 Polypropylene is a100% synthetic fiber
which is transformed from 85% propylene.
The monomer of polypropylene is
propylen...
 Polypropylene (PP) is a thermoplastic.
It is a linear structure based on the monomer CnH2n. It is
manufactured from prop...
 Polypropylene chips can be converted to fiber/filament by
traditional melt spinning. As an example, the staple fiber
pro...
 Extrusion
 Metering: one or more spinning gear pumps receives the molten
polymer and sends it through the spinning pack...
Polypropylene fibers are composed of crystalline and non-crystalline
regions. The spherulites developed from a nucleus can...
Tensile strength (gf/den) 3.5 to 5.5
Elongation (%) 40 to 100
Abrasion resistance Good
Moisture absorption (%) 0 to 0.05
S...
 Effect of Acids
Excellent resistance to most acids except chlorosulphonic and
concentrated sulfuric acid.
 Effect of Al...
 Polypropylene is a major polymer used in nonwovens, with over 50%
used for diapers or sanitary products
 Other uses inc...
Application Fiber Grade Industry
Cigarette Filter Staple fiber 3 denier Cigarette
Technical filters Staple fiber 5 denier,...
Polypropylene fiber
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Polypropylene fiber

The properties, uses and the structure of polypropylene fiber is discussed in this presentation.
Published on: Mar 6, 2016
Published in: Lifestyle      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Polypropylene fiber

  • 1.  Polypropylene is a100% synthetic fiber which is transformed from 85% propylene. The monomer of polypropylene is propylene. Polypropylene is a by-product of petroleum.
  • 2.  Polypropylene (PP) is a thermoplastic. It is a linear structure based on the monomer CnH2n. It is manufactured from propylene gas in presence of a catalyst such as titanium chloride. Beside PP is a by-product of oil refining processes.  Most polypropylene used is highly crystalline and geometrically regular (i.e. isotactic) opposite to amorphous thermoplastics, such as polystyrene, PVC, polyamide, etc., which radicals are placed randomly (i.e. atactic). It is said that PP has an intermediate level of crystallinity between low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE); On the other hand PP has higher working temperatures and tensile strength than polyethylene
  • 3.  Polypropylene chips can be converted to fiber/filament by traditional melt spinning. As an example, the staple fiber production is shown in following figure.  Identifiers are shown with the figure. Additional comments and description are as follows:
  • 4.  Extrusion  Metering: one or more spinning gear pumps receives the molten polymer and sends it through the spinning pack to homogenize the product, feed the spinning pack at a constant rate, and prevent fluctuation due to screw extruder.  Spinning: the spinning pack consists of three parts-filters, distributor (which distributes the molten polymer over to die surface) and the die.  Quenching: newly extruded filaments are cooled in a good “box" which will distribute 3 m3/min of cool air without damaging the filaments.  Finishing: to improve antistatic and reduce abrasion.  Hot Stretching: to enhance the physico-mechanical properties.  Crimping: to improve the bulk.  Thermosetting: it is a treatment in hot air or steam that removes the internal stresses and relaxes fibers. The resultant fibers are heat-set with increased denier.  Cutting: fibers are cut into 20 to 120 mm length depending on whether they are intended for cotton or woolen system.
  • 5. Polypropylene fibers are composed of crystalline and non-crystalline regions. The spherulites developed from a nucleus can range in size from fractions of a micrometer to centimeters in diameter. The a-axis of the crystal unit cell is aligned radially and the chain axis is homogeneously distributed in planes perpendicular to this radial direction. Each crystal is surrounded by non-crystalline material. Fiber spinning and drawing may cause the orientation of both crystalline and amorphous regions. If the extension is less than 0.5%, the spherulite deformation is elastic and no disruption of the structure occurs, otherwise spherulites are highly oriented in the direction of the force and finally are converted to micro fibrils. These highly anisotropic microfibrillar structures lead to anisotropic fiber properties.
  • 6. Tensile strength (gf/den) 3.5 to 5.5 Elongation (%) 40 to 100 Abrasion resistance Good Moisture absorption (%) 0 to 0.05 Softening point (ºC) 140 Melting point (ºC) 165 Chemical resistance Generally excellent Relative density 0.91 Thermal conductivity 6.0 (with air as 1.0) Electric insulation Excellent Resistance to mildew, moth Excellent
  • 7.  Effect of Acids Excellent resistance to most acids except chlorosulphonic and concentrated sulfuric acid.  Effect of Alkalis Excellent resistance with the exception of some oxidizing agents.  Effect of Bleaches and Solvents Excellent resistance. However, chlorinated hydrocarbons cause swelling at room temperature and dissolve polypropylene at 71 °C. and higher.  Organic Solvent Organic solvent does not cause harm during action.  Protection ability against light It looses energy in sunlight.  Protection ability against mild dew Good.  Protection ability against insects It does not get affected by insects.  Dyes Difficult to dye polypropylene because its moisture regain is 0% . But pigment dye is possible .
  • 8.  Polypropylene is a major polymer used in nonwovens, with over 50% used for diapers or sanitary products  Other uses include filters for air, gas, and liquids. Such applications could be seen in the house as water filters or air-conditioning-type filters.  The high surface area and naturally oleophilic polypropylene nonwovens are ideal absorbers of oil spills with the familiar floating barriers near oil spills on rivers  Polypropylene is also used in warm-weather clothing, which transports sweat away from the skin  Polypropylene has been used in hernia and pelvic organ prolapse repair operations to protect the body from new hernias in the same location.
  • 9. Application Fiber Grade Industry Cigarette Filter Staple fiber 3 denier Cigarette Technical filters Staple fiber 5 denier, needle punched nonwoven Wet filtration, excellent, chemical resistance, used in water, milk, bear, paints, coatings, petrochemicals, Pharmaceuticals, filtration PP woven socks PP film fiber, with 10-15% LDPE to reduce fibrillation and cost Fertilizers, flour, wheat, sugar, cement Ropes and Twines PP film and fiber Agriculture PP bale warp Spun Bonded PP Synthetic fibers PP tapes High modulus PP obtained by increasing draw ratio Construction material like asphalt and concrete PP construction / industry fabrics Filling grade and staple fiber Construction materials like asphalt and concrete Substrate fabrics Nonwoven needle punched 3-4 denier staple fibers Furniture fabrics as backing material for visual furniture fabrics, it serves as reinforcement. Also used for wall covering, luggage, table-clothes, tarpaulins, and automobile Outdoor Applications Heavy deniers containing stabilizers, UV absorber, etc Sports Non-electric fuses for initiating explosives PP slit film tapes Mining industry Medical/Surgical disposable fabric PP staple fiber nonwovens, Face masks Hospital

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