Population development and environment
population development and environment is not directly linked but yet there is a indirect complex relationship between population development/ activities and environment for example urbanization, slums , mega cities emerge and the use of natural resources mush faster then they replanish
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Population development and environment
Population Development and Environment
ZUNAIRA ANAM #04
Ammar Shahid #35
Atif Zulifqar #14
Saira Munawer #21
MPS thirdsemester COURSE:Populationanddevelopment
INSTITUE OF SOCIAL AND CULTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF THE PUNJAB
Population Definition: The total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, or
any district or area.
DevelopmentDefinition: The act or process ofgrowing or causing something to
grow or become larger or more advanced.
Environment Definition: The sum total of all surroundings of a living organism
including natural forces and other living things , which provide conditions for
development and growth as well as of danger and damage.
Population is an important source of development but rapidly growing population
create major obstacles for environment but also for their own. The world is rapidly
urbanizing. The un population division estimates that during this decadethe world
population has shifted from pre dominantly rural to pre dominantly urban.
There is no direct relationship between population and environment but the
development of population effects on the environment and the activities of humans
in the perspective of their development also increase pressure on the environment
like use natural resources faster than they replenish it. As population grow rapidly
they want more better living style but lack of opportunities in the villages and
small cities and the ecological stress is leading to an ever increasing movement of
poorfamilies to cities. Mega cities are emerging and slums are expanding. Such
rapid and unplanned expansion of cities has resulted in degradation of urban
environment . when mega cities are emerge than degradation of land is also a
major problem because land is use for housing and other commercial projects in
this way the development process is going smoothly but the other hand
environmental problems occurdue to the activities of humans the result of that
activities is air pollution water pollution land pollution deplete natural resources
and climate change greenhouse effect global warming etc.
Agriculture development also direct impacts on environment arise for forming
activities which contribute to soil erosion land salinization and loss of nutrients.
The spread of green revolution has been accompanied by over exploitation of
land and water resources, and use of fertilizers and pesticides have increase many
Environmental changes may be driven by many factors including economic
growth population growth and development urbanization and intensification of
agriculture rising energy use shifting forests in to agricultural land and agricultural
land in to commercialization sectorand transportation.
As the century begins, natural resources area unit below increasing pressure,
threatening public health and development. Water shortages, soil exhaustion, loss
of forests, air and pollution, and degradation of coastlines afflict several areas.
because the world’s population grows, rising living standards while not destroying
the surroundings could be a world challenge.
Most developed economies presently consume resources abundant quicker than
they'll regenerate. Most developing countries with speedy growth face the pressing
got to improve living standards. As we have a tendency to humans exploit nature to
fulfill gift wants, area unit we have a tendency to destroying resources required for
Environment obtaining worse
In the pastdecade in each environmental sector, conditions have either did not
improve, or they're worsening.
Unclean water, together with poor sanitation, kills over twelve million folks every
year, most in developing countries. pollution kills nearly three million a lot of.
serious metals and different contaminants additionally cause widespread health
Will there be enough food to travel around? In sixty four of a hundred and five
developing countries studied by the world organisation Food and Agriculture
Organization, the population has been growing quicker than food provides.
Population pressures have degraded some two billion hectares of productive land
— a region the scale of Canada and also the U.S.
The supply of fresh is finite, however demand is soaring as population grows and
use per capita rises. By 2025, once world population is projected to be eight
billion, forty eight countries containing three billion folks can face shortages.
Coastlines and oceans:
Half of all coastal ecosystems area unit pressured by high population densities and
concrete development. A tide of pollution is rising within the world’s seas. Ocean
fisheries area unit being overexploited, and fish catches area unit down.
Nearly 1/2 the world’s original forest cowl has been lost, and every year another
sixteen million hectares area unit cut, bulldozed, or burned. Forests offer over
US$400 billion to the planet economy annually and area unit important to
maintaining healthy ecosystems. Yet, current demand for forest product might
exceed the limit of property consumption by twenty fifth.
The earth’s biological diversity is crucial to the continued vitality of agriculture
and medication — and maybe even to life on earth itself. however human activities
area unit pushing several thousands of plant and animal species into extinction. 2
of each 3 species is calculable to be in decline.
Global climate change:
The earth’s surface is warming owing to gas emissions, for the most part from
burning fossil fuels. If the world temperature rises as projected, ocean levels would
rise by many meters, inflicting widespread flooding. heating additionally might
cause droughts and disrupt agriculture.
Toward a livable future:
How folks preserve or abuse the surroundings might for the most part confirm
whether or not living standards improve or deteriorate. Growing human numbers,
urban enlargement, and resource exploitation don'tsignal well for the longer term.
while not active property development, humanity faces a deteriorating
surroundings and will even invite ecological disaster.
Many steps toward property may be taken nowadays. These include: victimisation
energy a lot of expeditiously, managing cities higher, phasing out subsidies that
encourage waste, etc.
While growth has slowed, absolutely the range of individuals continues to extend
— by concerning one billion each thirteen years. swiftness growth would facilitate
improve living standards and would detain to guard natural resources. within the
long-term, to sustain higher living standards, world population size should
Population and sustainable development:
Environmentalists and economists progressively agree that efforts to guard the
surroundings and to realize higher living standards may be closely joined and area
unit reciprocally reinforcing. swiftness the rise in population, particularly within
the face of rising per capita demand for natural resources, will take pressureoff the
surroundings and detain to enhance living standards on a property basis.3,8,11,12.
As growth slows, countries will invest a lot of in education, health care, job
creation, and different enhancements that facilitate boostliving standards.11In
turn, as individual financial gain, savings, and investment rise, a lot of resources
become out there that may boostproductivity. This dynamic method has been
known together of the key reasons that the economies of the many Asian countries
grew quickly between 1960 and 1990.5.
In recent years fertility has been falling in several developing countries and, as a
result, annual world growth has fallen to concerning one.4% in 2000 compared
with concerning two in 1960. The world organisation calculable recently that
population is growing by concerning seventy eight million per annum, down from
concerning ninety million calculable early within the Nineties.10 Still, at the
present paceworld population will increase by concerning one billion each thirteen
years. World population surpassed half-dozen billion in 1999 and is projected to
rise to over eight billion by 2025.
Globally, fertility has fallen by 0.5 since the Sixties, to concerning 3 youngsters
per lady.10 In sixty five countries, together with nine within the developing world,
fertility rates have fallen below replacement level of concerning 2 youngsters per
lady.9 withal, fertility is on top of replacement level in 123 countries, and in some
countries it's well on top of replacement level. In these countries the population
continues to extend quickly. About 1.7 billion folks sleep in forty seven countries
wherever the birth rate averages between 3 and 5 youngsters per lady. Another 730
million folks sleep in forty four countries wherever the common lady has 5
youngsters or a lot of 7.
Almost all growth is within the developing world. As a results of variations in
growth, Europe’s population can decline from thirteen to seven-membered of
world population over subsequentquarter century, whereas that of Black Africa
can rise from 100 percent to terrorist organization. The shares of different regions
area unit projected to stay concerning constant as nowadays 6.
As population and demand for natural resources still grow, environmental limits
can becomeprogressively apparent.6 Water shortages area unit expected to have
an effect on nearly three billion folks in 2025, with Black Africa worst affected.2
several countries might avoid environmental crises if they took steps currently to
conserve and manage provides and demand higher, whereas swiftness growth by
providing families and people with info and services required to form up on
decisions concerning procreative health.
Family planningis effectivein stabilizinggrowth:
Family planning programs play a key role. once birth prevention info and services
area unit wide out there and accessible, couples area unit higher ready to deliver
the goods their fertility needs.4 “Even in adverse circumstance — low incomes,
restricted education, and few opportunities for ladies — birth prevention programs
have meant slower growth and improved family welfare,” the planet Bank has
Gaining asses to technology:
Some analysts have argued that developing countries can skip the early stage of
industrialization through "leapfrogging"—deploying advanced, clean technologies
as soonas they are fielded in developed nations, or even earlier. For example,
some developing countries have skipped pastinstalling telephone poles and wires
and moved straight to cell phones as a primary communication system. If fast-
growing nations like China and India can leapfrog to clean technologies, they can
reduce the environmental impacts of their large and growing populations (Fig. 13).
However, many new technologies will not flow easily across borders in the
absence of special efforts. Developed countries and international financial
institutions can promote technology transfer to reduce the environmental impacts
of growth in developing countries.
If each country created a commitment to population stabilization and resource
conservation, the planet would be higher ready to meet the challenges of property
development. active property development needs a mixture of wise public
investment, effective natural resources management, cleaner agricultural and
industrial technologies, less pollution, and slower growth.
Worries a few “population bomb” might have lessened as fertility rates have fallen,
however the world’s population is projected to continue increasing till the center of
the century. simply once it stabilizes and so the extent at that it stabilizes can have
a robustresult on living standards and also the world surroundings. As population
size continues to achieve levels ne'er before skilled, and per capita consumption
rises, the surroundings hangs within the balance. The government of poorcountry
has gaining to asses technology use from education on the behalf of developed
countries and international financial institutions. They can promote technology
transfer to reduce the environmental impacts of growth in developing countries.