The Republic
By Plato
Plato
 Born into a prominent
Athenian family, whose
member were active in the
oligarchic political faction
 Went to Sici...
Plato
 Socrates was his primary
interlocutor in his dialogues
 The philosopher’s quest for the
truth about the political...
Socrates
 Initiator of political philosophy from
inquiry
 Socrates looked inward to the
human soul
 Opted to pursue his...
The Republic
 Explores the problem of
philosophy’s relationship to the
city (polis) by constructing a
theoretical regime ...
The Ethics of the Republic
 An inquiry into the nature of
justice, seeking to clarify what
it is and why we should act
ju...
The Ethics of the Republic
Dialectic a process of
asking and answering
questions whereby we can
rationally evaluate an op...
Definition of Justice
Cephalus
It is giving back what one
has borrowed and telling
the truth
Socrates’ response
Cannot sim...
Definition of Justice
Polemarchus
It is giving what is
owed and doing good
to friends and harm to
enemies
Socrates’ respon...
Definition of Justice
Thrasymachus
It is a sham – merely “the
advantage of the stronger”
Injustice is more profitable
Will...
Definition of Justice
Glaucon
• The many contend that justice is to
be desired not for its own sake but
only for the sake ...
The City in Speech
 Proposes by Socrates, reasoning that
when we see justice in the city we
may be able to see it in the ...
Classes in the City
Rulers –
Wisdom
Guardians –
Courage
Artisans –
Moderation
What each soul possesses?
Reason
Capable of
calculation
Spiritednes
s
Capable of
anger, self-
assertion,
and moral
indigna...
Justice in the soul
 The proper ordering exists when
the rational element
rules over
desire with assistance of the
spirit...
Justice in the soul
 Order in the soul fosters order in
the city and disorder in the soul
generates disorder in the city
...
Allegory of the Cave
Insidethecave
Confused
people
believe in
the reality
of the
shadows
cast by
artificial
things
Ascensi...
Symbolisms in the Allegory
• The visible world where we find our bodily
selvesCave
• Stands for the principles that inform...
Reason
 It longs for good and finds
happiness in the contemplation of
the good.
 A distinctively human element,
other an...
What is good?
Socrates
suggests that it
is “ what every
soul pursues
and for the sake
of which it does
everything”
The ide...
Lesser
happiness of
the soul
Greater
happiness of
the soul
The Philosopher
 The most just person, both
in the internal organization of the
soul and in dealing with others.
Philosopher
Loves and
pursues
wisdom
The most just
person
Tyrant
Loves and
pursues the
gratification of
bodily desires
The...
The Nature Politics
Education and Virtue
 The purpose of the city or political
com-munity is to provide the citizens
with
an EDUCATION in VIR...
Education and Virtue
 Education (Paideia)
◦ Included not only the learning of
information but more on the
formation of ch...
Aim of the city
 To provide the citizens with
character formation that fosters
civic and human
excellence
Aim of the City
 In this light, Socrates, in Gorgias,
claim that great statesmen of
Athens were not statesmen at all,
for...
How can the disposition of the
souls be so shaped that they will
be open to virtue?
 Through EDUCATION, character
formati...
The Guardian
 Must be spirited to be
courageous in war
 The need to be gentle with
their fellow citizens
Traditional
Greek
Education
Gymnastic
training for
the body
Music
education
for the soul
Music in Greek education
Not fitting
for those
who will be
reared as
guardians
The gods are
presented as
being animated
by...
Socrates proposal to the problem
 The city in speech should require
a CENSORSHIP or public
control of speech and artistic...
A. Substance
 Two broad consideration
1. The depiction of the gods and the
afterlife
2. The depiction of the heroic being...
1. The depiction of the gods and the afterlife
Poets must not disparage the afterlife
Heroic men must not grieve
excessive...
Additional qualification
 Guardians must be truthful
◦ Falsehood may be useful to some
but not to the guardians, only the...
Additional qualification
 Guardians will need moderation,
mastering his own bodily desires
and obeying to their rulers
◦ ...
B. Style
 Socrates proposes to employ the
proper combination of
NARRATION and IMITATION
B. Style
Narrative
• When an author
relates the thrust
of a character
speech or
summarizes her
actions
• Narrative style o...
Rhythm and Harmony
 For Socrates, these are imitations
or depictions of the various
passions and states of
character of w...
Rhythm and Harmony
Immoderation are
unsuitable for the guardians,
thus, the rhythms and harmonies
about symposia (drinkin...
The right music
City’s
music
Represents the
bearing and
speech of the
reasonable man
in war and peace
Endures the
dangers ...
Gracefulness
 The ultimate aim of the good
city’s music education
 Music aims to be graceful itself
and to foster a grac...
Gracefulness
Graceful soul brings forth orderly and
dignified speeches and actions that are
depicted in graceful music
Exp...
Gracefulness
 Through gracefulness, music
education culminates the man to
love the beauty of the well-
ordered soul.
 Mu...
The impact of moral
education
Moral
excellence
Civic health
Citizens
become decent
and orderly
Uninterested in
the pleasur...
The Noble Lie
 Since the music education and of
reason is insufficient for fostering
good education, Socrates
introduces ...
The Noble Lie
 They will look upon the land as “a
mother and nurse” and upon their
fellow citizens as “brothers” also
“bo...
Metals for each class
Rulers - Gold
Auxiliaries -
Silver
Artisans – Iron
and Bronze
Thank you!!
Polsc22 the republic
of 51

Polsc22 the republic

it deals with Plato's life, dialectical process, and the most essential concepts and ideas in his The Republic
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Polsc22 the republic

  • 1. The Republic By Plato
  • 2. Plato  Born into a prominent Athenian family, whose member were active in the oligarchic political faction  Went to Sicily to try (unsuccessfully) to reform the rule of the Syracusan tyrant Dionysus II  Founded the school of philosophy
  • 3. Plato  Socrates was his primary interlocutor in his dialogues  The philosopher’s quest for the truth about the political things often seems to threaten the community in which he lives
  • 4. Socrates  Initiator of political philosophy from inquiry  Socrates looked inward to the human soul  Opted to pursue his quest for knowledge through conversations with fellow citizens (dialectical approach)
  • 5. The Republic  Explores the problem of philosophy’s relationship to the city (polis) by constructing a theoretical regime in which their interests might be harmonized.
  • 6. The Ethics of the Republic  An inquiry into the nature of justice, seeking to clarify what it is and why we should act justly.  Socrates’ companions were Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus
  • 7. The Ethics of the Republic Dialectic a process of asking and answering questions whereby we can rationally evaluate an opinion by seeing whether it can be defended as internally coherent and consistent with our experience.
  • 8. Definition of Justice Cephalus It is giving back what one has borrowed and telling the truth Socrates’ response Cannot simply define justice because it would not be just to do such things. Ex. Telling truth to an insane person
  • 9. Definition of Justice Polemarchus It is giving what is owed and doing good to friends and harm to enemies Socrates’ response When harmed, human beings, like dogs or horses, appear to become worse
  • 10. Definition of Justice Thrasymachus It is a sham – merely “the advantage of the stronger” Injustice is more profitable Willing to invoke tyranny Socrates’ response Ruling is a kind of art – it is characteristic of all art to seek the good of those they rule Injustice leads to factions or conflict among human being
  • 11. Definition of Justice Glaucon • The many contend that justice is to be desired not for its own sake but only for the sake of its consequences • The many agree to treat each other justly – not because they believe justice is good in itself, but rather because they fear being treated unjustly by others
  • 12. The City in Speech  Proposes by Socrates, reasoning that when we see justice in the city we may be able to see it in the soul.  The city comes into being because people are needy rather than self- sufficient  Human community requires a division of labor, people only work at the jobs which they are best suited by nature
  • 13. Classes in the City Rulers – Wisdom Guardians – Courage Artisans – Moderation
  • 14. What each soul possesses? Reason Capable of calculation Spiritednes s Capable of anger, self- assertion, and moral indignation Desire Concerns with pleasures of the body
  • 15. Justice in the soul  The proper ordering exists when the rational element rules over desire with assistance of the spirited element Injustice of the soul exists when the inferior elements seek to rule the whole
  • 16. Justice in the soul  Order in the soul fosters order in the city and disorder in the soul generates disorder in the city ◦ For example: citizen who lacks moderation will unable to submit to the reasonable laws
  • 17. Allegory of the Cave Insidethecave Confused people believe in the reality of the shadows cast by artificial things Ascensionfromthecave They will be delighted in seeing real things in the light of the sun
  • 18. Symbolisms in the Allegory • The visible world where we find our bodily selvesCave • Stands for the principles that informs the world’s existence Sunlit world • The idea of the good • The supreme and perfect cause of all being, intelligibility, and goodness that we see imperfectly reflected in the visible world Sun
  • 19. Reason  It longs for good and finds happiness in the contemplation of the good.  A distinctively human element, other animals possess only desire and spiritedness  The human good
  • 20. What is good? Socrates suggests that it is “ what every soul pursues and for the sake of which it does everything” The idea of the good provides measure of perfection between the good and bad The limitations and imperfections of this world makes it impossible for the good to be fully grasped and achieved in this life
  • 21. Lesser happiness of the soul Greater happiness of the soul
  • 22. The Philosopher  The most just person, both in the internal organization of the soul and in dealing with others.
  • 23. Philosopher Loves and pursues wisdom The most just person Tyrant Loves and pursues the gratification of bodily desires The most unjust person
  • 24. The Nature Politics
  • 25. Education and Virtue  The purpose of the city or political com-munity is to provide the citizens with an EDUCATION in VIRTUE
  • 26. Education and Virtue  Education (Paideia) ◦ Included not only the learning of information but more on the formation of character  Virtue (Arête) ◦ Signified not only the decent habits necessary to orderly living in the society, but also the highest activities of the human soul
  • 27. Aim of the city  To provide the citizens with character formation that fosters civic and human excellence
  • 28. Aim of the City  In this light, Socrates, in Gorgias, claim that great statesmen of Athens were not statesmen at all, fore they merely increased the power of the city without making the citizens better  He contends, in Apology, that he is the only statesman that Athens has ever had
  • 29. How can the disposition of the souls be so shaped that they will be open to virtue?  Through EDUCATION, character formation of the young
  • 30. The Guardian  Must be spirited to be courageous in war  The need to be gentle with their fellow citizens
  • 31. Traditional Greek Education Gymnastic training for the body Music education for the soul
  • 32. Music in Greek education Not fitting for those who will be reared as guardians The gods are presented as being animated by unruly passions such as lust and anger Gods are constantly at war with one another
  • 33. Socrates proposal to the problem  The city in speech should require a CENSORSHIP or public control of speech and artistic expression  Models that regulate both SUBSTANCE and STYLE – both what it is said and how it is said
  • 34. A. Substance  Two broad consideration 1. The depiction of the gods and the afterlife 2. The depiction of the heroic beings of the past
  • 35. 1. The depiction of the gods and the afterlife Poets must not disparage the afterlife Heroic men must not grieve excessively Death is not a terrible thing Must not be changing in form (false appearances) The best condition are impervious No being would alter himself for the worse Must not depict the divine as the source of evil Shown as good Cannot cause evil or harm
  • 36. Additional qualification  Guardians must be truthful ◦ Falsehood may be useful to some but not to the guardians, only the rulers. ◦ Lying to rulers is as bad as patient lying to doctors about his body or a sailor to his captain about the state of the ship
  • 37. Additional qualification  Guardians will need moderation, mastering his own bodily desires and obeying to their rulers ◦ Self-control is obviously essential to the guardians ◦ Immoderation fosters injustice
  • 38. B. Style  Socrates proposes to employ the proper combination of NARRATION and IMITATION
  • 39. B. Style Narrative • When an author relates the thrust of a character speech or summarizes her actions • Narrative style of the “gentleman,” or the noble and good will only be used Imitation • When they actually reproduce the character’s words • Indiscriminate imitation has moral consequences
  • 40. Rhythm and Harmony  For Socrates, these are imitations or depictions of the various passions and states of character of which the human soul is capable.  Rhythm and harmony that communicate excessive grief will be banished
  • 41. Rhythm and Harmony Immoderation are unsuitable for the guardians, thus, the rhythms and harmonies about symposia (drinking parties) must also be excluded from the city’s musical repertoire
  • 42. The right music City’s music Represents the bearing and speech of the reasonable man in war and peace Endures the dangers of the of battle patiently Holds his passions in check and listens to persuasion in peace
  • 43. Gracefulness  The ultimate aim of the good city’s music education  Music aims to be graceful itself and to foster a graceful disposition in the soul of citizens.
  • 44. Gracefulness Graceful soul brings forth orderly and dignified speeches and actions that are depicted in graceful music Exposure to a graceful poetic and musical presentation of the good speeches and deeds of good men tends to foster a gracefulness in the souls of the audience.
  • 45. Gracefulness  Through gracefulness, music education culminates the man to love the beauty of the well- ordered soul.  Music education is moral education  It is important to note that the Greeks typically use the same word kalon, to signify what is
  • 46. The impact of moral education Moral excellence Civic health Citizens become decent and orderly Uninterested in the pleasure of the body Fosters justice Cities neglecting music education will be oversha- dowed by unruly or lawless desires
  • 47. The Noble Lie  Since the music education and of reason is insufficient for fostering good education, Socrates introduces the noble lie.  The members must be convinced that the period of their moral education was in fact a dream, that they were really being fashioned in the earth and were born in the land.
  • 48. The Noble Lie  They will look upon the land as “a mother and nurse” and upon their fellow citizens as “brothers” also “born of the earth”  The lie also intends to legitimize the political inequalities of the city in speech, to justify the rule by some over others
  • 49. Metals for each class Rulers - Gold Auxiliaries - Silver Artisans – Iron and Bronze
  • 50. Thank you!!