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Introduction
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Oligopharmacy seeks to promote the deliberate ...
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This resource support...
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Section A: Overview resources
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Section B: Tools and Initiatives to support pr...
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Section C
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Polypharmacy resource_JAN 15_NINA BARNETT

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Polypharmacy resource_JAN 15_NINA BARNETT

  • 1. East & South East England Specialist Pharmacy Services East of England, London, South Central & South East Coast Medicines Use and Safety Winner: RPS Pharmaceutical Care Award 2013 Finalist: HSJ Patient safety award in primary care 2013; Winner: UKCPA/Guild Conference Best Poster award 2013 Winner: UKCPA Pain award 2012; Winner: UKCPA Respiratory award 2012 S P S Resources to support local delivery http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=8211 Polypharmacy, oligopharmacy & deprescribing:
  • 2. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Introduction At least one third of over 75’s in the UK take four or more medicines regularly and this increases to an average of eight medications per person per day in nursing homes. The number of medicines taken by older people has been steadily increasing for the last three decades. There are a number of factors affecting this including; the advent of evidence based medicine; increase in multiple morbidity and longevity; promotion of age-independent access to the increasing number of treatments and the increasing expectations for treatment from patients and their families. These have made polypharmacy the “rule” rather than the “exception” for many patients. Medicines are the most common intervention to improve health and concerns about the risks of polypharmacy in primary and secondary care are growing, supported by evidence which associates polypharmacy with increased adverse drug events, hospital admissions, increased health care costs and non-adherence (see section A: A1,A4). This has led to the suggestion that “ Polypharmacy itself should be conceptually perceived as a “disease” with potentially more serious complications than those of the diseases these different drugs have been prescribed for”1 . Recent attention has been focussed on Medicines Optimisation and management of polypharmacy is an integral part of this. The Five Year Forward View2 recognises the need for integration of services and equity of care for patients across hospital and community settings and implementation is supported by the Better care fund3 . Improved cross sector communication is key to continuing management of appropriate prescribing and monitoring of polypharmacy. Improving integration of teams and encouraging multidisciplinary professional working will all support medicines optimisation and reduction of inappropriate polypharmacy in all sectors of care. Background: polypharmacy, oligopharmacy and deprescribing There are number of terms which have come into use over recent years to describe multiple medicines use: Polypharmacy refers to either the prescribing or taking many medicines. For many years it referred to the prescription or use of more than a certain number of medicines, at least four or five or more medicines per day (see A2). More recently it has been used in the context of prescribing or taking more medicines that are clinically required, as the number of medicines taken was of limited clinical value in interpreting individual potential problems. The Kings fund (see A4) divides the definition into “appropriate” and “problematic” polypharmacy which is a helpful distinction in practice: Appropriate polypharmacy ”Prescribing for an individual for complex conditions or for multiple conditions in circumstances where medicines use has been optimised and where the medicines are prescribed according to best evidence.” Problematic polypharmacy “the prescribing of multiple [medicines] inappropriately, or where the intended benefit of the [medicines are] not realised.” 1 Garfinkel D and Mangin D ARCH INTERN MED/ VOL 170 (NO. 18), OCT 11, 2010 https://www.leg.bc.ca/cmt/39thparl/session- 4/health/submissions/Garfinkel_Feasibility_Study_of_a_Systemic_Approach_2010.pdf 2 http://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/5yfv-web.pdf 3 http://www.england.nhs.uk/ourwork/part-rel/transformation-fund/bcf-plan/
  • 3. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Oligopharmacy seeks to promote the deliberate avoidance of polypharmacy, which if considered in terms of numbers of medicines, is the prescribing of less than 5 prescription drugs daily4 Deprescribing is the complex process required for the safe and effective cessation (withdrawal) of inappropriate medication, recognising that much of the evidence to support stopping medicines is empirical and based on the patient’s physical functioning, co-morbidities, preferences and lifestyle. Hyperpolypharmacy is a new term referring to the prescribing of ten or more medicines and the phrase has come into use to distinguish it from polypharmacy, which is increasingly common5 The increase in polypharmacy can largely be attributed to the greater availability of evidence-based treatments promoted through therapeutic guidelines. However these are written for management of single disease states and patients with long term conditions, especially older people, commonly suffer from a number of conditions and these guidelines are designed for single condition treatment. In addition, each condition is often treated by separate clinicians and the lack of a contemporaneous medication record, available to all health care providers and patients in the UK, means that polypharmacy often ensues. With the increase in number of medicines available for purchase without prescription and the poor co-ordination and communication of clinicians managing medicines, accurate medication review is often a challenge. Prescribers caring for patients with multiple morbidities are further challenged by the absence of evidence based national guidance, incorporating the patient perspective, around reducing and stopping medication. Polypharmacy is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, falls, drug interactions, drug disease interactions, drug errors and poor medicines adherence. This document has been created to assist with medication review and decisions around deprescribing in the context of polypharmacy. What does this mean for pharmacists? This resource supports pharmacists in getting the best outcome for patients through evidence based medication review. It contributes to pharmacy roles in supporting GPs and hospital doctors and encourages consideration of the ongoing benefit of prescribing medicines at every contact between prescriber and patient. In pharmacy consultations, pharmacists have a crucial role in reviewing the balance or benefits and risk directly with the patient, referring for or undertaking patient focused medication reviews when prescribing new drugs and regular medication review. Pharmacists can contribute to Directly Enhanced Services or other GP performance indicators as well as GP care plans to apply current evidence to the patient situation to initiate deprescribing where appropriate, eliminate inappropriate polypharmacy, and promote oligopharmacy. How is the resource structured? Section A: Overview of key papers Section B Tools and Initiatives to support practice Section C: Useful references 4 O’Mahoney D and O’Connor M N, Pharmacotherapy at the end-of-life Age and Ageing 2011; 0: 1–4 doi: 10.1093/ageing/afr059 5 Gnjidic, Danijela, Le Couteur, David G, Pearson, Sallie-Anne, McLachlan, Andrew J, Viney, Rosalie, Hilmer, Sarah, Blyth Fiona M N, Joshy, Grace and Banks, Emily. High risk prescribing in older adults: prevalence, clinical and economic implications and potential for intervention at the population level BMC Public Health 2013, 13:115 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/115
  • 4. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Who is the resource for? This resource supports all sectors of the pharmacy profession, in acute, mental health primary and community care with appropriate management of polypharmacy. Commissioners can use this as a basis for commissioning enhanced services to support medicines optimisation, to provide them with assurance that medicines are being reviewed and patient are being supported to achieve optimal outcomes from their medicines. The section which includes examples of resources can guide commissioners to ensure that providers work to best practice and services meet best practice standard. Education and training leads may find this useful for their staff in developing and implementing strategies for reducing medicines, as well as individuals using it to support continuing professional development. It is also useful for any health professionals who work or liaise with patients to support optimising medicines: through access to key papers, knowledge, skills development and information on training. Putting it into practice This resource will be supplemented by an additional publication in February 2015, Seven steps to managing polypharmacy: an algorithm. The algorithm has been created to assist with medication review and decisions around deprescribing in the context of polypharmacy and aims to address polypharmacy as part of overall medicines optimisation strategies. It can be used in successive consultations to address one or a small number of polypharmacy issues at a time. While it likely to be most applicable in community settings, the principles can be applied to all patient care settings. Developed by Nina Barnett and Lelly Oboh, Consultant Pharmacists working with Older People, Medicines Use and Safety Team, NHS Specialist Pharmacy Service, and Katie Smith, Regional Medicines Information Director, East Anglia Medicines Information Service, it is based on published evidence and current practice and has been reviewed by clinicians who work directly with patients. A list of key reference documents with content summary is provided following the algorithm together with references for further reading. We thank all the contributors for sharing their tools with us and the practitioners who have commented on this document in the context of their practice. Practitioners should seek permission from the authors should they wish to use or adapt any of the tools. The relative paucity of secondary care tools is a reflection of the challenges in that setting. Due to the rapidly developing evidence base, please note that this resource cannot be comprehensive.
  • 5. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Bibliography Gnjidic, Danijela, Le Couteur, David G, Pearson, Sallie-Anne, McLachlan, Andrew J, Viney, Rosalie, Hilmer, Sarah, Blyth Fiona M N, Joshy, Grace and Banks, Emily. High risk prescribing in older adults: prevalence, clinical and economic implications and potential for intervention at the population level BMC Public Health 2013, 13:115 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/115 Haynes BR, Ackloo E, Shahota N, McDonald HP Yao X. Interventions for enhancing medication adherence. The Cochrane Library Copyright © 2008 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Kongakew C et al Risk factors for hospital admissions associated with adverse drug events. Pharmacotherapy. 2013 Volume 33, Issue 8 pages 827-837 Boswell Kimberly A. et al. Associating Medication Adherence With Improved Outcomes: A Systematic Literature Review Published Online: July 31, 2012 http://www.ajmc.com/publications/ajpb/2012/ajpb_julyaug2012/associating-medication-adherence-with-improved-outcomes-a-systematic-literature-review/1 NICE guidance CG 76 Medicines adherence: involving patients in decisions about prescribed medicines and supporting adherence 2009 Oboh. L Supporting older people in the community to optimise their medicines including the use of multi compartment compliance aids (MCAs) Vs3 July 2013 http://www.medicinesresources.nhs.uk/en/Communities/NHS/SPS-E-and-SE-England/Meds-use-and-safety/Service-deliv-and-devel/Older-people-care-homes/MCA- Toolkit-Vs3-Jun13/ World Health Organisation. Adherence to long term therapies; evidence for action. 2003 http://www.who.int/chp/knowledge/publications/adherence_full_report.pdf York Health Economics consortium and The School of Pharmacy, University of London. Evaluation of the Scale, Causes and Costs of waste medicines. Final Report November 2010. http://eprints.pharmacy.ac.uk/2605/1/Evaluation_of_NHS_Medicines_Waste__web_publication_version.pdf
  • 6. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Section A: Overview resources A1 Organisation: NHS Scotland and The Scottish Government Organisation’s Website: http://www.healthscotland.com/ http://www.scotland.gov.uk/ Title: Polypharmacy Guidance October 2012 Overview: This comprehensive and robust 47 page document is presented in three sections. The first outlines the rationale for addressing polypharmacy, identifies patient groups who may benefit from polypharmacy related medicines review and the general content of the review. While the document recommends using SPARRA (Scottish Patients at Risk of Readmission and Admission) prediction tool data to identify local high risk groups, this concept is readily transferable to other localities where different tools are used. The second section gives clinical information using evidence based sources to support conducting a review explaining the meaning of and including numbers needed to treat (NNT) and numbers needed to harm (NNH) for individual drugs and drug groups. . The drug review process described is clinically focussed and supports practitioners with the clinical information needed to conduct an effective review. Risk from high risk medication is discussed individually and by BNF categories, as well as identification of clinical conditions of patients which can increase the risks from polypharmacy. Primary references are given. The final section on administrative consideration includes useful information on how to conduct reviews however embedded documents are not available directly through the link. See http://www.central.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk/upload/Polypharmacy%20full%20guidance%20v2.pdf A2 Organisation: NHS Wales Health Board Organisation’s Website: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/ Title : Polypharmacy: Guidance for Prescribing in Frail Adults Practical guide, with full guidance, BNF sections to target Overview: An excellent summary of a practical introduction for practitioners who are interested in implementing polypharmacy reviews in their workplace. The document covers similar ground to the Scottish guidance and presents the information in one page flow –chart based summaries of background; drug review process; high risk medication; frailty and shortened life expectancy, ending with useful links. The more detailed full guidance is also available which describes key considerations around polypharmacy, provides a medicines effectiveness summary table (with numbers needed to treat for specified conditions) and explains the practicalities for stopping specific groups of medicines. The appendices contain an example medicines review leaflet for patients and a list of helpful resources as well as references. The supplementary guidance is set out in BNF order and describes key risks for each drug group and points for consideration during medication review to reduce inappropriate polypharmacy. Links to relevant guidelines including NICE are given together with advice on deprescribing and follow up/monitoring. See practical guide http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/documents/814/PrescribingForFrailAdults-ABHBpracticalGuidance%5BMay2013%5D.pdf
  • 7. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Full guidance http://www.awmsg.org/docs/awmsg/medman/Polypharmacy%20-%20Guidance%20for%20Prescribing%20in%20Frail%20Adults.pdf BNF guidance http://www.awmsg.org/docs/awmsg/medman/Polypharmacy%20Supplementary%20Guidance%20- %20BNF%20Sections%20to%20Target.pdf A3 Organisation: PrescQIPP NHS Programme Organisation’s Website: http://www.prescqipp.info/ Title: Polypharmacy and Deprescribing Overview: PrescQIPP has produced a number of resources to support practitioners in reducing polypharmacy. The current web pages outline the background to this area and describe the current work of the project, including a landscape review of polypharmacy and deprescribing. PresQIPP has also produced a bulletin on this subject and an audit as support for GP practices to identify patients at risk. These resources can help with creation of local tools to support improved practice. The Safe and Appropriate Medicines Bulletin briefing 671 June 2013 outlines ten therapeutic areas/ drug classes where cost of therapy versus clinical benefit may be in question. . The Safe and Appropriate Medicines Bulletin 159 June 2013 uses BNF classes to highlight potential clinical and cost issues with medication to support medicines optimisation and reduce polypharmacy. There is a useful patient information leaflet provided as an appendix and a poster which summaries the work undertaken. The most recent addition to these resources is the ‘landscape review’, a survey of CCGs and CSUs systems and tools used, meaning of and attitudes to polypharmacy and deprescribing, local projects and challenges to implementation. Key findings include the difficulty of the terminology for patients and the need for public education and the desire for sharing resources See http://www.prescqipp.info/projects/polypharmacy-and-deprescribing http://www.prescqipp.info/safe-appropriate-medicines-use-deprescribing/viewcategory/190-safe-and-appropriate-medicines-use (four documents) A4 Organisation: Kings Fund Organisation’s Website www.kingsfund.org.uk/ Title: Polypharmacy and medicines optimisation : Making it safe and sound Overview: This 68 page 2013 report is a detailed look at how polypharmacy manifests in different care settings, key issues and areas for development. It introduces the concept of appropriate and problematic polypharmacy. It highlights both the benefits of appropriate polypharmacy and the risks of problematic polypharmacy in clinical and patient-centred term and both medicines waste and poor adherence to treatment are included in the problems of problematic polypharmacy. Recognising that most evidence for use of medicines is for single conditions it identifies the gap in multi- morbidity guidelines (which is currently being addressed by NICE). Recommendations for practice are given regarding shortened life expectancy and managing long term conditions, including the importance of overview by one clinical team of all long term conditions. The need for clinician training in multimorbidity is highlighted. The document specifically addresses polypharmacy and use of monitored dose systems, polypharmacy in care homes and discusses issues around stopping medicines See http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/sites/files/kf/field/field_publication_file/polypharmacy-and-medicines-optimisation-kingsfund-nov13.pdf
  • 8. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Section B: Tools and Initiatives to support practice B1 Primary Care Organisation: NHS Harrow Organisation’s Website: http://www.harrowccg.nhs.uk/ Title: Review of patients with 10 or more items on repeat prescription Overview: This document was produced as part of a local improvement scheme. It describes the rationale for reviewing patients in this group and provides a standard operating procedure for “level 2” medication review (without the patient) in GP practices as a five step process. The appendices include a medication review template, checklist for medication review, action planning form and two worked case examples. See link: http://www.medicinesresources.nhs.uk/upload/documents/Communities/SPS_E_SE_England/NHS%20HARROW%2010+%20medications%20PSD%2 0Harrow%20CCG%20LIS%20July%202014.pdf B2 Primary Care Organisation: NHS Lambeth Clinical Commissioning Group Organisation’s Website: http://www.lambethccg.nhs.uk/Pages/Home.aspx Title: Polypharmacy and Medicines Adherence Review. Overview: This is a comprehensive document which supports full medication review with the patient, based in primary care. The tool contains protocols for medicines review and adherence support and requires the clinician to have completed the Kings College on line ‘FutureLearn’ course on medicines adherence. The five step protocol identifies patients prescribed eight or more repeat medicines, prioritising those with recent hospital attendances. The protocol includes instructions for comprehensive medication review and provides appendices to support and document the review. The final step of the protocol outlines patient and prescriber responsibilities post review. A summary flow chart with links to relevant documents is provided. The appendices include a medicines review proforma, medicines adherence questionnaire (patient survey) for patient completion prior to the consultation and detailed suggestions to support practitioners in working with patients who are challenged by unintentional or intentional non-adherence issues. An EMIS web template for standardising medication reviews and, searches to identify appropriate patients are also available for interested practitioners. See link: http://nww.lambethccg.nhs.uk/Directorates/ICA/MedicinesManagement/Medicines%20adherence/Polypharmacy%20and%20Adherence%20tool%20FIN AL%204.pdf
  • 9. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S B3 Primary Care Organisation: North West London Commissioning Support Unit Organisation’s Website: www.nwlcsu.nhs.uk Title: Toolkit for managing poly-pharmacy in clinically complex patients Overview: This document focusses on providing detailed guidance to GP practice based pharmacists to undertake medication review clinics focussing on reducing inappropriate polypharmacy. Targeting patients on 10 or more medicines or with other risk factors, the procedure outlined allows practitioners to identify patients, set up and run medication review clinics in practices, work with patients to address polypharmacy issues and therefore reduce inappropriate polypharmacy to improve patient care in a concordant way. The appendices provide excellent support for undertaking these reviews including a flow chart of the process, a variety of template letters to engage GP practices and patients, an outline of the drug review process and of the medicines related consultation framework as well as an aide memoire for use in the consultation. The appendices also contain evaluation and patient survey paperwork. Practitioners who undertake these reviews have undertaken skill development around adherence. See link: http://www.medicinesresources.nhs.uk/upload/documents/Communities/SPS_E_SE_England/Medication%20Review%20toolkit%20updated%20Sep%2 014v2.pdf B4 Primary Care Organisation: NHS Cumbria and NHS Brent Clinical Commissioning group/ Organisation’s Website: http://www.cumbria.nhs.uk/ www.brentccg.nhs.uk/ Title: Tools to support prescribers in optimising benefit from medication review Overview: These resources support medication review in practice with the aim of using evidence from STOPP START to support reduction of polypharmacy. The Medication Review Practice Guides include a description of what is and what is not a medication review and a checklist as well as outlining principles of medication review, who to review, high risk groups and targeting reviews. It provides detail on the process for reviewing each drug and gives guidance regarding implementation, documentation and follow up of recommendations. Appendices include a simple screening tool to use with patients, sample patient information leaflet and NNT data to support review of commonly used medicines, classified by BNF chapter. The linked document, STOPP START Toolkit provides a clear introduction to the rationale for medication review and, using simple colour coding, classifies medicines for consideration according to the STOPP, START or NICE/local guidance. The Brent document was produced with the help of resources from the NHS Cumbria Medicines Management Team. Cumbria: http://www.networks.nhs.uk/nhs-networks/nhs-cumbria-ccg/medicines-management/guidelines-and-other- publications/Medication%20Review%20practice%20guide%202013.pdf/at_download/file or http://www.cumbria.nhs.uk/ProfessionalZone/MedicinesManagement/Guidelines/MedicationReview-PracticeGuide2011.pdf
  • 10. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Brent: http://www.medicinesresources.nhs.uk/upload/documents/Communities/SPS_E_SE_England/STOPP%20START%20Toolkit.pdf or http://www.medicinesresources.nhs.uk/upload/documents/Communities/SPS_E_SE_England/Medication%20Review%20Practice%20Guide%202014.p df B5 Primary Care Organisation: NHS Lambeth CCG Organisation’s Website: http://www.lambethccg.nhs.uk/Pages/Home.aspx Title: In-depth Medication Assessment Form Overview: This document aims to support practitioners to identify and record the medicines related risks and needs of an individual and evaluate the impact on daily living and quality of life, so that appropriate action can be planned to improve patient outcomes by reducing inappropriate polypharmacy, engaging with the patient, improving adherence and reducing risks. The tool utilises a personalised, co-ordinated and outcome focused approach based on the principles of Medicines Optimisation, the Single Assessment Process and Common Assessment Framework for older people which originated from work around the National Service Framework for Older People (2001) and local experience of the past ten years. It presents an opportunity to ensure better integration of medicines related needs within overall patient assessment and care planning process. The tool and process are designed to consider the whole range of patient’s medicines needs and feed into overall patient care to prevent duplication and encourage information sharing. Completion of the tool results in a personalised care plan that meets the specific needs identified rather than providing a service or undertaking a task. Adequate training of staff using the tool, supervision and support is considered vital for safe, effective patient care. This tool facilitates comprehensive documentation of medication review and can be used in its entirety or in specific section. The document includes demographic data and checklists for high risk medicines, access, compliance and day-to-day medication management issues, patient knowledge of, attitude and ability to take meds as well as an assessment of patient’s ability to agree to actions around medication taking. The paperwork includes a short pharmaceutical care plan and details for follow up. See link: http://www.medicinesresources.nhs.uk/upload/documents/Communities/SPS_E_SE_England/Assessment%20tool.pdf B6 Primary Care Organisation: West Hampshire CCG Organisation’s Website: http://www.westhampshireccg.nhs.uk/ Title: Medicines optimisation detail aid: Medicines Optimisation LES 2013/4 Intervention 12 Polypharmacy Overview: This concise document outlines rationale, evidence and a process for medication review of older people taking multiple medications. The three page summary is supported by a detailed appendices including a list of medicines to consider for review, a falls risk table for medicines, a
  • 11. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S medication review template and a checklist for practice. See link: http://www.westhampshireccg.nhs.uk/documents/doc_view/364-12-polypharmacy-detail-aid-amended-11-sep-13 B7 Primary Care Organisation: NHS West Hampshire Clinical Commissioning Group Organisation’s Website: www.westhampshireccg.nhs.uk Title: Use of web-based mortality indices to support medicines optimisation and reduce polypharmacy Overview This easy to use web based tool utilises accurate estimates of longevity using mortality indices (eg, see http://eprognosis.ucsf.edu) to support reviews to minimise the use of drugs that are unlikely to prevent disease events within the patient's remaining life span. It identifies when, rather than how much benefit drugs aimed at preventing future disease events (such as statins and bisphosphonates), may confer. If the time until benefit exceeds the patient's estimated life span, no benefit will result, while the adverse drug event risk is constant and immediate. Undertaking such reconciliations is facilitated by accurate estimation of longevity and drug-specific time until benefit using trial-based time-to-event data. Email: liz.corteville@nhs.net B8 Primary Care Organisation: New Devon CCG Organisation’s Website: : n/a Title of initiative/tool: Using STOPP/START tool when undertaking clinical medication reviews for care home patients. Brief overview: Reviews are conducted for patients with polypharmacy issues in care home. Pharmacists undertaking clinical medication reviews in care homes using STOPP/START tool. Recommendations are reviewed with GP afterwards. While the STOPP/START tool is currently being used, Devon CCG have a group looking at whether to create a local version including links to formulary etc. Contact: gail.foreshew@nhs.net B9 Primary Care Organisation: Somerset CCG Organisation’s Website: : n/a Title: Eclipse Live tool Overview: Somerset is one of a number of CCGs which have commissioned the Eclipse Live tool which enables use of predefined or locally defined algorithms to identify and stratify risky polypharmacy. More importantly it also allows risky (non polypharmacy) prescribing to be identified by looking at outcomes ie the effect the prescribing is having on patient’s blood tests etc .
  • 12. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Contact Shaun.Green@somersetccg.nhs.uk B10 Care Homes Organisation : Leeds North CCG Organisation’s Website: : n/a Title of initiative/tool: Pharmacist Care Homes Medication review for residential and nursing homes – System 1 (S1) and Egton Medical Information Systems (EMISweb) templates Brief overview: Leeds North CCG have developed an aide-memoire template for use on GP systems that can be followed when carrying out and recording medication reviews to ensure that all relevant areas of the resident’s medication use and relevant health information are identified and addressed. There is particular reference to considering whether specific medications can or should be stopped, or patients can undergo a trial of stopping the medication. Once the information has been entered into the template it forms part of the patient’s GP medical record and is visible to all healthcare professionals at that practice. Changed medications are automatically updated on the NHS Spine. Both S1 and EMISweb versions of this template are given in the links below. A more generic version of this template has also been developed to apply to the general population and it can be further amended to be applicable to other larger cohorts or at-risk groups requiring medication review. Versions are available for both S1 and EMISweb and an update to the EMIS version in response to in-use feedback is planned. The Data Quality Team at the Commissioning Support Unit are in the process of developing reporting tools to allow data collection on the interventions made and recorded using these templates. Contact: ellywakeling@nhs.net See links: Link 1, Link 2, Link 3, Link 4a, Link 4b, Link 5 B11 Care Homes Organisation: NHS Lanarkshire Organisation’s Web-site: http://www.nhslanarkshire.org.uk/Pages/default.aspx Title: NHS Lanarkshire Care Homes Protocol Group. Prescribing and Polypharmacy Guidelines 2013 Overview: This guidance addresses polypharmacy as part of the overall pharmacy service to care homes. It includes guidance on medication review (full or NPC level3 for polypharmacy reviews), end of life care and general care home pharmacy prescribing support as well as polypharmacy guidance. It is intended for use in GP practices to support practitioners in providing an evidence based, rational approach to prescribing and deprescribing. It includes lists of high risk combinations of drugs, drugs commonly causing hospital admission, drugs that are high risk in older people including consideration of hypotension, diabetes, antipsychotic treatment, laxatives and drugs with additive adverse effects. There is also a section specifically
  • 13. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S devoted to management of polypharmacy in patients with limited life expectancy including patients with dementia and frailty. Suggestions around drug groups to review, what drugs are associated with symptomatic decline and use of liquids. This document is useful for care of patients in care homes and in their own homes as the principles that apply are broadly similar. See link: http://www.nhslanarkshire.org.uk/Services/CareHomeLiaison/Documents/Prescribing-and-Polypharmacy-Guidelines-Final- 090212.pdf B12 Care Homes Organisation: NHS Enfield CCG Organisation’s Web-site: http://www.enfieldccg.nhs.uk/ Title: Reducing polypharmacy and safeguarding medicines use in care homes Overview: This presentation and summary outlines how a care home pharmacist, working with the local authority, implemented a care home service aimed at improving the quality of healthcare provision to frail elderly residents of care homes within the borough of Enfield. The pharmacist worked with the multidisciplinary care home assessment team. The pharmacist provided clinical medication reviews which included reduction of polypharmacy together with reducing waste and optimising overall prescribing and processes in the homes. The presentation outlines the process and provides case examples and top tips for initiating this services. A reference list is included in the presentation. Contact: Zeshan.Ahmed@enfieldccg.nhs.uk See links: http://www.medicinesresources.nhs.uk/GetDocument.aspx?pageId=778421 also http://www.medicinesresources.nhs.uk/upload/documents/Communities/SPS_E_SE_England/Retrospective%20outline%20of%20care%20ho mes%20post.pdf B13 Secondary Care Organisation: Gloucestershire Hospitals NHSFT Organisation’s Web-site: www.gloshospitals.nhs.uk and www.gloucestershireccg.nhs.uk Title: PIDE (Potentially Inappropriate Drugs in the Elderly) Brief overview: This document summaries both the Beers Criteria and the STOPP/START tool in a one page table format including the classes of drugs which were often inappropriate in frail older people. Criteria for review of antihypertensive and anti-diabetic medication were included following work with Stroke, Endocrinology and General and Old Age Medicine consultants, These reviews are conducted working with the Older Persons' Assessment and Liaison Team (OPAL) . The tool has been circulated to CCG and Gloucester Care Services Trust for use across sectors by doctors, nurses and pharmacists working in this field. It is being piloted on the Acute Care Unit at Cheltenham General Hospital from October 2014 and data is being collected on reasons for stopping medicines and cost avoidance. The CCG is supporting this pilot project. The aim of this work is to educate prescribers within the Trust and guide medication review using pharmacist prescribers alongside doctors.
  • 14. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Contacts: Pamela.Adams@glos.nhs.uk See link: http://www.medicinesresources.nhs.uk/upload/documents/Communities/SPS_E_SE_England/PIDE%20table%20final.pdf
  • 15. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Section C C1 Polypharmacy review methods publications Baqir W., Campbell. I, D Jones T and Blair S. Reducing the ‘pill burden’ - complex multidisciplinary medication reviews International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 2012 20 (suppl 2) p 91 Gallagher PF, O'Connor M.N., and O'Mahony D. (2011) Prevention of potentially inappropriate prescribing for elderly patients: a randomized controlled trial using STOPP/START criteria. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 89 (6): 845-854 Garfinkel, Doron, MD; Mangin Derelie Feasibility Study of a Systematic Approach for Discontinuation of Multiple Medications in Older Adults Addressing Polypharmacy , MBChB Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(18):1648-1654 Garfinkel, Doron MD1, Zur-Gil,Sarah MA2 and Ben-Israel, Joshua MD3 The war against Polypharmacy: A New Cost-Effective Geriatric-Palliative Approach for Improving Drug Therapy in Disabled Elderly People 1Department of Evaluation & Rehabilitation, 2Pharmacy, and 3Directorate, Shoham Geriatric Medical Center, Pardes Hana, Israel Israel Medical Association Journal 2007;9:430–434 • Vol 9 • June 2007 Resolving Polypharmacy in the Disabled Elderly Hilmer Sarah N., Gnjidic Danijela., Le Couteur David G. Thinking through the medication list Appropriate prescribing and deprescribing in robust and frail older patients Reprinted from Australian Family Physician Vol. 41, No. 12, December 2012 924 Krska J, Cromarty JA, Arris F, et al. (2011) Pharmacist-led medication review in patients over 65: a randomized, controlled trial in primary care. BMC Health Services Research 11:4 O’Mahoney D and O’Connor M N, Pharmacotherapy at the end-of-life Age and Ageing 2011; 0: 1–4 doi: 10.1093/ageing/afr059 Patterson SM, Hughes C, Kerse N, Cardwell CR, Bradley MC Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy for older people (Review) The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 5 http://www.thecochranelibrary.com Runganga, Maureen., Peel, Nancye M. and Hubbard Ruth E. Multiple medication use in older patients in post-acute transitional care: a prospective cohort study Clinical Interventions in Aging 2014:9 1453–1462 Schiff Gordon D., MD; Galanter William L., MD, PhD; Duhig Jay, MA; Lodolce Amy E., PharmD, BCPS; Koronkowski Michael J., PharmD; Lambert, Bruce L. PhD Principles of Conservative Prescribing Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(16):1433-1440. Published online June 13, 2011.doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.256 Scott, Ian A. MBBS, MHA, MEd.' Gray, Leonard., MBBS, MMed, PhD.". Martin, Jennifer H. MBChB, MA (Oxon), PhD,' Charles A. Mitchell, MBBS· Minimizing Inappropriate Medications in Older Populations: A lO-step Conceptual Framework The American Journal of Medicine (2012) 125. 529-537
  • 16. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S Scott Ian A, Anderson Kristen, Freeman Christopher R and Stowasser Danielle A. First do no harm: a real need to deprescribe in older patients Med J Aust 2014; 201 (7): 390-392. https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2014/201/7/first-do-no-harm-real-need-deprescribe-older-patients Scott Ian A.,. Gray, Leonard C, Martin, Jennifer H. and. Mitchell, Charles A . Effects of a Drug Minimization Guide on Prescribing Intentions in Elderly Persons with Polypharmacy Drugs Aging 2012; 29 (8): 659-667 1170-229X/12/0008-0659/$49.95/0 Scott Ian A., Gray, Leonard C, Martin, Jennifer H., Pillans Peter I, Mitchell Charles A Deciding when to stop: towards evidence-based deprescribing of drugs in older populations Evid Based Med August 2013 | volume 18 | number 4 | 121-124 Vinks TH, Egberts TC, de Lange TM, et al. (2009) Pharmacist-based medication review reduces potential drug-related problems in the elderly: the SMOG controlled trial. Drugs & Aging 26(2): 123-33 Zermansky AG, Alldred DP, Petty DR, et al. (2006) Clinical medication review by a pharmacist of elderly people living in care homes-- randomised controlled trial. Age & Ageing 35(6): 586-91 Zermansky AG, Petty DR, Raynor DK, et al. (2001) Randomised controlled trial of clinical medication review by a pharmacist of elderly patients receiving repeat prescriptions in general practice. BMJ 323(7325): 1340-43 C2 Qualitative work publications Straand, Jerund and Sandvick, Hogne Stopping long-term drug therapy in general practice> How well do Physicians and patients agree. Family Practice Vol 18 no 6 p 597-600 Kouladjian Lisa,Gnjidic Danijela, Chen Timothy F, Mangoni Arduino A and Hilmer Sarah N Drug Burden Index in older adults: theoretical and practical issues Clinical Interventions in Aging 2014:9 1503–1515 Shakib, I Hendrix, MS Roberts, MD Wiese .Development and validation of the patients' attitudes towards deprescribing (PATD) questionnaire International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy Feb 2013;35(1):51-56 Schuling Jan, Gebben Henkjan, Veehof Leonardus Johannes Gerardus and Haaijer-Ruskamp Flora Marcia .Deprescribing medication in very elderly patients with multimorbidity: the view of Dutch GPs. A qualitative study Schuling et al. BMC Family Practice 2012, 13:56 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/13/56 Ridgeway Jennifer L, Egginton Jason S, Tiedje Kristina ,Mark Linzer Boehm Deborah, Poplau Sara, de Oliveira Djenane Ramalho, Odell Laura Sara, Montori Victor M.and Eton David T 1,2 Factors that lessen the burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study Patient Preference and Adherence 2014:8 339–351
  • 17. Medicines Use and Safety N Barnett Polypharmacy resource Jan 2015 vs9 S P S C3 Narrative/review articles Anon. Describing deprescribing doi: 10.1136/dtb.2014.3.0238 DTB published online March 6, 2014 DOI: 10.1136/dtb.2014.3.0238 Vol 52 | No 3 | March 2014 Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin Anon Prescribe but also know how to “deprescribe” Translated from Rev Prescrire April 2013;33 (354) 306-307. Prescrire International July 2013 vol 22 no 140 page 192 Aronson J. Polypharmacy appropriate and inappropriate Br Jour Gen Pract 2006. 56; 484-485 Routledge, PA, O'Mahony MS and Woodhouse KW. Adverse drug reactions in elderly patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2004; 57(2): 121–126. Barber ND, Alldred DP, Raynor DK et al 2009.The Care Homes’ Use of Medicines Study: prevalence, causes and potential harm of medication errors in care homes for older people. Quality and Safety in Health Care 18, pp.341-6. Cochrane Collaboration 2012 Interventions to improve the appropriate use of polypharmacy for older people. Davies EC, Green CF, Taylor S, Williamson PR, Mottram DR, et al. 2009.8 Adverse drug reactions in hospital in-patients: a prospective analysis of 3695 patient-episodes Garfinkel D. Mangin D. Feasibility study of a systematic approach for discontinuation of multiple medications in older adult. Arch internal med. 2010 170(18) 1648-1654 Gallagher P, Ryan C, Byrne S, Kennedy J, O’Mahony D. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons’ Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert Doctors to Right Treatment):Consensus Validation. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 46(2): 72 – 83. NHS Highland. Polypharmacy: Guidance for prescribing in frail adults. 2011 Gnjidic D, Le Couteur DG and Hilmer SN. Discontining drug treatments. British Medical Journal 2014;349:g7103 Gnjidic, D, Le Couteur David G, Kouladjian Lisa, and Hilmer, Sarah N. Deprescribing Trials:Methods to Reduce Polypharmacy and the Impact on Prescribing and Clinical Outcomes Clin Geriatr Med 28 (2012) Gorard D.A. Escalating polypharmacy From Wycombe Hospital, High Wycombe, UK Q J Med doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcl109 237–253 Hanlon JT, Schmader KE, Samsa GP et al. A method for assessing drug therapy appropriateness. J Clin Epidemiol 1992; 45: 1045–1051 Canadian Medical Association Journal News August 12, 2013 Introducing deprescribing into culture of medication DOI:10.1503/cmaj.109-4554 WaiSum S, Salima S. and Farrell B.Drug-related problems in the frail elderly Canadian Family Physician • Le Médecin de famille canadien | Vol 57: february p168• février 2011

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