Submitted By : Ms. Yojana
M.E.(I.T.) - sem II
Introduction
Overview of nano-machines
Nano-machine Architecture
Nanonetwork applications
Traditional communication n...
 The concepts in nanotechnology was first
pointed out by the 1965 nobel laureate physicist
Richard Feynman.
 “Nanotechno...
 Nano-machines can be interconnected to
execute collaborative tasks in a distributed
manner.
 Communication between nano...
 A nano-machine is defined as ‘‘an artificial
eutactic mechanical device that relies on
nanometer-scale components”. Also...
Top-down approach :
• Focused on the development of nano-scale
objects by downscaling current existing micro-
scale level...
Bottom-up approach :
• Nano-machines are developed using individual
molecules as the building blocks.
• Nano-machines are...
Bio-hybrid approach :
• Biological nano-machines in cell include: nano-
biosensors, nanoactuators, biological data storin...
Expected features of future nano-
machines
• Self-contained : each nano-machine will contain a set
of instructions or cod...
 could consist of one or more components,
resulting in different levels of complexity, which
could be from simple molecul...
2) Communication unit : It consists of a transceiver able
to transmit and receive messages at nano-level, e.g.,
molecules....
 Biomedical Applications
• Immune system support
• Bio-hybrid implants
• Drug delivery systems
• Health monitoring
• Gene...
 Military applications
• Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) defenses
• Nano-functionalized equipments
 Environmental...
 Nano-machines communication can include the
two following bidirectional scenarios:
(1) Communication between a nano-mach...
 Communication based on electromagnetic
waves is the most common technique to
interconnect microelectronic devices. These...
 Nanomechanical communication, the information
is transmitted through hard junctions between
linked devices at nano-level...
Communication Traditional Molecular
Communication carrier Electromagnetic waves Molecules
Signal type Electronic & optical...
 Biological nanonetworks are used for intra-cell,
inter-cell and intra-specie communication. Intra-
cell and inter-cell c...
 Inter-cells, molecular motors are aimed at
transporting essential particles among organelles
during different stages of ...
 Communication process using molecular motors
:
• used to carry vesicles containing information
molecules that are transm...
 Inter-cell communication based on calcium
signaling is one of the most well-known
molecular communication techniques. It...
 The sequential propagation of the chemosignals
driven by different messengers is known as the
chemosignal pathway. One m...
 Communication features : propagation of the
information can be performed in two different
schemes depending on the deplo...
 Communication process within calcium signaling
• In direct & indirect access, the communication process
based on calcium...
 Distance between transmitter and receiver nano-
machines ranges from millimeters up to
kilometers.
 Pheromones can be d...
 Communication features
• Communication is based on the release of molecules
that can be detected by a receiver.
• In lon...
 Encoding : includes the selection of the specific
pheromones or appropriate molecules to transmit the
information and pr...
 The interest in nanotechnologies is growing
while more applications are being proposed.
 The potential impact of these ...
 Recently, two molecular communication
schemes have been proposed based on natural
models. These schemes are based on int...
 Development of nano-machines, testbeds and
simulation tools
• first phases in the nanonetworks roadmap is aimed at
devel...
 Theoretical approach: basis for a new
communication paradigm
A typical communication process includes the
following phas...
 Knowledge transfer: architectures and protocols
• A medium access control (MAC) protocol is needed to
define and apply m...
 The development of nanotechnologies will
continue & will have a great impact in almost
every field.
 The use and contro...
Nanonetworks
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Nanonetworks

Nanotechnologies promise new solutions for several applications in biomedical, industrial and military fields. At nano-scale, a nano-machine can be considered as the most basic functional unit. Nano-machines are tiny components consisting of an arranged set of molecules, which are able to perform very simple tasks. Nanonetworks.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nanonetworks

  • 1. Submitted By : Ms. Yojana M.E.(I.T.) - sem II
  • 2. Introduction Overview of nano-machines Nano-machine Architecture Nanonetwork applications Traditional communication networks versus Nanonetworks Communication among nano-machines Research challenges Conclusion
  • 3.  The concepts in nanotechnology was first pointed out by the 1965 nobel laureate physicist Richard Feynman.  “Nanotechnology mainly consists of the processing of, separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or by one molecule”  Nanotechnology enables the miniaturization and fabrication of devices in a scale ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers.
  • 4.  Nano-machines can be interconnected to execute collaborative tasks in a distributed manner.  Communication between nano-machines can be realized through nanomechanical, acoustic, electromagnetic and chemical or molecular communication.  ‘‘Nanonetworks” refers to electronic components and their interconnection within a single chip on a nano-scale, is also known as Network on Chip (NoC).
  • 5.  A nano-machine is defined as ‘‘an artificial eutactic mechanical device that relies on nanometer-scale components”. Also the term ‘‘molecular machine” is defined as ‘‘a mechanical device that performs a useful function using components of nanometer-scale and defined molecular structure; includes both artificial nano- machines and naturally occurring devices found in biological systems”.  There are 3 different approches for the development of nano-machines.
  • 6. Top-down approach : • Focused on the development of nano-scale objects by downscaling current existing micro- scale level device components. • nano-machines are developed by means of downscaling current microelectronic and micro- electro-mechanical technologies without atomic level control. • Using for only simple mechanical structures, such as nano-gears.
  • 7. Bottom-up approach : • Nano-machines are developed using individual molecules as the building blocks. • Nano-machines are developed by means of downscaling current microelectronic and micro- electro- mechanical technologies without atomic level control. • Using for current developments such as molecular switches and molecular shuttles.
  • 8. Bio-hybrid approach : • Biological nano-machines in cell include: nano- biosensors, nanoactuators, biological data storing components, tools and control units. • Proposes the use of these biological nano- machines as models to develop new nano- machines or to use them as building blocks integrating them into more complex systems such as nano-robots. • Using for use of bacteria as controlled propulsion mechanisms for the transport of micro-scale objects
  • 9. Expected features of future nano- machines • Self-contained : each nano-machine will contain a set of instructions or code to realize the intended task • Self-assembled : several disordered elements form an organized structure without external intervention • Self-replication : a device makes a copy of itself using external elements • Locomotion : ability to move from one place to another • Communication : realize more complex tasks in a cooperative manner
  • 10.  could consist of one or more components, resulting in different levels of complexity, which could be from simple molecular switches to nano-robots  The most complete nano-machines will include the following architecture components: 1) Control Unit : It is aimed at executing the instructions to perform the intended tasks & include a storage unit, in which the information of the nano-machine is saved.
  • 11. 2) Communication unit : It consists of a transceiver able to transmit and receive messages at nano-level, e.g., molecules. 3) Reproduction unit : The function of this unit is to fabricate each component of the nano-machine using external elements, and then assemble them to replicate the nano-machine. 4) Power unit : This unit is aimed at powering all the components of the nano-machine. 5) Sensor and actuators : These components act as an interface between the environment and the nano- machine.
  • 12.  Biomedical Applications • Immune system support • Bio-hybrid implants • Drug delivery systems • Health monitoring • Genetic engineering  Industrial and consumer goods applications • Functionalized materials and fabrics • Food and water quality control
  • 13.  Military applications • Nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) defenses • Nano-functionalized equipments  Environmental applications • Biodegradation • Animals and biodiversity control • Air pollution control
  • 14.  Nano-machines communication can include the two following bidirectional scenarios: (1) Communication between a nano-machine and a larger system such as electronic micro-devices, and (2) Communication between two or more nano-machines.  Different communication technologies, such as electromagnetic, acoustic, nano-mechanical or molecular.
  • 15.  Communication based on electromagnetic waves is the most common technique to interconnect microelectronic devices. These waves can propagate with minimal losses along wires or through air.  Acoustic communication is mainly based on the transmission of ultrasonic waves, implies the integration of ultrasonic transducers in the nano- machines.
  • 16.  Nanomechanical communication, the information is transmitted through hard junctions between linked devices at nano-level. The main drawback of this type of communication is that a physical contact between the transmitter and the receiver is required.  Molecular communication is defined as the transmission and reception of information encoded in molecules, a new and interdisciplinary field that spans nano, bio and communication technologies.
  • 17. Communication Traditional Molecular Communication carrier Electromagnetic waves Molecules Signal type Electronic & optical Chemical Propagation speed Light Extremely slow Medium conditions Wired : Almost immune Wireless : Affect communication Affect communication Noise Electromagnetic fields and signals Particles and molecules in medium Encoded information Voice, text and video Phenomena, chemical states or processes Other features High energy consumption Low energy consumption
  • 18.  Biological nanonetworks are used for intra-cell, inter-cell and intra-specie communication. Intra- cell and inter-cell communication are referred as short-range techniques due to the size of living cells and their internal components.  Intra-cell communications are based on molecular motors, use as information shuttles or communication carriers for nano-machines within a short-range has been widely proposed
  • 19.  Inter-cells, molecular motors are aimed at transporting essential particles among organelles during different stages of the cell life cycle.  Communication features : • Molecular communication enabled by molecular motors takes place in aqueous medium, the communication process includes one transmitter and only one receiver.
  • 20.  Communication process using molecular motors : • used to carry vesicles containing information molecules that are transmitted from the transmitter to the receiver includes tasks :  Encoding : involves the generation of the information molecules  Transmission : establish the process to attach the information packet to carrier molecules in an accurate way  Propagation : refers to the movement of information molecules through the medium  Reception : molecular motors containing information molecules arrive at the receiver nano-machine  Decoding : receiver nano-machine invokes the desired reaction according to the received information molecule
  • 21.  Inter-cell communication based on calcium signaling is one of the most well-known molecular communication techniques. It is responsible for many coordinated cellular tasks such as fertilization, contraction or secretion.  Calcium signaling is used in two different deployment scenarios. • It can be used to exchange information among cells physically located one next to each OR • among cells deployed separately without any physical contact
  • 22.  The sequential propagation of the chemosignals driven by different messengers is known as the chemosignal pathway. One messenger transports the information until certain point of the pathway where the information is transferred to another messenger.  The information transfer from one messenger to another continues until the information reaches its destination. This multimessenger propagation scheme presents two advantages. • First, the signal can be amplified at different levels of the chemosignal pathway • Second, we could use a set of messengers, i.e., chemical agents, to obtain different signal transduction and decoding results.
  • 23.  Communication features : propagation of the information can be performed in two different schemes depending on the deployment of the nano-machines: • Direct access : If nano-machines are physically connected, Ca2+ signals travel from one nano- machine to the next one through the gates • Indirect access : If the nano-machines are not in direct contact, the transmitter nano-machine should be able to release the information molecules to the medium as first messenger in the chemosignal pathway.
  • 24.  Communication process within calcium signaling • In direct & indirect access, the communication process based on calcium signaling includes the following steps:  Encoding : generation of the information molecules  Transmission : involves the signaling initiation  Signal propagation : controlled varying the permeability of the gates or gap junctions OR information can be described by using diffusion or Brownian motion models  Reception : establishes gap junction OR detect different information molecule  Decoding : multiple receivers can decode the same message
  • 25.  Distance between transmitter and receiver nano- machines ranges from millimeters up to kilometers.  Pheromones can be defined as molecular compounds containing information that can only be decoded by specific receivers and can invoke certain reactions in them.  Pheromonal communication is used to build complex networks including micro and macroscale mobile actors.
  • 26.  Communication features • Communication is based on the release of molecules that can be detected by a receiver. • In long-range nanonetworks the channel cannot be modeled as a deterministic neither a physical link between transmitter and receiver. • A key feature in long-range communication using pheromones is the coding system.  Long-range pheromonal communication process • The communication process includes five tasks :
  • 27.  Encoding : includes the selection of the specific pheromones or appropriate molecules to transmit the information and produce the reaction at the intended receiver  Transmission: releasing the selected pheromones during the encoding process to the medium.  Propagation : modeled using diffusion processes where each molecule is subjected to Brownian motion  Reception : it can use receptor proteins to detach the molecule from the carrier  Decoding : interpretation ofthe information transmitted or the reaction invoked by the received message
  • 28.  The interest in nanotechnologies is growing while more applications are being proposed.  The potential impact of these technologies leverages the continuous development of new tools, such as simulators, scanning probe microscopes, or lithograph machines able to pattern nano-metric structures.  Using nanonetworks, nano-machines can be interconnected to realize more complex tasks in a coordinated and complementary manner
  • 29.  Recently, two molecular communication schemes have been proposed based on natural models. These schemes are based on inter and intra-cell molecular communication techniques.  The nanonetworks development roadmap includes several stages, in which an interdisciplinary scientific approach is needed to address all the posted research challenges.
  • 30.  Development of nano-machines, testbeds and simulation tools • first phases in the nanonetworks roadmap is aimed at developing nano-machines including molecular transceivers • Latest efforts on nanotechnologies enabled the creation of functional nano-structures introduce switching, memory, & light-emitting behaviors • Despite the current existence of simulation tools for molecular assembly, and biological and genetic systems, there is none for nanonetworks up to now.
  • 31.  Theoretical approach: basis for a new communication paradigm A typical communication process includes the following phases: • The encoding phase in which the transmitter forms the information molecule. • The transmission or release of these molecules to the environment. • The propagation of the information molecules trough the medium. • The reception of the information molecules. • The decoding of the received information molecules.
  • 32.  Knowledge transfer: architectures and protocols • A medium access control (MAC) protocol is needed to define and apply mechanisms to ensure a fair use of transmission channel. • In biological molecular communications, most of the channel access schemes are based on code division. • Medium access technique used by biological systems is based on the modulation in frequency (FM) & amplitude (AM) of the molecular signal. • For more complex networks, an addressing scheme is needed. The packet should include the information about its origin and destination to allow bidirectional and multihop communications.
  • 33.  The development of nanotechnologies will continue & will have a great impact in almost every field.  The use and control of these technologies will be a major advantage in economics, homeland security, sustainable growth and healthcare.  An interdisciplinary approach, information and communication technologies (ICT) called to be a key contributor for the evolution of the nanonetworks.

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