interactive student edition
AUTHORS
Francisco Borrero • Frances Scelsi Hess • Juno Hsu
Gerhard Kunze • Stephen A. Leslie • Stephen Letro
Michael Manga...
Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyrigh...
Student Guide
Reading for Information......................................... xxii
Scavenger Hunt...........................
Dr. Francisco Borrero is a high school Earth science and Spanish teacher
at Cincinnati Country Day School and a research a...
About the Authors v
Stephen Letro has been a meteorologist for the National Weather
Service, the media, and private indust...
vi Reviewers
Each teacher reviewed selected chapters of Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and
the Universe, and pro...
Consultants & Teacher Advisory Board vii
Content Consultants
Anastasia Chopelas, PhD
Research Professor of Earth and
Space...
viii Table of Contents
Student Guide
Reading for Information.................... xxii
Scavenger Hunt ........................
Table of Contents ix
Chapter 6
Sedimentary and Metamorphic
Rocks................................................ 132
Secti...
x Table of Contents
Contents
Chapter 16
The Marine Environment ................... 436
Section 1 Shoreline Features..........
Table of Contents xi
Contents
Chapter 25
Energy Resources ............................... 706
Section 1 Conventional Energ...
Chapter
LAUNCH LabLab Start off each chapter with a hands-on introduction to the subject matter.
1 Why is precise communic...
Labs
Chapter Chapter
Build your analytical skills using actual data from real
scientific sources.
Data Analysis labData An...
Labs
Chapter Chapter
Practice scientific methods and hone your lab skills with these quick activities.
1 Determine the Rel...
Chapter Chapter
GeoLabs xv
Apply the skills you developed in Launch Labs, Data Analysis Labs, Problem-
Solving Labs, and M...
Explore today’s world of Earth science. Go along on an Earth science expedition, delve into new technologies,
uncover disc...
Careers xvii
Investigate a day in the life of people
working in the field of Earth science.Careers in EARTH SCIENCE
1 Majo...
1 Visualizing Scientific Methods.................... 11
2 Visualizing GPS Satellites........................... 45
3 Visua...
Concepts in Motion xix
2 Time Zones................................................. 33
Map Projections......................
Swim the Okavango...
Explore the African
Landscape...
Dig for Dinosaurs...
W
hat is it like to scuba dive with
crocodiles ...
Table of Contents
892 Tracing the Human footprint Use with Chapter 2
898 State of Rock Use with Chapters 7 and 8
904 Okava...
When you read Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe, you need to read for information.
Science is nonf...
Reading for Information
As You Read
Within each section you will find a tool to deepen your understanding and a
tool to ch...
Scavenger HuntReading for Information
After You Read
• Ask yourself: What is the BIG Idea ? What is the MAIN Idea ?
• Thin...
Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe is full of important information and useful
resources. Use the a...
22
Chapter 1
The Nature of Science
BIG Idea Earth scientists use
specific methods to investigate Earth
and beyond.
Chapter...
Unit 1 • Earth Science 3
To learn more about speleologists,
visit glencoe.com.
Stephen Alvarez/National Geographic Image C...
4
GeoFacts
• The temperature of Earth’s core
is thought to be as high as
7227ºC.
• It is about 6378 km to the
center of Ea...
Section 1 • XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 5
Start-Up ActivitiesStart-Up Activities
Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science 5
Why is precise...
Earth Science
MAIN Idea Earth science encompasses five areas of study:
astronomy, meteorology, geology, oceanography, and
...
Section 1 • Earth Science 7
Geology The study of the materials that make up Earth, the
processes that form and change thes...
Crust
8–40 km
Mantle
2900 km
Outer core
2250 km
Inner
core
1300 km
8 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science
Earth’s Systems
Sci...
Self-Check Quiz glencoe.com
Geosphere
Hydrosphere
Atmosphere
Biosphere
Section 1 • Earth Science 9
Biosphere The biosphere...
Section 11..22
Objectives
◗ Compare and contrast indepen-
dent and dependent variables.
◗ Compare and contrast experi-
men...
To explore more about scientific
methods, visit glencoe.com.
Section 2 • Methods of Scientists 11
Visualizing Scientific M...
12 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science
Experimentation An experiment is classified as
an organized procedure that involves m...
Section 2 • Methods of Scientists 13
Safety Many of the experiments and investigations in this book
will require that you ...
14 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science
Mass The amount of matter in an object is called mass. Mass
depends on the number and...
Section 2 • Methods of Scientists 15
Density The measure of the amount of matter that occupies a
given space is density. D...
Self-Check Quiz glencoe.com16 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science
Scientific Notation
In many branches of science, some numb...
Section 3 • Communication in Science 17
Section 11..33
Objectives
◗ Explain why precise communica-
tion is crucial in scie...
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National geographic earth science

Earth Science (Geology)
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Science      
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Transcripts - National geographic earth science

  • 1. interactive student edition
  • 2. AUTHORS Francisco Borrero • Frances Scelsi Hess • Juno Hsu Gerhard Kunze • Stephen A. Leslie • Stephen Letro Michael Manga • Len Sharp • Theodore Snow • Dinah Zike National Geographic (t, c)Getty Images, (b)Paul Chesley/Getty Images
  • 3. Copyright © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data- base retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher. The National Geographic features were designed and developed by the National Geographic’s Children’s Books and Education Division. Copyright © National Geographic. The name “National Geographic” and the Yellow Border Rectangle are trademarks of National Geographic and their use, without prior written permission, is strictly prohibited. Send all inquires to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027 ISBN-13: 978-0-07-874636-9 ISBN-10: 0-07-874636-1 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 071/043 12 11 10 09 08 07 About the Photo: The lava photo on the cover was taken in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park on the big island of Ha- waii. The lava in the photo is flowing from active vents on the flank of Kilauea volcano. When lava flows into the sea, sulfuric acid in the lava mixes with chlorine in the water to form a mist of water vapor and hydrochloric acid.
  • 4. Student Guide Reading for Information......................................... xxii Scavenger Hunt...................................................... xxv Unit 1 Earth Science.................................................... 2 1 The Nature of Science .........................................4 2 Mapping Our World ..........................................28 Unit 2 Composition of Earth.................................... 56 3 Matter and Change...........................................58 4 Minerals............................................................84 5 Igneous Rocks.................................................110 6 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks.............132 Unit 3 Surface Processes on Earth........................ 160 7 Weathering, Erosion, and Soil.........................162 8 Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers ............192 9 Surface Water..................................................222 10 Groundwater...................................................250 Unit 4 The Atmosphere and the Oceans.............. 278 11 Atmosphere.....................................................280 12 Meteorology....................................................312 13 The Nature of Storms......................................342 14 Climate............................................................374 15 Earth’s Oceans ................................................404 16 The Marine Environment.................................436 Unit 5 The Dynamic Earth...................................... 464 17 Plate Tectonics.................................................466 18 Volcanism........................................................498 19 Earthquakes ....................................................526 20 Mountain Building ..........................................560 Unit 6 Geologic Time .............................................. 586 21 Fossils and the Rock Record............................588 22 The Precambrian Earth....................................618 23 The Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic Eras..................................................646 Unit 7 Resources and the Environment ............... 674 24 Earth Resources ..............................................676 25 Energy Resources............................................706 26 Human Impact on Resources ..........................732 Unit 8 Beyond Earth................................................ 760 27 The Sun-Earth-Moon System...........................762 28 Our Solar System.............................................794 29 Stars................................................................828 30 Galaxies and the Universe ..............................860 National Geographic Expeditions............. 890 Student Resources....................................... 940 Skillbuilder Handbook............................................941 Reference Handbook..............................................954 English/Spanish Glossary .......................................966 Index....................................................................1004 Credits..................................................................1027 Contents in Brief iii
  • 5. Dr. Francisco Borrero is a high school Earth science and Spanish teacher at Cincinnati Country Day School and a research associate and Adjunct Curator of Mollusks at Cincinnati Museum Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. He has taught Earth science and Spanish for over 20 years. Dr. Borrero holds a BS in zoology from Universidad del Valle, Colombia, and MS and PhD degrees in biological sciences from the University of South Carolina at Columbia. Dr. Borrero’s research examines the rela- tionship between physical habitat characteristics and the diversity and distribution of natural populations of mollusks. Dr. Frances Scelsi Hess teaches Earth science at Cooperstown High School in New York. She received her BS and MS in science from the State University at Oneonta, and her EdD from Columbia University. Dr. Hess is a Fellow of the Science Teachers Association of New York State, and has received numerous teach- ing awards, including the Phi Delta Kappa Reed Travel Scholarship to Australia and New Zealand. Dr. Chia Hui (Juno) Hsu currently works as a project scientist at University of California, Irvine. She holds a BS in physics and Earth science from National Taiwan Normal University, an MS in atmospheric sciences from National Taiwan University, and a PhD in atmospheric sciences from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Before beginning her graduate work, Dr. Hsu taught 9th-grade Earth science. Her research interests include the dynamics of monsoons, climate regime shifts, and modeling global-scale atmospheric chemistry. Dr. Gerhard Kunze is professor emeritus of geology at the University of Akron in Ohio. He has a BS in science and a PhD in geophysics from Penn State University. He was an NRC research associate at Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas from 1973–1974. In 1990, Dr. Kunze was awarded a senior Fulbright scholarship to teach geophysics at the Institute of Geophysics, a department of the University of Kiel in Germany. Dr. Stephen A. Leslie is an associate professor of geology in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Arkansas in Little Rock. His areas of research include paleontology, stratigraphy, and the evolution of early life on Earth. He has a BS in geology from Bowling Green State University, an MS in geology from the University of Idaho, and a PhD in geology from The Ohio State University. iv About the Authors (ttob)CourtesyofFranciscoBorrero,(2)CourtesyofFrancesScelsiHess,(3)CourtesyofJunoHsu,(4)CourtesyofGerhardKunze,(5)CourtesyofStephenLeslie
  • 6. About the Authors v Stephen Letro has been a meteorologist for the National Weather Service, the media, and private industry since 1971. He currently serves as the Meteorologist-in-Charge of the National Weather Service office in Jacksonville, Florida. He received his BS in meteorology from Florida State University with an emphasis on tropical meteorology. He is a member of the National Hurricane Center’s Hurricane Liaison Team, and has received numerous awards, includ- ing an award for his role in restructuring the National Weather Service. Dr. Michael Manga is a professor of Earth and planetary science at U.C. Berkeley. He has a BS in geophysics from McGill University and a PhD in Earth science from Harvard University. His areas of research include vol- canology, the internal evolution and dynamics of planets, and hydrogeology. He is a MacArthur Fellow, and has received the Donath medal from the Geological Society of America and the Macelwane medal from the American Geophysical Union. Len Sharp taught Earth Science at Liverpool High School, New York, for 30 years. He has a BS in secondary education and an MS in science educa- tion from Syracuse University. Mr. Sharp was president of the Science Teachers Association of New York from1991–1992, and president of the National Earth Science Teachers Association from 1992–1994. He was a Presidential Awardee in 1995, and received the 2005 Distinguished Teacher Award from NSTA and the 2006 NAGT—Eastern Section, Outstanding Earth Science Teacher. Dr. Theodore Snow is a professor of astronomy at the University of Colorado. He has a BA from Yale University, and an MS and PhD from the University of Washington. Dr. Snow is a founder and former director of the Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy at the University of Colorado. Dr. Snow led instrument development programs for space-based telescopes, and is now a member of the Science Team for an ultraviolet spec- trograph to be installed aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in early 2008. Dinah Zike is an international curriculum consultant and inventor who has developed educational products and three-dimensional, interactive graphic organizers for over 30 years. As president and founder of Dinah-Might Adventures, L.P., Dinah is the author of more than 100 award-winning educa- tional publications, including The Big Book of Science. Dinah has a BS and an MS in educational curriculum and instruction from Texas A&M University. Dinah Zike’s Foldables are an exclusive feature of McGraw-Hill textbooks. National Geographic, founded in 1888 for the increase and diffu- sion of geographic knowledge, is the world’s largest nonprofit scientific and educational organization. The Children’s Books and Education Division of National Geographic supports National Geographic’s mission by developing innovative educational programs. National Geographic’s Visualizing and Expeditions features are exclusive components of Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe. Visit author biographies at glencoe.com. About the Authors v (ttob)CourtesyofStephenLetro,(2)CourtesyofMichaelManga,(3)CourtesyofTheodoreSnow,(4)CourtesyofDinahZike
  • 7. vi Reviewers Each teacher reviewed selected chapters of Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe, and provided feedback and suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the instruction. Mark Brazo Lincoln High School Portland, OR Gayle R. Dawson Blackman High School Murfreesboro, TN William Dicks Northville High School Northville, MI Alvin Echeverria Del Sol High School Las Vegas, NV Wendy Elkins Blue Valley Northwest High School Overland Park, KS Carolyn C. Elliot South Iredell High School Statesville, NC Sandra Forster-Terrell Atherton High School Louisville, KY Carol L. Jarocha Northville High School Northville, MI Steve Kluge Fox Lane High School Bedford, NY Sussan Nwabunachi Oladipo Wells Academy High School Chicago, IL Michael J. Passow White Plains Middle School White Plains, NY Jeremy Richardson Lewis and Clark High School Spokane, WA Angela Jones Rizzo AC Flora High School Columbia, SC Terry A. Stephens Edgewood High School Trenton, OH Francisco Borrero Cincinnati Country Day High School Cincinnati, OH Bill Brown Grandview Heights High School Columbus, OH Carmen S. Dixon East Knox High School Howard, OH Joel Heuberger Waite High School Toledo, OH Jane Karabaic Steubenville City Schools Steubenville, OH Terry Stephens Edgewood High School Trenton, OH Teacher Advisory Board The Teacher Advisory Board gave the editorial and design team feedback on the content and de- sign of the Student Edition. We thank these teachers for their hard work and creative suggestions. Reviewers
  • 8. Consultants & Teacher Advisory Board vii Content Consultants Anastasia Chopelas, PhD Research Professor of Earth and Space Sciences University of Washington Seattle, WA Diane Clayton, PhD University of California at Santa Barbara Santa Barbara, CA Sarah Gille, PhD Associate Professor Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of California San Diego San Diego, CA Alan Gishlick, PhD National Center for Science Education Oakland, CA Janet Herman, PhD Professor and Director of Program of Interdisciplinary Research in Contaminant Hydrogeology University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA David Ho, PhD Storke-Doherty Lecturer & Doherty Associate Research Scientist Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Columbia University New York, NY Jose Miguel Hurtado, PhD Associate Professor of Geology University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX Monika Kress, PhD Assistant Professor of Physics and Astronomy San Jose State University San Jose, CA Amy Leventer, PhD Associate Professor of Geology Colgate University Hamilton, NY Amala Mahadevan, PhD Associate Research Professor Department of Earth Sciences Boston University Boston, MA Nathan Niemi, PhD Assistant Professor of Geological Sciences University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI Anne Raymond, PhD Professor of Geology and Geophysics Texas A&M University College Station, TX Content consultants each reviewed selected chapters of Science Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe for content accuracy and clarity. Consultants vii
  • 9. viii Table of Contents Student Guide Reading for Information.................... xxii Scavenger Hunt .................................. xxv Unit 1 Earth Science................................ 2 Chapter 1 The Nature of Science............................ 4 Section 1 Earth Science............................................. 6 Section 2 Methods of Scientists.............................. 10 Section 3 Communication in Science...................... 17 Chapter 2 Mapping Our World.............................. 28 Section 1 Latitude and Longitude........................... 30 Section 2 Types of Maps......................................... 34 Section 3 Remote Sensing ...................................... 41 Unit 2 Composition of Earth................ 56 Chapter 3 Matter and Change .............................. 58 Section 1 Matter..................................................... 60 Section 2 Combining Matter................................... 66 Section 3 States of Matter...................................... 73 Chapter 4 Minerals................................................. 84 Section 1 What is a mineral?.................................. 86 Section 2 Types of Minerals.................................... 96 Chapter 5 Igneous Rocks..................................... 110 Section 1 What are igneous rocks?....................... 112 Section 2 Classification of Igneous Rocks............. 118 Your book is divided into chapters that are organized around Themes, Big Ideas, and Main Ideas of Earth Science. THEMES are overarching concepts used throughout the entire book that help you tie what you learn together.They help you see the connec- tions among major ideas and concepts. BIG Ideas appear in each chapter and help you focus on topics within the themes.The Big Ideas are broken down even further into Main Ideas. MAIN Ideas draw you into more specific details about Earth science.All the Main Ideas of a chapter add up to the chapter’s Big Idea. THEMES Change Structures Geologic Time Systems Scientific Inquiry BIG Idea one per chapter MAIN Idea one per section
  • 10. Table of Contents ix Chapter 6 Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks................................................ 132 Section 1 Formation of Sedimentary Rocks........... 134 Section 2 Types of Sedimentary Rocks.................. 141 Section 3 Metamorphic Rocks .............................. 145 Unit 3 Surface Processes on Earth ................................. 160 Chapter 7 Weathering, Erosion, and Soil........... 162 Section 1 Weathering ........................................... 164 Section 2 Erosion and Deposition......................... 171 Section 3 Soil........................................................ 176 Chapter 8 Mass Movements, Wind, and Glaciers ..................................... 192 Section 1 Mass Movements.................................. 194 Section 2 Wind ..................................................... 201 Section 3 Glaciers ................................................. 207 Chapter 9 Surface Water ..................................... 222 Section 1 Surface Water Movement...................... 224 Section 2 Stream Development............................. 232 Section 3 Lakes and Freshwater Wetlands............ 238 Chapter 10 Groundwater....................................... 250 Section 1 Movement and Storage of Groundwater......................................... 252 Section 2 Groundwater Weathering and Deposition...................................... 259 Section 3 Groundwater Supply ............................. 263 Unit 4 The Atmosphere and the Oceans............................. 278 Chapter 11 Atmosphere......................................... 280 Section 1 Atmospheric Basics............................... 282 Section 2 Properties of the Atmosphere ............... 289 Section 3 Clouds and Precipitation....................... 297 Chapter 12 Meteorology ....................................... 312 Section 1 The Causes of Weather.......................... 314 Section 2 Weather Systems................................... 318 Section 3 Gathering Weather Data ....................... 324 Section 4 Weather Analysis and Prediction........... 329 Chapter 13 The Nature of Storms......................... 342 Section 1 Thunderstorms ...................................... 344 Section 2 Severe Thunderstorms........................... 350 Section 3 Tropical Storms...................................... 355 Section 4 Recurrent Weather ................................ 361 Chapter 14 Climate ................................................ 374 Section 1 Defining Climate ................................... 376 Section 2 Climate Classification............................ 381 Section 3 Climatic Changes .................................. 387 Section 4 Impact of Human Activities................... 393 Chapter 15 Earth’s Oceans .................................... 404 Section 1 An Overview of Oceans......................... 406 Section 2 Seawater............................................... 413 Section 3 Ocean Movements ................................ 421 Contents
  • 11. x Table of Contents Contents Chapter 16 The Marine Environment ................... 436 Section 1 Shoreline Features................................. 438 Section 2 Seafloor Features .................................. 447 Unit 5 The Dynamic Earth.................. 464 Chapter 17 Plate Tectonics.................................... 466 Section 1 Drifting Continents................................ 468 Section 2 Seafloor Spreading................................ 473 Section 3 Plate Boundaries................................... 480 Section 4 Causes of Plate Motions ....................... 486 Chapter 18 Volcanism ............................................ 498 Section 1 Volcanoes.............................................. 500 Section 2 Eruptions............................................... 508 Section 3 Intrusive Activity ................................... 514 Chapter 19 Earthquakes ........................................ 526 Section 1 Forces Within Earth............................... 528 Section 2 Seismic Waves and Earth’s Interior ....... 534 Section 3 Measuring and Locating Earthquakes... 539 Section 4 Earthquakes and Society....................... 545 Chapter 20 Mountain Building.............................. 560 Section 1 Crust-Mantle Relationships................... 562 Section 2 Orogeny ................................................ 567 Section 3 Other Types of Mountain Building ........ 574 Unit 6 Geologic Time .......................... 586 Chapter 21 Fossils and the Rock Record.............. 588 Section 1 The Rock Record ................................... 590 Section 2 Relative-Age Dating.............................. 595 Section 3 Absolute-Age Dating............................. 601 Section 4 Fossil Remains....................................... 606 Chapter 22 The Precambrian Earth ...................... 618 Section 1 Early Earth............................................. 620 Section 2 Formation of the Crust and Continents...................................... 623 Section 3 Formation of the Atmosphere and Oceans ........................................... 628 Section 4 Early Life on Earth................................. 633 Chapter 23 The Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic Eras .................................. 646 Section 1 The Paleozoic Era .................................. 648 Section 2 The Mesozoic Era.................................. 655 Section 3 The Cenozoic Era................................... 660 Unit 7 Resources and the Environment .................. 674 Chapter 24 Earth Resources.................................. 676 Section 1 Natural Resources................................. 678 Section 2 Resources from Earth’s Crust ................ 682 Section 3 Air Resources ........................................ 687 Section 4 Water Resources ................................... 693
  • 12. Table of Contents xi Contents Chapter 25 Energy Resources ............................... 706 Section 1 Conventional Energy Resources............ 708 Section 2 Alternative Energy Resources................ 714 Section 3 Conservation of Energy Resources........ 720 Chapter 26 Human Impact on Resources............. 732 Section 1 Populations and the Use of Natural Resources................................. 734 Section 2 Human Impact on Land Resources........ 737 Section 3 Human Impact on Air Resources........... 743 Section 4 Human Impact on Water Resources ...... 748 Unit 8 Beyond Earth............................ 760 Chapter 27 The Sun-Earth-Moon System............. 762 Section 1 Tools of Astronomy ............................... 764 Section 2 The Moon.............................................. 770 Section 3 The Sun-Earth-Moon System................. 775 Chapter 28 Our Solar System................................ 794 Section 1 Formation of the Solar System.............. 796 Section 2 The Inner Planets .................................. 804 Section 3 The Outer Planets.................................. 811 Section 4 Other Solar System Objects................... 816 Chapter 29 Stars..................................................... 828 Section 1 The Sun ................................................. 830 Section 2 Measuring the Stars.............................. 837 Section 3 Stellar Evolution.................................... 847 Chapter 30 Galaxies and the Universe................. 860 Section 1 The Milky Way Galaxy........................... 862 Section 2 Other Galaxies in the Universe ............. 869 Section 3 Cosmology ............................................ 878 National Geographic Expeditions are referenced within the units and chapters at point of use, to support or extend chapter content. Student Resources Skillbuilder Handbook ....................... 940 Problem-Solving Skills Make Comparisons ................................................... 941 Analyze Information ................................................. 942 Synthesize Information ............................................. 943 Take Notes and Outline............................................. 944 Understand Cause and Effect.................................... 945 Read a Time Line....................................................... 946 Analyze Media Sources............................................. 947 Use Graphic Organizers ............................................ 948 Debate Skills............................................................. 949 Math Skills Measure in SI............................................................ 950 Convert Temperature ............................................... 950 Make and Use Tables................................................ 951 Make and Use Graphs .............................................. 951 Reference Handbook.......................... 954 Safety in the Laboratory............................................ 954 Physiographic Map of Earth...................................... 956 Topographic Symbols................................................ 958 Weather Map Symbols.............................................. 959 Periodic Table of the Elements.................................. 960 Relative Humidity...................................................... 961 Minerals.................................................................... 962 Rocks ........................................................................ 964 Solar System Charts.................................................. 965 Glossary/Glosario ............................... 966 Index.................................................. 1004 Credits ............................................... 1027 eXpeditions!
  • 13. Chapter LAUNCH LabLab Start off each chapter with a hands-on introduction to the subject matter. 1 Why is precise communication important?......... 5 2 Can you make an accurate map?................... 29 3 What do fortified cereals contain?................. 59 4 What shapes do minerals form? .................... 85 5 How are minerals identified?.......................111 6 What happened here?..................................133 7 How does change relate to surface area?....163 8 How does water affect sediments on slopes?....................................................193 9 How does water infiltrate?...........................223 10 How is water stored underground?..............251 11 What causes cloud formation?.....................281 12 How does a cold air mass form?..................313 13 Why does lighting form?..............................343 14 How can you model cloud cover?................375 15 How much of Earth’s surface is covered by water?.....................................................405 16 Where does chalk form? ..............................437 17 Is California moving? ...................................467 18 What makes magma rise?............................499 19 What can cause an earthquake?..................527 20 How does crust displace mantle? ................561 21 How are fossils made?.................................589 22 How do liquids of different densities model early Earth?.......................................619 23 How is oil stored in rocks?...........................647 24 What natural resources do you use in your classroom?...........................................677 25 Can you identify sources of energy?............707 26 What resources are used in classroom items? ..........................................................733 27 How can the Sun-Earth-Moon system be modeled? ................................................763 28 What can be learned from space missions? ...........................................795 29 How can you observe sunspots?..................829 30 How big is the Milky Way? ..........................861 xii Launch Labs Chapter David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit
  • 14. Labs Chapter Chapter Build your analytical skills using actual data from real scientific sources. Data Analysis labData Analysis lab 1 Make and Use Graphs: How can graphs help interpret data? ............................................... 18 4 Make and Use a Table: What information should you include in a mineral identification chart?....................................... 94 7 Interpret the Data: How can you determine a soil’s texture?............................................182 8 Interpret the Data: How much radioactivity is in ice cores?..............................................208 13 Interpret the Table: How can you calculate a heat wave? ...............................................364 14 Interpret the Data: What is the temperature in Phoenix, Arizona? ....................................377 15 Graph Data: When does the tide come in? ......................................................423 18 Interpret the Graph: How do zones of volcanism relate to lava production?...........501 19 Interpret the Data: How can you find an earthquake’s epicenter?..........................543 20 Make and Use a Graph: Can you get a rebound?...................................................565 23 Interpret the Table: Can you find the time?......................................................652 24 Interpret Graphs: What is the rate of deforestation in the Amazon?......................688 25 Make and Use Graphs: What proportion of energy resource types are used to heat homes? ................................................722 26 Interpret the Data: Are you breathing cleaner air? ..................................................746 29 Interpret Data: Can you identify elements in a star?......................................................835 Data Analysis Labs and Problem-Solving Labs xiii Use math-based skill activities that often require data interpretation and graphing. Problem-Solving labProblem-Solving lab 2 Calculate Gradients: How can you analyze changes in elevation? .................................... 37 3 Interpret Scientific Illustrations: How do compounds form? .......................................... 70 5 Interpret Scientific Illustrations: How do you estimate mineral composition? .............122 6 Interpret Scientific Illustrations: Which metamorphic minerals will form? ................148 9 Interpret the Graph: How do sediments move in a stream? .......................................227 10 Make a Topographic Profile: How does water level vary in an artesian well? ...........264 11 Interpret the Graph: How do you calculate relative humidity? ........................................294 12 Interpret a Scientific Illustration: How do you analyze a weather map?.......................330 16 Interpret Graphs: How do surface elevations compare? ....................................449 17 Interpret Scientific Illustrations: How does plate motion change along a transform boundary?....................................................484 21 Interpret the Diagram: How do you interpret the relative ages of rock layers? ..................599 22 Calculate Profits: How do you calculate mining profits?.............................................630 27 Interpret Scientific Illustrations: How can you predict how a solar eclipse will look to an observer at various positions?............782 28 Apply Kepler’s Third Law: How well do the orbits of the planets conform to Kepler’s third law?.....................................................807 30 Make and Use Graphs: How was the Hubble Constant derived?........................................874
  • 15. Labs Chapter Chapter Practice scientific methods and hone your lab skills with these quick activities. 1 Determine the Relationship Between Variables: How do the rates of heat absorption and release vary between soil and water?............ 12 2 Locate Places on Earth: How can you locate specific places on Earth with latitude and longitude?............................................... 32 3 Identify Elements: What elements are in your classroom?............................................. 62 4 Recognize Cleavage and Fracture: How is cleavage used?............................................... 92 5 Compare Igneous Rocks: How do igneous rocks differ? .................................................115 6 Model Sediment Layering: How do layers form in sedimentary rocks?..........................136 7 Model Erosion: How do rocks erode? ..........172 8 Model Glacial Deposition: How do glaciers deposit different types of rocks and sediments?............................................210 9 Model Lake Formation: How do surface materials determine where lakes form?.......240 10 Model an Artesian Well: How does an artesian well form?......................................265 11 Investigate Dew Formation: How does dew form?....................................................295 12 Compare the Angles of Sunlight to Earth: What is the relationship between the angle of sunlight and amount of heating? ............315 13 Model Flood Conditions: How can mild rains cause floods?.......................................362 14 Model the Greenhouse Effect: How does the atmosphere trap radiation? ...................394 15 Model Seawater: What is the chemical composition of seawater?............................416 16 Measure Sediment Settling Rates: How fast do sediment grains sink? .............................453 17 Model Ocean-Basin Formation: How did a divergent boundary form the South Atlantic Ocean?............................................481 18 Model a Caldera: How do calderas form?....505 19 Make a Map: How is a seismic-intensity map made?..................................................541 20 Model Isostatic Rebound: How can isostatic rebound be measured? ................................564 21 Determine Relative Age: How is relative age determined?..........................................597 22 Model Red Bed Formation: Why are red beds red? .....................................................631 23 Model Continental Shelf Area: How does shelf area change when continents collide?.........653 24 Determine the Hardness of Water: How easily are soap suds produced? ...........695 25 Model Oil Migration: How does oil move through layers of porous rocks?...................712 26 Model Nutrient Loss: How does soil lose nutrients when subjected to farming, strip- mining, or development? .............................740 27 Predict the Sun’s Summer Solstice Position: How can the Sun’s position during the summer solstice be determined at specific latitudes?.........................................776 28 Explore Eccentricity: How is eccentricity of an ellipse calculated?...................................801 29 Model Parallax: How does parallax angle change with distance? .................................843 30 Model Expansion: What does uniform expansion look like?.....................................873 xiv MiniLabs
  • 16. Chapter Chapter GeoLabs xv Apply the skills you developed in Launch Labs, Data Analysis Labs, Problem- Solving Labs, and MiniLabs in these chapter-ending, real-world labs. 1 Measurement and SI Units............................. 21 2 Mapping: Use a Topographic Map.............. 48 3 Precipitate Salts ............................................. 77 4 Design Your Own: Make a Field Guide For Minerals .................................................103 5 Design Your Own: Model Crystal Formation.....................................................125 6 Interpret Changes in Rocks..........................153 7 Model Mineral Weathering ..........................185 8 Mapping: Map a Landslide.......................214 9 Predict the Velocity of a Stream...................243 10 Mapping: Track Groundwater Pollution.......................................................270 11 Interpret Pressure-Temperature Relationships................................................305 12 Mapping: Interpret a Weather Map..........334 13 Internet: Track a Tropical Cyclone.............367 14 Design Your Own: Identify a Microclimate ................................397 15 Model Water Masses....................................429 16 Mapping: Identify Coastal Landforms.......456 17 Model Plate Boundaries and Isochrons........490 18 Internet: Predict the Safety of a Volcano .....................................................519 19 Relate Epicenters and Plate Tectonics ..........553 20 Mapping: Make a Map Profile..................578 21 Design Your Own: Interpret History-Shaping Events ................................611 22 Mapping: Map Continental Growth..........639 23 Solving Dinosaur Fossil Puzzles....................667 24 Design Your Own: Monitor Daily Water Usage ................................................699 25 Design Your Own: Design an Energy- Efficient Building..........................................725 26 Mapping: Pinpoint a Source Of Pollution..................................................752 27 Mapping: Determine Relative Ages of Lunar Features .........................................786 28 Design Your Own: Model the Solar System.................................................821 29 Identify Stellar Spectral Lines.......................853 30 Internet: Classify Galaxies........................883 Labs
  • 17. Explore today’s world of Earth science. Go along on an Earth science expedition, delve into new technologies, uncover discoveries impacting the environment, and discover the hot topics in Earth science. Chapter 2 Mapping Disaster Zones...........................47 Chapter 3 Liquid Crystal Displays..............................76 Chapter 7 Space-Age Technology Shapes Modern Farming.........................184 Chapter 21 Discovering Dinosaur Tissues..................610 Chapter 22 Exploring Mars .......................................638 Chapter 26 Measuring and Modeling Global Warming......................................751 Chapter 28 Water in the Solar System......................820 Chapter 29 Space Weather and Earth Systems .........852 Chapter 30 Black Holes Are Green?..........................882 Chapter 8 Slipping Away.........................................213 Chapter 9 The World of Water.................................242 Chapter 12 Weather Forecasting— Precision from Chaos..............................333 Chapter 14 Effects of Global Warming on the Arctic...........................................396 Chapter 19 Learning from the Past...........................552 Chapter 24 The Price of Water ..................................698 Chapter 5 Moon Rocks ...........................................124 Chapter 10 Watcher of the Water .............................269 Chapter 11 Ozone Variation......................................304 Chapter 15 Bacterial Counts and Full Moons ...........428 Chapter 17 Vailulu’u Seamount ................................489 Chapter 25 Bacteria Power!......................................724 Explore environmental issues that influence Earth science. Discover recent advancements that have influenced Earth science. Examine Earth science in the news and sharpen your debating skills on complex issues in Earth science. Get an inside look at exciting places and scientists doing real-world Earth science.eXpeditions! Chapter 1 On Site: In the Footsteps of Disaster ........20 Chapter 4 On Site: Crystals at Large in Mexico.......102 Chapter 6 On Site: Geology in Central Park............152 Chapter 13 On Site: Storm Spotters ..........................366 Chapter 16 On Site: Surveying the Deep Ocean Floor............................................455 Chapter 18 On Site: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory............................................518 Chapter 20 On Site: Hiking the Appalachian Trail....................................577 Chapter 23 On Site: Digging for Dinosaurs...............666 Chapter 27 On Site: Living in Space..........................785 xvi Real-World Earth Science Features
  • 18. Careers xvii Investigate a day in the life of people working in the field of Earth science.Careers in EARTH SCIENCE 1 Major Events in Earth Science.................... 14 2 Mapping Technology.................................. 42 4 Mineral Use Through Time.......................... 98 9 Floods in Focus......................................... 228 13 Storm Tracking ......................................... 358 15 Developments in Oceanography .............. 406 18 Volcanoes in Focus................................... 502 19 Major Earthquakes and Advances in Research and Design............................ 530 21 Fossil Discoveries and Technology............ 592 25 Development of Alternative Energy Sources......................................... 716 27 Development of Astronomy...................... 766 Chapter Chapter History in Focus Interactive Time Line Interactive Time Lines explore science and history through milestones in Earth science. Unit 1 Speleologist........................................... 2 Chapter 2 Cartographer............................................44 Unit 2 Geologist...............................................56 Chapter 4 Lapidary....................................................90 Chapter 6 Sedimentologist......................................138 Unit 3 Glaciologist.........................................160 Chapter 7 Landscaper .............................................177 Chapter 9 Geochemist Technician...........................240 Chapter 10 Hydrogeologist .......................................266 Unit 4 Marine Scientist .................................278 Chapter 11 Weather Observer...................................298 Chapter 12 Meteorologist.........................................316 Chapter 13 Hurricane Hunter....................................360 Chapter 14 Climatologist..........................................377 Chapter 15 Oceanographer.......................................408 Unit 5 Volcanologist......................................464 Chapter 17 Marine Geologist....................................475 Chapter 20 Petrologist ..............................................568 Unit 6 Archaeologist .....................................586 Chapter 21 Petroleum Geologist...............................600 Chapter 22 Planetary Geologist................................622 Chapter 23 Paleoecologist ........................................652 Unit 7 Environmental Technician .................674 Chapter 24 Materials Engineer .................................680 Chapter 25 Environmental Consultant......................721 Chapter 26 Hydrologist.............................................750 Unit 8 Astronaut............................................760 Chapter 27 Space Engineer.......................................765 Chapter 28 Planetologist ..........................................798 Chapter 29 Spectroscopist ........................................845 Chapter 30 Computer Programmer...........................876
  • 19. 1 Visualizing Scientific Methods.................... 11 2 Visualizing GPS Satellites........................... 45 3 Visualizing Bonds....................................... 69 4 Visualizing the Silica Tetrahedron............... 97 5 Visualizing Fractional Crystallization and Crystal Settling.................................. 116 6 Visualizing Cross-Bedding and Ripple Marks............................................ 139 7 Visualizing Soil Orders ............................. 181 8 Visualizing Continental Glacial Features.. 211 9 Visualizing Erosion and Deposition in a Meander............................................ 235 10 Visualizing Springs................................... 257 11 Visualizing the Layers of the Atmosphere........................................ 285 12 Visualizing the Coriolis Effect................... 319 13 Visualizing Cyclone Formation ................. 357 14 Visualizing Worldwide Climates............... 382 15 Visualizing the Salt Cycle......................... 415 16 Visualizing the Ocean Floor ..................... 450 17 Visualizing Seafloor Spreading................. 478 18 Visualizing Eruptions................................ 511 19 Visualizing Seismic Waves........................ 537 20 Visualizing the Rise and Fall of the Appalachians...................................... 572 21 Visualizing the Geologic Time Scale......... 591 22 Visualizing Continent Formation.............. 626 23 Visualizing the Basin and Range Province ........................................ 663 24 Visualizing Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles........................................ 689 25 Visualizing Coal........................................ 711 26 Visualizing Agricultural Practices ............. 741 27 Visualizing the Phases of the Moon......... 779 28 Visualizing the Kuiper Belt....................... 817 29 Visualizing Star Groupings....................... 839 30 Visualizing The Local Group..................... 871 Chapter Chapter Analyze complex Earth science topics with animations of the National Geographic Visualizing pages. xviii Concepts in Motion Check your understanding by viewing interactive versions of tables in your text.Interactive Tables 1 Subspecialties of Earth Science.....................7 2 Types of Maps and Projections .................. 39 4 Mohs Scale of Hardness............................. 91 Special Properties of Minerals.................... 94 5 Types of Magma....................................... 112 6 Classification of Sedimentary Rocks......... 142 8 Types of Dunes......................................... 205 10 World’s Water Supply............................... 252 11 Components of the Atmosphere .............. 284 12 Air Mass Characteristics........................... 316 13 Fujita Tornado Intensity Scale................... 353 The Heat Index......................................... 363 15 Removal of Sea Salts................................ 416 17 Summary of Convergent Boundaries........ 483 18 Types of Volcanoes................................... 506 19 Types of Faults ......................................... 531 Modified Mercalli Scale............................ 540 21 Half-Lives of Selected Radioactive Isotopes.................................................... 603 22 How Life Might Have Begun on Earth: Three Hypotheses..................................... 634 23 Major Extinctions in the Phanerozoic....... 659 25 Advantages of Public Transportation........ 721 27 Orbiting Telescopes .................................. 768 The Moon and Earth ................................ 772 28 Physical Data of the Planets..................... 798 29 Relative Properties of the Sun.................. 830 Relationships of Spectral Types of Stars... 844 Properties of Main-Sequence Stars .......... 845 30 Population I and II Stars of the Milky Way ................................................ 866 Chapter Chapter
  • 20. Concepts in Motion xix 2 Time Zones................................................. 33 Map Projections......................................... 34 3 Electron Cloud............................................ 60 Periodic Table of Elements.......................... 61 Ionic Bonding............................................. 68 Electron Flow ............................................. 68 pH Scale..................................................... 71 8 Rockslides ................................................ 197 Dune Migration........................................ 204 Glacier Formation..................................... 207 9 Water Cycle.............................................. 224 Meander Formation.................................. 234 10 Saltwater Contamination ......................... 267 11 Conduction, Convection, and Radiation... 288 12 Fronts ....................................................... 322 13 Thunderstorm Development..................... 347 Tornado Formation................................... 352 Tropical Cyclones...................................... 355 14 Seasons.................................................... 388 Greenhouse Effect.................................... 393 15 Waves....................................................... 421 16 Longshore Currents.................................. 441 17 Continental Drift ...................................... 469 18 Subduction............................................... 501 Divergent Plate Boundaries...................... 502 Caldera Formation.................................... 505 19 Faults........................................................ 528 Seismic Waves.......................................... 532 Seismometers........................................... 534 P-Waves and S-Waves.............................. 536 Tsunami.................................................... 548 20 Isosasty .................................................... 564 Island Formation ...................................... 568 Convergence ............................................ 570 Folding Rocks........................................... 571 21 Angular Unconformity.............................. 598 Alpha Decay............................................. 601 Half-Lives ................................................. 602 22 Miller-Urey Experiment ............................ 633 24 Distillation................................................ 697 25 Geothermal Power ................................... 717 Fission Reactor......................................... 718 26 Carrying Capacity..................................... 735 How Smog Forms..................................... 744 Ozone Depletion ...................................... 745 27 Moon Impact Theory ................................ 774 Eclipse...................................................... 782 28 Gravitational Attraction ........................... 802 29 Doppler Effect .......................................... 840 Parallax .................................................... 841 Star Formation ......................................... 848 Helium Core ............................................. 849 Chapter Chapter Enhance and enrich your knowledge of Earth science concepts through simple and 3D animations of visuals. Animated Art Concepts in Motion
  • 21. Swim the Okavango... Explore the African Landscape... Dig for Dinosaurs... W hat is it like to scuba dive with crocodiles in the Okavango delta? Or fly in a bush plane over the African continent? Or dig for dinosaurs in China? The National Geographic Expeditions allow you to share in the excitement and adventures of explorers, scientists, and environmentalists as they venture into the unknown. Each Expedition takes you on a journey that enriches your learning about our dynamic planet. eXpeditions! xx National Geographic Expeditions
  • 22. Table of Contents 892 Tracing the Human footprint Use with Chapter 2 898 State of Rock Use with Chapters 7 and 8 904 Okavango Use with Chapters 9 and 10 910 Super Storms Use with Chapters 11 and 13 916 The Next Big One Use with Chapter 19 922 Jewels in the Ash Use with Chapter 21 928 Frogs Use with Chapter 26 934 Night Vision Use with Chapters 27 and 28 For more information on these Expeditions, visit glencoe.com. You can also link to original National Geographic articles that cover these topics and more. National Geographic Expeditions xxi National Geographic Expeditions
  • 23. When you read Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe, you need to read for information. Science is nonfiction writing; it describes real-life events, people, ideas, and technology. Here are some tools that this book has to help you read. Before You Read By reading the BIG Ideas and MAIN Ideas prior to reading the chapter or section, you will get a preview of the coming material. 464464 Chapter 17 Plate Tectonics BIG Idea Most geologic activity occurs at the boundaries between plates. Chapter 18 Volcanism BIG Idea Volcanoes develop from magma moving upward from deep within Earth. Chapter 19 Earthquakes BIG Idea Earthquakes are natu- ral vibrations of the ground, some of which are caused by movement along fractures in Earth’s crust. Chapter 20 Mountain Building BIG Idea Mountains form through dynamic processes which crumple, fold, and create faults in Earth’s crust. CAREERS IN EARTH SCIENCE Volcanologist This volcanologist is monitoring volcanic activity to help forecast an eruption. Volcanologists spend much of their time in the field, collecting samples and measuring changes in the shape of a volcano. Earth Science Visit glencoe.com to learn more about the work of volcanologists. Then write a short newspaper article about how volcanologists predicted a recent eruption. The Dynamic Earth 464_465_UO5_874636.indd 464 2/16/07 4:33:13 PM Source: Unit 5, p. 464 Each unit preview lists the chapters in the unit. An overall BIG Idea is listed for each chapter. The Big Idea describes what you will learn in the chapter. 498 BIG Idea Volcanoes develop from magma moving upward from deep within Earth. 18.1 Volcanoes MAIN Idea The locations of volcanoes are mostly determined by plate tectonics. 18.2 Eruptions MAIN Idea The composition of magma determines the char- acteristics of a volcanic eruption. 18.3 Intrusive Activity MAIN Idea Magma that solid- ifies below ground forms geo- logic features different from those formed by magma that cools at the surface. GeoFacts • All the lava from Kilauea could pave a road three times around Earth. • There are 500 active volcanoes on Earth today. • Magma comes from the Greek word meaning dough. • Many of Earth’s geographic features are caused by volcanoes. Destruction by lava Volcanism Lava river Volcanic eruption 498_499_C18_CO_874636.indd 498 2/6/07 3:30:36 PM Source: Chapter 18, p. 498 The MAIN Ideas within a chapter support the BIG Idea of the chapter. Each section of the chapter has a Main Idea that describes the focus of the section. • Read the chapter title to find out what the topic will be. • Skim the photos, illustrations, captions, graphs, and tables. • Look for vocabulary terms that are boldfaced and highlighted. • Create an outline using section titles and heads. OTHER WAYS TO PREVIEW xxii Reading for Information
  • 24. Reading for Information As You Read Within each section you will find a tool to deepen your understanding and a tool to check your understanding. South America Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean Indian Ocean Active volcano Plate boundary Circum-Pacific belt Tambora Krakatoa Pinatubo Fujiyama Mauna Loa Augustine Mount St. Helens Surtsey Vesuvius Santorini Etna Katmai Kilauea Pelée Fernandina Cotopaxi North America Europe Africa Asia Australia Parícutin Popocatepetl 500 Chapter 18 • Volcanism Section 1188.1.1 Objectives ◗◗ Describe how plate tectonics influ- ences the formation of volcanoes. ◗◗ Locate major zones of volcanism. ◗◗ Identify the parts of a volcano. ◗◗ Differentiate between volcanic landforms. Review Vocabulary convergent: tending to move toward one point or to approach each other New Vocabulary volcanism hot spot flood basalt fissure conduit vent crater caldera shield volcano cinder cone composite volcano Volcanoes MAIN Idea The locations of volcanoes are mostly determined by plate tectonics. Real-World Reading Link Road crews spread salt on icy winter roads because salt makes the ice melt at a lower temperature. At extremely high tem- peratures, rocks can melt. Often, if heated rocks are in contact with water, they melt more easily. Zones of Volcanism Volcanoes are fueled by magma. Recall from Chapter 5 that magma is a slushy mixture of molten rock, mineral crystals, and gases. As you observed in the Launch Lab, once magma forms, it rises toward Earth’s surface because it is less dense than the sur- rounding mantle and crust. Magma that reaches Earth’s surface is called lava. Volcanism describes all the processes associated with the discharge of magma, hot fluids, and gases. As you read this, approximately 20 volcanoes are erupting. In a given year, volcanoes will erupt in about 60 different places on Earth. The distribution of volcanoes on Earth’s surface is not random. A map of active volcanoes, shown in Figure 18.1, reveals striking pat- terns on Earth’s surface. Most volcanoes form at plate boundaries. The majority form at convergent boundaries and divergent boundar- ies. Along these margins, magma rises toward Earth’s surface. Only about 5 percent of magma erupts far from plate boundaries. ■ Figure 18.1 Most of Earth’s active volcanoes are located along plate boundaries. 500_507_C18_S01_874636.indd 500 2/6/07 2:47:40 PM Source: Section 18.1, p. 500 The Real-World Reading Link describes how the section’s content may relate to you. Interactive Figure To see an animation of divergent plate boundaries, visit glencoe.com. 502 Chapter 18 • Volcanism Divergent volcanism Recall from Chapter 17 that at diver- gent plate boundaries tectonic plates move apart and new ocean floor is produced as magma rises to fill the gap. At ocean ridges, this lava takes the form of giant pillows like those in Figure 18.3, and is called pillow lava. Unlike the explosive volcanoes detailed in Figure 18.4, volcanism at divergent boundaries tends to be non- explosive, with effusions of large amounts of lava. About two- thirds of Earth’s volcanism occurs underwater along divergent boundaries at ocean ridges. Reading Check Convert the fraction of volcanism that happens underwater to a percentage. Hot spots Some volcanoes form far from plate boundaries over hot spots. Scientists hypothesize that hot spots are unusually hot regions of Earth’s mantle where high-temperature plumes of magma rise to the surface. ■ Figure 18.3 Eruptions at divergent boundaries tend to be nonexplosive. At the divergent boundary on the ocean floor, eruptions often form huge piles of lava called pillow lava. ■ Figure 18.4 Volcanoes in Focus Volcanoes constantly shape Earth’s surface. 4845 B.C. Mount Mazama erupts in Oregon. The mountain collapses into a 9-km-wide depression, known today as Crater Lake (topographic map). A.D. 79 Mount Vesuvius in Italy erupts, burying two cities in ash. 1630 B.C. In Greece, Santorini explodes, causing tsunamis 200 m high. Nearby, Minoan civilization on the Isle of Crete disappears. VOCABULARY SCIENCE USAGE V. COMMON USAGE Plume Science usage: an elongated column Common usage: a large, showy feather of a bird 500_507_C18_S01_874636.indd 502 2/6/07 2:47:51 PM Source: Section 18.1, p. 502 Reading Checks are questions that assess your understanding. Reading for Information xxiii
  • 25. Scavenger HuntReading for Information After You Read • Ask yourself: What is the BIG Idea ? What is the MAIN Idea ? • Think about people, places, and situations that you’ve encountered. Are there any similarities with those mentioned in this book? • Relate the information in this book to other areas you have studied. • Predict events or outcomes by using clues and information that you already know. • Change your predictions as you read and gather new information. Follow up your reading with a summary and assessment of the material to evaluate if you understood the text. OTHER READING SKILLS Source: Section 18.1, p. 507 Each section concludes with an assessment. The assess- ment contains a summary and questions. The summary reviews the section’s key concepts while the questions test your understanding. Vocabulary PuzzleMaker biologygmh.com520 Chapter 18 • Study Guide520 Chapter 18 • Study Guide Vocabulary Key Concepts Section 18.1 Volcanoes • caldera (p. 505) • cinder cone (p. 507) • composite volcano (p. 507) • conduit (p. 505) • crater (p. 505) • fissure (p. 504) • flood basalt (p. 504) • hot spot (p. 502) • shield volcano (p. 507) • vent (p. 505) • volcanism (p. 500) MAIN Idea The locations of volcanoes are mostly determined by plate tectonics. • Volcanism includes all the processes in which magma and gases rise to Earth’s surface. • Most volcanoes on land are part of two major volcanic chains: the Circum-Pacific Belt and the Mediterranean Belt. • Parts of a volcano include a vent, magma chamber, crater, and caldera. • Flood basalts form when lava flows from fissures to form flat plains or plateaus. • There are three major types of volcanoes: shield, composite, and cinder cone. Section 18.2Section 18.2 Eruptions • pyroclastic flow (p. 513) • tephra (p. 512) • viscosity (p. 509) MAIN Idea The composition of magma determines the characteristics of a volcanic eruption. • There are three major types of magma: basaltic, andesitic, and rhyolitic. • Because of their relative silica contents, basaltic magma is the least explo- sive magma and rhyolitic magma is the most explosive. • Temperature, pressure, and the presence of water are factors that affect the formation of magma. • Rock fragments ejected during eruptions are called tephra. Section 18.3Section 18.3 Intrusive Activity • batholith (p. 515) • dike (p. 516) • laccolith (p. 515) • pluton (p. 514) • sill (p. 515) • stock (p. 515) MAIN Idea Magma that solidifies below ground forms geologic features different from those formed by magma that cools at the surface. • Intrusive igneous rocks are classified according to their size, shape, and relationship to the surrounding rocks. • Most of Earth’s volcanism happens below Earth’s surface. • Magma can intrude into rock in different ways, taking different forms when it cools. • Batholiths form the core of many mountain ranges. Download quizzes, key terms, and flash cards from glencoe.com. Vocabulary PuzzleMaker glencoe.com BIG Idea Volcanoes develop from magma moving upward from deep within Earth. 520_523_C18_CA_874636.indd 520 2/6/07 2:54:40 PM At the end of each chapter you will find a Study Guide. The chapter’s vocabulary words as well as key concepts are listed here. Use this guide for review and to check your comprehension. • State the BIG Idea . • Relate the MAIN Idea to the BIG Idea . • Use your own words to explain what you read. • Apply this new information in other school subjects or at home. • Identify sources you could use to find out more information about the topic. OTHER WAYS TO REVIEW Self-Check Quiz glencoe.com Section 1 • Volcanoes 507 Types of Volcanoes The appearance of a volcano depends on two factors: the type of material that forms the volcano and the type of eruptions that occur. Based on these two criteria, three major types of volcanoes have been identified and are shown in Table 18.1. Each differs in size, shape, and composition. Shield volcanoes A shield volcano is a mountain with broad, gently sloping sides and a nearly circular base. Shield volcanoes form when layers of lava accumulate during nonexplosive erup- tions. They are the largest type of volcano. Mauna Loa, which is shown in Table 18.1, is a shield volcano. Cinder cones When eruptions eject small pieces of magma into the air, cinder cones form as this material, called tephra, falls back to Earth and piles up around the vent. Cinder cones have steep sides and are generally small; most are less than 500 m high. The Lassen Volcanic Park cinder cone shown in Table 18.1 is 700 m high. Cinder cones often form on or very near larger volcanoes. Composite volcanoes Composite volcanoes are formed of layers of hardened chunks of lava from violent eruptions alternat- ing with layers of lava that oozed downslope before solidifying. Composite volcanoes are generally cone-shaped with concave slopes, and are much larger than cinder cones. Because of their explosive nature, they are potentially dangerous to humans and the environment. Some examples of these are Mount Augustine in Alaska, shown in Table 18.1, and several in the Cascade Range of the western United States, such as Mount St. Helens. Section 1818..11 Assessment Section Summary ◗◗ Volcanism includes all the processes in which magma and gases rise to Earth’s surface. ◗◗ Most volcanoes on land are part of two major volcanic chains: the Circum-Pacific Belt and the Mediterranean Belt. ◗◗ Parts of a volcano include a vent, magma chamber, crater, and caldera. ◗◗ Flood basalts form when lava flows from fissures to form flat plains or plateaus. ◗◗ There are three major types of volcanoes: shield, composite, and cinder cone. Understand Main Ideas 1. MAIN Idea Explain how the location of volcanoes is related to the theory of plate tectonics. 2. Identify two volcanoes in the Mediterranean Belt. 3. Draw a volcano, labeling the parts. 4. Propose Yellowstone National Park is an area of previous volcanism. Using a map of the United States, suggest the type(s) of tectonic processes associated with this area. Think Critically 5. Evaluate the following statement: Volcanoes are only found along coastlines. 6. Decide whether a flood basalt is or is not a volcano. Earth ScienceMATH in 7. If the Pacific Plate has moved 500 km in the last 4.7 million years, calculate its average velocity in centimeters per year. Refer to the Skillbuilder Handbook for more information. Careers In Earth Science Volcanologist Scientists who study eruptions, lava, magma, and the conditions under which these form are volcanologists. Some work in the field, studying active volcanoes. Many volcanologists also work in the laboratory to understand how rocks melt to form magma. To learn more about Earth science careers, visit glencoe.com. FOLDABLES Incorporate information from this section into your Foldable. 500_507_C18_S01_874636.indd 507 2/6/07 2:48:41 PM Source: Chapter 18, p. 520 xxiv Reading for Information
  • 26. Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe is full of important information and useful resources. Use the activity below to familiarize yourself with the tools and information in this book. As you complete this scavenger hunt, either alone or with your teacher or family, you will learn quickly how this book is organized and how to get the most out of your reading and study time. How many units are in this book? How many chapters? On what page does the glossary begin? What glossary is online? In what two areas can you find a listing of laboratory safety symbols? Suppose you want to find a list of all the MiniLabs, Data Analysis Labs, and GeoLabs. Where in the front do you look? How can you quickly find the pages that have information about hurricanes? What is the name of the table that summarizes the key concepts of a chapter? In what special feature can you find information on unit conver- sions? What are the page numbers? On what page can you find the BIG Ideas for Unit 1? On what page can you find the MAIN Ideas for Chapter 2? What feature at the start of each unit provides insight into Earth scientists in action? Name four activities that are found at . What study tool shown at the beginning of a chapter can you make from notebook paper? Where do you go to view ? and are two types of end-of-chapter features. What are the other two types? Scavenger Hunt xxv
  • 27. 22 Chapter 1 The Nature of Science BIG Idea Earth scientists use specific methods to investigate Earth and beyond. Chapter 2 Mapping Our World BIG Idea Earth scientists use mapping technologies to investigate and describe the world. CAREERS IN EARTH SCIENCE Speleologist This speleologist, a scientist who studies caves, descends into a 200-m- deep sinkhole. Speleologists use scientific methods to make maps, collect samples, and make observations of incredible landforms result- ing from geologic processes. Earth Science Visit glencoe.com to learn more about speleologists. What would it be like to explore an undiscovered cave? Write a journal entry about leading a team of speleologists on such an adventure. Earth Science
  • 28. Unit 1 • Earth Science 3 To learn more about speleologists, visit glencoe.com. Stephen Alvarez/National Geographic Image Collection
  • 29. 4 GeoFacts • The temperature of Earth’s core is thought to be as high as 7227ºC. • It is about 6378 km to the center of Earth. • Seventy percent of Earth’s freshwater is contained in glaciers. BIG Idea Earth scientists use specific methods to investigate Earth and beyond. 1.1 Earth Science MAIN Idea Earth science encompasses five areas of study: astronomy, meteorology, geol- ogy, oceanography, and environ- mental science. 1.2 Methods of Scientists MAIN Idea Scientists use sci- entific methods to structure their experiments and investigations. 1.3 Communication in Science MAIN Idea Precise communi- cation is crucial for scientists to share their results effectively with each other and with society. The Nature of Science Hydrosphere Biosphere Geosphere Atmosphere (tl)Eureka Slide/SuperStock, (tr)Gavriel Jecan/CORBIS, (bl)Stockbyte/SuperStock, (br)Bob O’Connor/Getty Images, (bkgd)Science VU/GSFC/Visuals Unlimited
  • 30. Section 1 • XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 5 Start-Up ActivitiesStart-Up Activities Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science 5 Why is precise communication important? Have you ever explained something to someone only later to find out that what you thought was a clear explanation was confusing, misleading, or even incor- rect? Precise communication is an important skill. Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Obtain an object from your teacher. Do not show it to your partner. 3. Write one sentence that accurately describes the object in detail without identifying or naming the object. 4. Give your partner the description and allow him or her a few minutes to identify your object. 5. Now use your partner’s description to identify his or her object. Analysis 1. Identify Were you and your partner able to identify each others’ objects? Why or why not? 2. Error Analysis Work together to rewrite each description in your science journals to make them as accurate as possible. 3. Compare Trade the new descriptions with another pair of students. Did this pair of stu- dents have an easier time determining the objects than you and your partner did? Why or why not? LLAAUUNCHNCH LabLab Earth’s Systems Make this Foldable to compare Earth’s four main systems. STEP 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half lengthwise. STEP 2 Fold the sheet into fourths (fold in half and half again). STEP 3 Unfold and cut the top flap along the fold lines to make four tabs. Label the tabs Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Atmosphere, and Biosphere. FOLDABLES Use this Foldable with Section 1.1. As you read this section, summarize Earth’s systems and how they interact. Visit glencoe.com to study entire chapters online; explore animations: • Interactive Time Lines •• Interactive Figures •• Interactive Tables access Web Links for more information, projects, and activities; review content with the Interactive Tutor and take Self-Check Quizzes.
  • 31. Earth Science MAIN Idea Earth science encompasses five areas of study: astronomy, meteorology, geology, oceanography, and environmental science. Real-World Reading Link From the maps you use when traveling, to the weather report you use when deciding whether or not to carry an umbrella, Earth science is part of your everyday life. The Scope of Earth Science The scope of Earth science is vast. This broad field can be broken into five major areas of specialization: astronomy, meteorology, geology, oceanography, and environmental science. Astronomy The study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere is called astronomy. Prior to the invention of sophisticated instru- ments, such as the telescope shown in Figure 1.1, many astrono- mers merely described the locations of objects in space in relation to each other. Today, Earth scientists study the universe and every- thing in it, including galaxies, stars, planets, and other bodies they have identified. Meteorology The study of the forces and processes that cause the atmosphere to change and produce weather is meteorology. Meteorologists also try to forecast the weather and learn how changes in weather over time might affect Earth’s climate. Section 11.1.1 Objectives ◗ Compare the areas of study within Earth science. ◗ Identify Earth’s systems. ◗ Explain the relationships among Earth’s systems. ◗ Explain why technology is important. Review Vocabulary technology: the application of knowledge gained from scientific research to solve society’s needs and problems New Vocabulary astronomy meteorology geology oceanography environmental science geosphere atmosphere hydrosphere biosphere ■ Figure 1.1 The Keck I and Keck II telescopes are part of the Mauna Kea Observatories in Hawaii. One of the Keck telescopes is visible here in its protective dome. 6 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science Roger Ressmeyer/CORBIS
  • 32. Section 1 • Earth Science 7 Geology The study of the materials that make up Earth, the processes that form and change these materials, and the history of the planet and its life-forms since its origin is the branch of Earth science known as geology. Geologists identify rocks, study glacial movements, interpret clues to Earth’s 4.6-billion-year history, and determine how forces change our planet. Oceanography The study of Earth’s oceans, which cover nearly three-fourths of the planet, is called oceanography. Oceanographers study the creatures that inhabit salt water, measure different physical and chemical properties of the oceans, and observe various processes in these bodies of water. When oceanographers are conducting field research, they often have to dive into the ocean to gather data, as shown in Figure 1.2. Environmental science The study of the interactions of organisms and their surroundings is called environmental science. Environmental scientists study how organisms impact the environ- ment both positively and negatively. The topics an environmental scientist might study include natural resources, pollution, alternative energy sources, and the impact of humans on the atmosphere. Subspecialties The study of our planet is a broad endeavor, and as such, each of the five major areas of Earth science consists of a variety of subspecialties, some of which are listed in Table 1.1. ■ Figure 1.2 Oceanographers study the life and properties of the ocean. Investigate What kind of training would this Earth scientist need? Table 1.1 Subspecialties of Earth Science Major Area of Study Subspecialty Subjects Studied Astronomy astrophysics physics of the universe, including the physical properties of objects found in space planetary science planets of the solar system and the processes that form them Meteorology climatology patterns of weather over a long period of time atmospheric chemistry chemistry of Earth’s atmosphere, and the atmospheres of other planets Geology paleontology remains of organisms that once lived on Earth; ancient environments geochemistry Earth’s composition and the processes that change it Oceanography physical oceanography physical characteristics of oceans, such as salinity, waves, and currents marine geology geologic features of the ocean floor, including plate tectonics of the ocean Environmental science environmental soil science interactions between humans and the soil, such as the impact of farming prac- tices; effects of pollution on soil, plants, and groundwater environmental chemistry chemical alterations to the environment through pollution and natural means Interactive Table To explore more about the scope of Earth science, visit glencoe.com. Alexis Rosenfeld/Photo Researchers, Inc.
  • 33. Crust 8–40 km Mantle 2900 km Outer core 2250 km Inner core 1300 km 8 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science Earth’s Systems Scientists who study Earth have identified four main Earth sys- tems: the geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Each system is unique, yet each interacts with the others. Geosphere The area from the surface of Earth down to its center is called the geosphere. The geosphere is divided into three main parts: the crust, mantle, and core. These three parts are illus- trated in Figure 1.3. The rigid outer shell of Earth is called the crust. There are two kinds of crust—continental crust and oceanic crust. Just below the crust is Earth’s mantle. The mantle differs from the crust both in composition and behavior. The mantle ranges in temperature from 100°C to 4000°C—much warmer than the temperatures found in Earth’s crust. Below the mantle is Earth’s core. You will learn more about the crust, mantle, and core in Unit 5. Atmosphere The blanket of gases that surrounds our planet is called the atmosphere. Earth’s atmosphere contains about 78 per- cent nitrogen and 21 percent oxygen. The remaining 1 percent of gases in the atmosphere include water vapor, argon, carbon diox- ide, and other trace gases. Earth’s atmosphere provides oxygen for living things, protects Earth’s inhabitants from harmful radiation from the Sun, and helps to keep the planet at a temperature suit- able for life. You will learn more about Earth’s atmosphere and how parts of this system interact to produce weather in Unit 4. Hydrosphere All the water on Earth, including the water in the atmosphere, makes up the hydrosphere. About 97 percent of Earth’s water exists as salt water, while the remaining 3 percent is freshwater contained in glaciers, lakes and rivers, and beneath Earth’s surface as groundwater. Only a fraction of Earth’s total amount of freshwater is in lakes and rivers. You will find out more about Earth’s hydrosphere in Units 3, 4, and 7. VOCABULARY SCIENCE USAGE V. COMMON USAGE Crust Science usage: the thin, rocky, outer layer of Earth Common usage: the hardened exte- rior or surface part of bread ■ Figure 1.3 Earth’s geosphere is composed of everything from the crust to the center of Earth. Notice how thin the crust is in relation to the rest of the geosphere’s components. FOLDABLES Incorporate information from this section into your Foldable.
  • 34. Self-Check Quiz glencoe.com Geosphere Hydrosphere Atmosphere Biosphere Section 1 • Earth Science 9 Biosphere The biosphere includes all organisms on Earth as well as the environments in which they live. Most organisms live within a few meters of Earth’s surface, but some exist deep beneath the ocean’s surface, and others live high atop Earth’s mountains. All of Earth’s life-forms require interaction with at least one of the other systems for their survival. As illustrated in Figure 1.4, Earth’s biosphere, geo- sphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere are interdependent systems. For example, Earth’s present atmosphere formed millions of years ago through interactions with the geo- sphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Organisms in the biosphere, including humans, continue to change the atmosphere through their activities and natural processes. You will explore interactions among Earth’s biosphere and other systems in Units 3, 4, 6, and 7. Technology The study of science, including Earth science, has led to many discoveries that have been applied to solve society’s needs and problems. The application of scientific discoveries is called technology. Technology is transferable, which means that it can be applied to new situations. Freeze-dried foods, ski goggles, and the ultralight materials used to make many pieces of sports equipment were created from technologies used in our space program. Technology is not used only to make life easier. It can also make life safer. Most people have smoke detectors in their houses to help warn them if there is a fire. Smoke detectors were also invented as part of the space program and were adapted for use in everyday life. Section 1.11.1 Assessment Section Summary ◗◗ Earth is divided into four systems: the geosphere, hydrosphere, atmo- sphere, and biosphere. ◗◗ Earth systems are all interdependent. ◗◗ Identifying the interrelationships between Earth systems leads to spe- cialties and subspecialties. ◗◗ Technology is important, not only in science, but in everyday life. ◗◗ Earth science has contributed to the development of many items used in everyday life. Understand Main Ideas 1. MAIN Idea Explain why it is helpful to identify specialties and subspecialties of Earth science. 2. Apply What are three items you use on a daily basis that have come from research in Earth science? 3. Compare and contrast Earth’s geology and geosphere. 4. Hypothesize about human impact on each of Earth’s systems. 5. Compare and contrast the hydrosphere and biosphere. Think Critically 6. Predict what would happen if the makeup of the hydrosphere changed. What would happen if the atmosphere changed? Earth Science 7. Research a subspecialty of Earth science. Make a brochure about a career in this field. ■ Figure 1.4 All of Earth’s systems are interde- pendent. Notice how water from the hydrosphere enters the atmosphere, falls on the biosphere, and soaks into the geosphere.
  • 35. Section 11..22 Objectives ◗ Compare and contrast indepen- dent and dependent variables. ◗ Compare and contrast experi- mentation and investigation. ◗ Identify the differences between mass and weight. ◗ Explain what scientific notation is and how it is used. Review Vocabulary experiment: procedure performed in a controlled setting to test a hypoth- esis and collect precise data New Vocabulary scientific methods hypothesis independent variable dependent variable control Le Système International d’Unités (SI) scientific notation Methods of Scientists MAIN Idea Scientists use scientific methods to structure their experiments and investigations. Real-World Reading Link Have you ever seen a distinct rock formation and wondered how it formed? Have you ever wondered why the soil near your home might be different from the soil in your schoolyard? If so, you have already begun to think like a scientist. Scientists often ask questions and make observa- tions to begin their investigations. The Nature of Scientific Investigations Scientists work in many different places to gather data. Some work in the field, and some work in a lab, as shown in Figure 1.5. No matter where they work, they all use similar methods to gather data and communicate information. These methods are referred to as scientific methods. As illustrated in Figure 1.6, scientific methods are a series of problem-solving procedures that help scientists con- duct experiments. Whatever problem a scientist chooses to pursue, he or she must gather background information on the topic. Once the problem is defined and the background research is complete, a hypothesis is made. A hypothesis is a testable explanation of a situation that can be supported or disproved by careful procedures. It is important to note that scientific methods are not rigid, step-by-step outlines to solve problems. Scientists can take many different approaches to performing a scientific investigation. In many scientific investigations, for example, scientists form a new hypothesis after observing unexpected results. A researcher might modify a procedure, or change the control mechanism. And a nat- ural phenomenon might change the direction of the investigation. ■ Figure 1.5 Whether a meteorologist gathers storm data in the field or an environmental scien- tist analyzes microbial growth in a lab, scientific methods provide an approach to problem-solving and investigation. 10 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science Meteorologist Environmental scientist (bl)David Hay Jones/Photo Researchers, Inc., (br)Dwayne Newton/PhotoEdit
  • 36. To explore more about scientific methods, visit glencoe.com. Section 2 • Methods of Scientists 11 Visualizing Scientific Methods Figure 1.6 Scientific methods are used by scientists to help organize and plan their experiments and investigations. The flow chart below outlines some of the methods commonly used by scientists. Collect information. Make observations. Ask questions. Use prior knowledge. Review related research. Observe an unexplained phenomenon. Design an experiment to test the chosen hypothesis. Conduct an experiment and record the data. Form a hypothesis. Compare Refine and test an alternate hypothesis. Draw a conclusion. Report results of the experiment. Additional experimentation based on accepted hypothesis Expected resultsActual results Hypothesis is not supported. Hypothesis is supported. Compare results from similar experiments. Leads to Accepted hypothesis Repeat experiment many times until results are consistent. (r)David Wasserman/Brand X/CORBIS
  • 37. 12 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science Experimentation An experiment is classified as an organized procedure that involves making obser- vations and measurements to test a hypothesis. Collecting good qualitative and quantitative data is vital to the success of an experiment. Imagine a scientist is conducting an experiment on the effects of acid on the weathering of rocks. In this experiment, there are three different samples of identical rock pieces. The scientist does not add any- thing to the first sample. To the second and third samples, the scientist adds two different strengths of acid. The scientist then makes observations (qualita- tive data) and records measurements (quantitative data) based on the results of the experiment. A scientific experiment usually tests only one changeable factor, called a variable, at a time. The independent variable in an experiment is the factor that is changed by the experimenter. In the experi- ment described above, the independent variable was the strength of the acid. A dependent variable is a factor that is affected by changes in the independent variable. In the exper- iment described above, the dependent variable was the effect of the acid on the rock samples. Constants are factors that do not change during an experiment. Keeping certain variables constant is important to an experiment. Placing the same amount of acid on each rock tested, or using the same procedure for measurement, are two examples. A control is used in an experiment to show that the results of an experiment are a result of the condition being tested. The control for the experiment described above was the rock that did not have any- thing added to it. You will experiment with variables in the MiniLab on this page and in many other activities throughout this textbook. Reading Check Explain the difference between a dependent and an independent variable. Investigation Earth scientists cannot always control the aspects of an experiment. It would be impossible to control the rainfall or temperature when studying the effects of a new fertilizer on thou- sands of acres of corn. When this is the case, scien- tists refer to their research as an investigation. An investigation involves observation and collecting data but does not include a control. Investigations can often lead scientists to design future experiments based on the observations they have made. Determine the Relationship Between Variables How do the rates of heat absorption and release vary between soil and water? Different substances absorb and release heat at different rates. Procedure 1. Read and complete the lab safety form. 2. Read the procedure and create a data table to record your temperature results. 3. Pour soil into one container until it is half full. Pour water into a second container until it is half full. Leave a third container empty. 4. Place one thermometer in the soil so that the bulb is barely covered. Use masking tape to secure another thermometer about 1 cm from the top of the soil. 5. Repeat Step 4 for the empty container and the container with water. 6. Put the containers on a sunny windowsill. Record the temperature shown on each ther- mometer. Write these values in a table. Record temperature readings every 5 min for 30 min. 7. Remove the containers from the windowsill and continue to record the temperature on each thermometer every 5 min for 30 min. Analysis 1. Determine Which substance absorbed heat more quickly? Which substance lost heat more quickly? 2. Specify What was your independent vari- able? What was your dependent variable? 3. Identify your control.
  • 38. Section 2 • Methods of Scientists 13 Safety Many of the experiments and investigations in this book will require that you handle various materials and equipment. When conducting any scientific investigation, it is important to use all materials and equipment only as instructed. Refer to the Reference Handbook for additional safety information and a table of safety symbols. Analysis and conclusions New ideas in science are carefully examined by the scientist who made the initial discovery and by other scientists in the same field. Processes, data, and conclusions must be examined to eliminate influence by expectations or beliefs, which is called bias. During a scientific experiment, all data are care- fully recorded. Once an experiment is complete, graphs, tables, and charts are commonly used to display data. These data are then ana- lyzed so that a conclusion can be drawn. Many times, a conclusion does not support the original hypothesis. In such a case, the hypoth- esis must be reevaluated and further research must be conducted. Measurement Scientific investigations often involve making measurements. A measurement includes both a number and a unit of measure. Scientific investigations use a standard system of units called Le Système International d’Unités (SI), which is a modern ver- sion of the metric system. SI is based on a decimal system that uses the number 10 as the base unit. See Table 1.2 for information on SI and metric units of measure commonly used in science. Length The standard SI unit to measure length is the meter (m). The distance from a doorknob to the floor is about 1 m. The meter is divided into 100 equal parts called centimeters (cm). Thus, 1 cm is 1/100 of 1 m. One millimeter (mm) is smaller than 1 cm. There are 10 mm in 1 cm. Longer distances are measured in kilometers (km). There are 1000 m in 1 km. VOCABULARY ACADEMIC VOCABULARY Bias to influence in a particular, typically unfair, direction; prejudice Their choice of teammates showed a bias toward their friends. Table 1.2 Measurement and Units Measurement SI and Metric Units Commonly Used in Science Length millimeter (mm), centimeter (cm), meter (m), kilometer (km) Mass and weight gram (g), kilogram (kg), metric ton Area square meter (m2), square centimeter (cm2)* Volume cubic meter (m3)*, milliliter (mL), liter (L) # Density grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3), grams per milliliter (g/mL), kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) Time second (s), hour (h) Temperature kelvin (K) * units derived from SI units # commonly used metric units
  • 39. 14 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science Mass The amount of matter in an object is called mass. Mass depends on the number and types of atoms that make up the object. The mass of an object is the same no matter where the object is located in the universe. The SI unit of mass is the kilo- gram (kg). Weight Weight is a measure of the gravitational force on an object. Weight is typically measured with some type of scale. Unlike mass, weight varies with location. For example, the weight of an astronaut while on the Moon is about one-sixth the astronaut’s weight on Earth. This is because the gravitational force exerted by the Moon on the astronaut is one-sixth the force exerted by Earth on the astronaut. Weight is a force, and the SI unit for force is the newton (N). A 2-L bottle of soft drink with a mass of 2 kg weighs about 20 N on Earth. Reading Check Compare mass and weight. Area and volume Some measurements, such as area, require a combination of SI units. Area is the amount of surface included within a set of boundaries and is expressed in square units of length, such as square meters (m2). The amount of space occupied by an object is the object’s volume. The SI units for volume, like those for area, are derived from the SI units used to measure length. The basic SI unit of volume for a solid object is the cubic meter (m3). Measurements for fluid volumes are usually made in milliliters (mL) or liters (L). Liters and milliliters are metric units that are commonly used to measure liquid volumes. Volume can also be expressed in cubic centimeters (cm3)—1 cm3 equals 1 mL. ■ Figure 1.7 Major Events in Earth Science Many discoveries during the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries revolutionized our understanding of Earth and its systems. 1936 Inge Lehmann discov- ers the inner core of Earth 5121 km below the planet’s surface by studying seismic waves. 1955 Louis Essen invents a highly accurate atomic clock that tracks radiation emitted and absorbed by cesium atoms. 1925 Cecilia Payne’s analysis of the spectra of stars reveals that hydrogen and helium are the most abundant elements in the universe. 1907 Scientists begin using radioactive decay to determine that Earth is billions of years old.This method will be used to develop the first accurate geological time scale. 1913 French physicists discover the ozone layer in Earth’s upper atmosphere and propose that it pro- tects Earth from the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. (bl)SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc., (br)SSPL/The Image Works
  • 40. Section 2 • Methods of Scientists 15 Density The measure of the amount of matter that occupies a given space is density. Density is calculated by dividing the mass of the matter by its volume. Density is often expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3), grams per milliliter (g/mL), or kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). Time The interval between two events is time. The SI unit of time is the second. In the activities in this book, you will generally mea- sure time in seconds or minutes. Time is usually measured with a watch or clock. The atomic clock provides the most precise mea- sure of time currently known. Known as UTC, Coordinated Universal Time is based on the atomic clock element cesium-133 and is adapted to the astronomical demarcation of day and night. See Figure 1.7 for more information on the invention of the atomic clock and other advances in Earth science. Temperature A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a material is called temperature. A mass made up of particles that vibrate quickly generally has a higher temperature than a mass whose particles vibrate more slowly. Temperature is measured in degrees with a thermometer. Scientists often measure temperature using the Celsius (°C) scale. On the Celsius scale, a comfortable room temperature is about 21°C, and the normal temperature of the human body is about 37°C. The SI unit for temperature is the kelvin (K). The coldest possi- ble temperature, absolute zero, was established as 0 K or –273 °C. Since both temperature units are the same size, the difference between the two scales (273) is used to convert from one scale to another. For example, the temperature of the human body is 37°C, to which you would add 273 to get 310 K. 1962 Harry Hess’s seafloor spreading hypothesis, along with the discoveries made about the ocean floor, lays the foundation for plate tectonic theory. 1970 George Carruthers’ ultraviolet camera and spec- trograph, placed on the Moon’s surface, analyzes pollutants in Earth’s atmosphere and detects interstellar hydrogen. 1979–1980 Magsat, a NASA satellite, takes the first global mea- surement of Earth’s magnetic field. Interactive Time Line To learn more about these discoveries and others, visit glencoe.com. 1990 The Hubble Space Telescope goes into orbit, exploring Earth’s solar sys- tem, measuring the expan- sion of the universe, and providing evidence of black holes. 2004 A sediment core retrieved from the ocean floor discloses 55 million years of Earth’s atmo- spheric and climatic history.The sample reveals that the north pole once had a warm climate. VOCABULARY ACADEMIC VOCABULARY Interval space of time between two events or states The interval for pendulum swings was three seconds. NASA/epa/Corbis
  • 41. Self-Check Quiz glencoe.com16 Chapter 1 • The Nature of Science Scientific Notation In many branches of science, some numbers are very small, while others are very large. To express these numbers conveniently, scientists use a type of shorthand called scientific notation, in which a number is expressed as a value between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10. The power of 10 is the number of places the decimal point must be shifted so that only a single digit remains to the left of the decimal point. If the decimal point must be shifted to the left, the exponent of 10 is positive. Figure 1.8 shows a beach covered in sand. The number of grains of sand on Earth has been estimated to be approxi- mately 4,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. In scientific notation, this number is written as 4 × 1021. In astronomy, masses and distances are usually so large that writing out the numbers would be cumbersome. For example, the mass of Earth at 5,974,200,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg would be written as 5.9742 × 1024 kg in scientific notation. If the decimal point in a number must be shifted to the right, the exponent of 10 is negative. The diameter of an atom in meters, for example, which is approximately 0.0000000001 m, is written as 1 × 10−10 m. ■ Figure 1.8 On a 5-km-long beach, such as the one shown above, there might be 8 × 1015 grains of sand. The aver- age size of a grain of sand is 0.5 mm. Section 1.21.2 Assessment Section Summary ◗◗ Scientists work in many ways to gather data. ◗◗ A good scientific experiment includes an independent variable, dependent variable, and control.An investigation, however, does not include a control. ◗◗ Graphs, tables, and charts are three common ways to communicate data from an experiment. ◗◗ SI, a modern version of the metric system, is a standard form of mea- surement that all scientists can use. ◗◗ To express very large or very small numbers, scientists use scientific notation. Understand Main Ideas 1. MAIN Idea Explain why scientific methods are important and why there is not one established way to conduct an investigation. 2. Compare and contrast the purpose of a control, an independent variable, and a dependent variable in an experiment. 3. Calculate Express 0.00049386 in scientific notation. 4. Calculate Convert the temperature 49ºC to kelvin. 5. Compare and contrast volume and density. Think Critically 6. Construct a plan to test the absorption of three different kinds of paper towels, including a control, dependent variable, and independent variable. 7. Explain which is more useful when comparing mass and weight on different planets. Earth ScienceMATH in 8. If you have 20 mL of water, how many cubic centimeters of water do you have? (tl)David Scharf/Photo Researchers, Inc., (bkgd)Royalty-Free/CORBIS
  • 42. Section 3 • Communication in Science 17 Section 11..33 Objectives ◗ Explain why precise communica- tion is crucial in science. ◗ Compare and contrast scientific theories and scientific laws. ◗ Identify when it is appropriate to use a graph or a model. Review Vocabulary hypothesis: testable explanation of a situation New Vocabulary scientific model scientific theory scientific law Communication in Science MAIN Idea Precise communication is crucial for scientists to share their results effectively with each other and with society. Real-World Reading Link If you read an advertisement for a product called “Glag” without any description, would you know whether to eat it or wear it? When a scientist does an investigation, he or she has to describe every part of it precisely so that everyone can understand his or her conclusions. Communicating Results There are many ways to communicate information, such as news- papers, magazines, TV, the Internet, and scientific journals. Think back to the Launch Lab from the beginning of the chapter. Although you and your lab partner both used the same form of communication, were your descriptions identical? Scientists have the responsibility to truthfully and accurately report their methods and results. To keep them ethical, a system of peer review is used in which scientists in the same field verify each other’s results and examine procedures and conclusions for bias. Communicating scientific data and results, as the scientists are shown doing in Figure 1.9, also allows others to learn of new discoveries and con- duct new investigations that build on previous investigations. Lab reports Throughout this book, you will conduct many Earth science investigations and experiments. During and after each, you will be asked to record and analyze the information that you collected and to draw conclusions based on your data. Your written account of each lab is your lab report. This will be used by your teacher to assess your understanding. You might also be asked to compare your results with those of other students to help you find both similarities and differences among the results. ■ Figure 1.9 Scientists, like those shown in the photo, communicate data and discoveries with each other to maintain accuracy in methods and reporting. Infer what could happen if scientists did not compare results. Royalty-free/CORBIS

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