diuretics
Saline diure...
Gokhru
•Syn.- Puncture vine
•Bio. Source- It consist of dried fruits of the
plants Tribulus terrestris
•Family- Zygophylla...
Gokharu (Continue…)
Chemical Constituents-
Contain traces of alkaloids harmine and harman. Additionally, they contain sap...
Punarnava
•Syn.- rakta punarnava, Hog Weed
•Bio. Source- It consist of fresh, as well as,
dried herb known as, Boerhaavia ...
Punarnava (Continue…)
Morphology-
Characteristic Description
Color Leaves – green on top and whitish on bottom
Stems- gree...
Punarnava (Continue…)
Chemical Constituents-
Contain alkaloids as punarnavine. It is also contains potassium nitrates, oi...
Antidysentrics
Drugs used in treatment of dysentery
Dysenteric condition, the inflammation of the colonic
mucosa occurs ...
Ipecacuanha
•Syn.- Ipecac
•Bio. Source- It consist of dried roots or the
rhizomesand roots of,
•Caephaelis ipecacuanha- Ri...
Ipecacuanha (Continue….)
Rio or Brazilian ipecac
Cartagena or panama
ipecac
 Roots-
Color- dark brick red to dark
brown
...
Ipecacuanha (Continue….)
Root Rhizomes
23.12.201423
Ipecacuanha (Continue….)
Chemical Constituents-
Contain isoquinoline alkaloids, mainle emetine, cephaeline, psychotrine, ...
Antiseptics and Disinfectant
Antiseptics Disinfectant
Are the chemical sterilizing
substances which are used
to kill path...
Antiseptics and Disinfectant
Neem, Curcuma, benzoin, iodine, turpentine, myrrh are
few of the natural antiseptic and disi...
Thank You……
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Natural drugs anti leprotic, antidiabetics, diuretics, antidysentretics

natural drugs used as anti leprotic, antidiabetics, diuretics, antidysentretics.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Natural drugs anti leprotic, antidiabetics, diuretics, antidysentretics

  • 1. Dr. Yogesh V. Ushir M. Pharm. (Pharmacognosy), Ph.D. Occurrence, distribution, organoleptic evaluation, Chemical Constituents, including tests and therapeutic efficacy of following categories of drugs;
  • 2. Antileprotics a substance or other agent that is effective in treating leprosy Leprosy is a slowly progressing bacterial infection that affects  the skin, peripheral nerves in the hands and feet, and mucous  membranes the nose, throat, and eyes. Destruction of the  nerve endings causes the affected areas to lose sensation.  Occasionally, because of the loss of feeling, the fingers and toes become mutilated and  fall off, causing the deformities that are typically associated wit h the disease. Leprosy is also known as Hansen's disease after G. A. Hansen,  who in 1878 identified the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae that ca uses the disease. 23.12.20142
  • 3. Chaulmoogra oil •Syn.- Hydnocarpus oil, Gynocardia oil, Kadu Kawath (Marathi), कालमोगरा Calmogara or Jangli Badam (Hindi) •Bio. Source- it is fixed oil obtained from ripe seed of the plants Hydnocarpus anthelminitica Other species are, Hydnocarpus heterophylla and other species of Hydnocarpus •Family- Flacourtiaceae •Method of preparation- cold expression •Geo. Source- native to Myanmar, Thailand and eastern India. In India it is grown in Assam and Tripura 23.12.20143
  • 4. Chaulmoogra oil (Continue…) Morphology- Physical Standards- characteristic Description Color Yellow to brown liquid Odor Characteristic Taste Acrid solubility Slightly in alcohol, soluble in CHCl3, ether, benzene and carbon disulphide Properties Range Refractive Index 1.472-1.476 Iodine Value 98-103 Saponification value 198-204 Acid value Max. 25% Specific Gravity 0.950-0.960 23.12.20144
  • 5. Chaulmoogra oil (Continue…) Chemical Constituents- Contains esters of cyclic unsaturated fatty acids as chaulmoogric acid (27%), and Hydnocarpic acid (48%) and glycerides of palmitic acid Uses- Antileprotics Antituberculosis In treatment of psoriasis In treatment of rheumatism IT IS INTENDED ONLY FOR EXTERNAL USE Substitutes- In India by Hydnocarpus wightiana 23.12.20145
  • 6. Antidiabetics The substances used in treatment of diabetes (i.e. Diabetes mellitus). Diabetes is the inability of the body to utilize glucose, due to failure of pancreas to secret insulin in sufficient quantity. Natural oral drugs are, Gymnema, Bitter gourd, Jambhul, Stevia and Indian Kino 23.12.20146
  • 7. Gymnema sylvestre •Syn.- Gudmar, madhu nashini cowplant, Australian cowplant, gurmari, gurmarbooti, gurmar, meshasringa (मेषशृंग), Bedki cha pala (बेडकीचा पाला) •Bio. Source- it is leaves obtained from the plants Gymnema sylvestre •Family- Asclepiadaceae •Geo. Source- Woody climber found in India, Northern-Western parts of India 23.12.20147
  • 8. Gymnema sylvestre(Continue…) Morphology- Physical Standards- characteristic Description Color Green Odor Pleasant and aromatic Taste tasteless Size 3-5 x 1-2 cm Shape Elliptic or ovate with acute or acuminate apex Extra feature The leaves when chewed, have remarkable property of paralyzing the taste glands for few hours against sweet and bitter taste. Standards Values Ash NMT 11.5%w/w Organic acids NLT 5.5%w/w Alcohol Soluble extractives NMT12.0%w/w 23.12.20148
  • 9. Gymnema sylvestre(Continue…) Chemical Constituents- Contain hentriacontane, pentriacontane, phytin, α and β-chlorophylls, resins,  tartaric acid, formic acid, butyric acid,lupeol, β-amyrin related glycosides and stigmasterol. Gymnemic acid is the main principle which occur with potassium salt  MOA- hypoglycemic effect is due to indirect stimulation of insulin secretion by pancreas Uses- Antidiabetic Stomachic Laxative Diuretic Substitutes-Gymnema hirsutum Gymnemic acid 23.12.20149
  • 10. Pterocarpus •Syn.- indian kino tree, bijasal, Malabar Kino, Asana, rakta-chandan •Bio. Source- it is dried juice obtained from the plants Pterocarpus marsupium •Family- Leguminaceae •Geo. Source- Hilly region of Gujarat, MP, UP, Bihar and Orissa. Also in forest of karnataka, kerala, west bengal and Assam 23.12.201410
  • 11. Pterocarpus(Continue…) Morphology- Characteristic Description Color Ruby red Odor odorless Taste Astringent Size 3-5 x 10 mm granules Shape Angular grains Extra feature The pieces of kino angular, glistering, transparent, breaking with fracture. Solubility Partly soluble in water (about 80-90%) and completely soluble in alcohol (90%) 23.12.201411
  • 12. Pterocarpus(Continue…) Chemical Constituents- Contain 70-80% of kinotannic acid, kino-red, kinoin, pyrocatechin, resin and gallic acid, oxydase enzyme. Identification- When the solution of drug treated with ferrous sulphate, green color With alkali violet color With mineral acid, ppt. obtained Uses- Antidiabetic- aqueous infusion of heart-wood Powerful astringent Treatment of diarrhoea & dysentry Passive haemorrhage and toothache 23.12.201412
  • 13. Diuretics Are the drugs which increases the flow of urine Are therapeutically important, produce a loss of both water and solutes leads to diuretic effect, act by either of following ways: They increase the renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Increase the solute excretion in the glomerular filtrate and tubular fluid.  Plants used as diuretics are, Gokhru, Punarnava, Tea, Coffee and Digitalis 23.12.201413
  • 14. Diuretics (Continue….) Diuretics may be grouped as; Cardiac diuretics Purine diuretics Osmotic diuretics Saline diuretics Acidifying diuretics Alkaline diuretics Mercury diuretics Volatile oil diuretics 23.12.201414
  • 15. Gokhru •Syn.- Puncture vine •Bio. Source- It consist of dried fruits of the plants Tribulus terrestris •Family- Zygophyllaceae •Geo. Source- Occure through out India, Srilanka, and West Tibet • Organoleptic characters • characteristic Description Color Fruits are Greenish to grey Odor Odorless Taste Bitter Size 1.00 - 1.5 cm Shape Globose with sharp divergent spines 23.12.201415
  • 16. Gokharu (Continue…) Chemical Constituents- Contain traces of alkaloids harmine and harman. Additionally, they contain saponin which on hydrolysis yield an diosgenin, gitogenin, chlorogenin and ruscogenin. also contain flavonoids, kaemferol, tribuloside and its derivatives, fixed oil, resin, traces of essential oil and nitrates Uses- Diuretics Tonic Also as in aphrodisiac and in gout Common ingredient of ayurvedic preparation, dashamoolarishta and chavanprash Bara gokhru (Pedalium murex) used as diuretic and iin dysuria and gonorrhoea 23.12.201416
  • 17. Punarnava •Syn.- rakta punarnava, Hog Weed •Bio. Source- It consist of fresh, as well as, dried herb known as, Boerhaavia difussa •Family- Nyctaginaceae •Geo. Source- srilanka,. In India found in Himalayan valleys up to 2000-2500 m. the weed is also grown in Malaysia, china and Africa • Collection- collected from waste lands and road sides wide grown plants. Abundant in rainy season collected in flowering stage. 23.12.201417
  • 18. Punarnava (Continue…) Morphology- Characteristic Description Color Leaves – green on top and whitish on bottom Stems- greenish purple Flowers- upper part pink Odor odorless Taste Bitter Size Leaves are 25-30 mm long and 12-20 mm wide; stem are 1 m in length; flowers are 10 to 25 mm in length. Shape Leaves are ovate, oblong; stem are cylindrical, stiff and thick at nodes; flowers are internally sessile; roots are elongated and fusiform 23.12.201418
  • 19. Punarnava (Continue…) Chemical Constituents- Contain alkaloids as punarnavine. It is also contains potassium nitrates, oily substances and ursolic acid Uses- Diuretics Expectorant Stomachic Treatment of jaundice It is also given in the loss of digestive power, enlargement of spleen and for abdominal pains Substitutes- Trianthema portulacastrum, Trianthema obcordata and Trianthema decandra 23.12.201419
  • 20. Antidysentrics Drugs used in treatment of dysentery Dysenteric condition, the inflammation of the colonic mucosa occurs which leads to passage of blood and mucus. The inflammation occurs because of the exotoxins produced by certain protozoal animals like, Amoeba, Shigella and certain ciliate protozoan's, Schistosoma Types of dysentery- Amoebic, Bacillary, Balantidial, Schistosomal Kuchi and Ipecacuanha are used as antidysentric 23.12.201420 Amoeba Shigella ciliate protozoan's Schistosoma
  • 21. Ipecacuanha •Syn.- Ipecac •Bio. Source- It consist of dried roots or the rhizomesand roots of, •Caephaelis ipecacuanha- Rio or Brazilian ipecac •Caephaelis acuminata- Cartagena or panama ipecac •Family- Rubiaceae •Geo. Source- Rio variety indigenous to Brazil and panama variety indigenous to Columbia • Cultivation and Collection- the optimum temperature of 75-100 F, and average rainfall of 300 cm are ideal conditions for cultivation. The plants can be raised from seeds or cutting. The humid atmophere favors growth of plant. Roots are collected from the plants, when they are about 2-3 years old 23.12.201421
  • 22. Ipecacuanha (Continue….) Rio or Brazilian ipecac Cartagena or panama ipecac  Roots- Color- dark brick red to dark brown Odor- faint Taste- bitter Size- upto 150mm length & 6mm thickness  Rhizomes- Color- brick red to dark brown Size- 2 m in diameter & short, attached to roots Shape- cylindrical  Roots- Color- greyish brown to reddish brown Odor- faint Taste-bitter Size- 9mm thickness Shape- cylindrical 23.12.201422
  • 23. Ipecacuanha (Continue….) Root Rhizomes 23.12.201423
  • 24. Ipecacuanha (Continue….) Chemical Constituents- Contain isoquinoline alkaloids, mainle emetine, cephaeline, psychotrine, psychotrine-methyl ether and emetamine. Also contain ipecacuanic acid and glycoside ipecacuanhin (saponin), starch and calcium oxalate. Identification test Drug + HCl acid + water, shake well and filter. To filtrate add potassium chlorate gives yellow color change to red on standing confirms presence of emetine UV radiation shows orange fluorescence with emetine Uses- Antidysentrics in amoebic dysentery Emetic in the form of syrup Expectorant Ipecac with opium powder (Dover’s powder) given as a diaphoretic. 23.12.201424
  • 25. Antiseptics and Disinfectant Antiseptics Disinfectant Are the chemical sterilizing substances which are used to kill pathogenic microbes or prevention of their growth Applied to broken skin after burns and wounds or before surgery or injections Destruction or to make a surface free from pathogenic organism Which kill bacteria and their spores Also for sterilization of instructs and apparatus 23.12.201425
  • 26. Antiseptics and Disinfectant Neem, Curcuma, benzoin, iodine, turpentine, myrrh are few of the natural antiseptic and disinfectant used in medical practice. 23.12.201426
  • 27. Thank You…… 23.12.201427