Chapter 4
Ensuring Students
Understand Instructions
By Huy Nguyen
How Instructions Should Be
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Instructions should be explicit rather than
implicit.
Instructions should be worde...
Instructions on Giving Instructions
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Make instructions concrete.
List the materials needed.
List the steps to b...
Five Ways to Improve Instructions
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Gain Students’ Full Attention
Provide Written and Oral Instructions
Repeat In...
Gain Students’
Full Attention

1.
2.
3.
4.
Four Different Types of Attention
Executive Attention – The
ability to wil...
Provide Written and Oral Instructions

When giving instructions
provide students with both
written and oral instructions...
Repeat Instructions

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Sequencing is facilitated
when students have
more than one
opportunity to listen to
steps o...
Chunk Instructions
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Chunking means to combine small,
meaningful units of information
The benefit of chunking is der...
Solicit Tell-Backs & Show-Mes
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It is important to repeat the
instructions three times while
the students look directl...
Reference Page

Gore, M.C. Inclusion Strategies for
Secondary Classrooms: Keys for
Struggling Learners. Thousand Oaks:
S...
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Narrated presentation

Inclusion Strategies Presentation
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Narrated presentation

  • 1. Chapter 4 Ensuring Students Understand Instructions By Huy Nguyen
  • 2. How Instructions Should Be      Instructions should be explicit rather than implicit. Instructions should be worded clearly. Instructions should be worded simply. Subtle shifts in wording can produce significant differences. Instructors should have learners repeat back instructions to ensure understanding.
  • 3. Instructions on Giving Instructions      Make instructions concrete. List the materials needed. List the steps to be followed so students can mentally check them off; do not use paragraph form. Give multiple representations of directions: written and verbal, pictorial and diagrammatic, a demonstration of exemplary exemplars (examples of outstanding work) When multiple steps are involved, give instructions in “bite-sized chunks,” having students complete several steps before discussing the results and then presenting the next set of instructions (Dyrli, 1999)
  • 4. Five Ways to Improve Instructions      Gain Students’ Full Attention Provide Written and Oral Instructions Repeat Instructions Chunk Instructions Solicit Tell-Backs and Show-Mes
  • 5. Gain Students’ Full Attention  1. 2. 3. 4. Four Different Types of Attention Executive Attention – The ability to willfully inhibit attention from being drawn to irrelevant stimuli. Selective Attention – Being able to focus attention on relevant stimuli while screening out the irrelevant. Sustained Attention – Maintaining attention over a prolonged period of time in order to detect infrequent signals. Orienting Attention – The ability to direct attention to a specified location and reorienting to a new location.    Teach students from the first day that the signal for getting quiet and attending is raising our hand at the front of the room. Use the instruction cue, point to our eyes, and then our ears, and finally the middle of our chest while saying the chant, “Eyes and ears on me.” Using attentional cues for students with ELN because, attention is ensured and confusion is eliminated when we have students’ attention
  • 6. Provide Written and Oral Instructions  When giving instructions provide students with both written and oral instructions. Both serves the needs of all students and is effective, efficient, and absolutely economical – three criteria for determining the feasibility of an instructional strategy.  1. 2. 3. 4. Providing oral and written instructions helps students with ELN succeed because: Perception improves with multicoding of information Confusion is eliminated when perception is supported Sequencing is facilitated when students both hear and see instructions Frustration is reduced when students understand what they are supposed to do.
  • 7. Repeat Instructions     Sequencing is facilitated when students have more than one opportunity to listen to steps of an assignment Confusion is eliminated when students are repeatedly exposed to directions Memory is enhanced by multiple exposures Frustration is reduced when confusion is eliminated
  • 8. Chunk Instructions    Chunking means to combine small, meaningful units of information The benefit of chunking is derived from the learner’s reduced memory load when compared to a condition in which she or he doesn’t chunk. (Instead of remembering one long string of information, the learner needs only to remember several short strings. Chunking instructions is successful because  Confusion is eliminated when students are not overwhelmed with input  Memory is enhanced when smaller numbers of items must be remembered  Frustration is decreased when students know exactly what to do
  • 9. Solicit Tell-Backs & Show-Mes   It is important to repeat the instructions three times while the students look directly at us After the instruction is complete, we then ask several students, including ours students with ELN:     “Tell me what you are supposed to do” “Show me what you are supposed to do” Then we allow them to start the assignment This strategy accommodates for the genetic influences on poor listening comprehension.  Tell-Backs and Show-Mes are good inclusion strategies because:     Confusion is eliminated when students know exactly what to do Memory is enhanced when students repeat back or demonstrate instructions Metacognition is increased when students know that they know what to do Frustration is eliminated when confusion is elminated
  • 10. Reference Page  Gore, M.C. Inclusion Strategies for Secondary Classrooms: Keys for Struggling Learners. Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2010. Book.